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The Cold War Notes - Thomas Vanderstichele


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The Cold War Notes - Thomas Vanderstichele

  1. 1. The Cold WarThe Development of the Cold WarTeheran (1943)- Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin Opening of Second Front USSR will attack Japan after Germany is defeated Germany will be reduced in size Poland given some land from Germany, but lose some land to USSRYalta (1945)- Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin Nazi Party Banned USSR will attack Japan 3 months after Germany’s defeat North Atlantic Charter U.N set up to replace League of Nations Poland in Soviet Sphere Germany reduced in sizeAtomic Bomb (1945) Truman use the atomic bomb as a bargaining tool at PotsdamPotsdam (1945)-Truman, Stalin, Atlee Germany divided in four Berlin divided in four USSR would attack Japan Germany reduced in size Nuremberg trials Quarter of industrial equipment in west Germany to go to east GermanyThe Iron Curtain speech (1946) Churchill states that the USSR is increasingly in control of eastern Europe andthat there is a clear communist-capitalist divideLong Telegram (1946) Stalin had given a speech calling for destruction of capitalism USSR building up military power1
  2. 2.  There could be no peace between USA and USSR while it was opposed tocapitalismNovikov Telegram (1946) USA desired to dominate the world America no longer interested in cooperation American public being prepared for war with USSRCominform (1947) Represents communist parties across Europe and brought them under direction ofUSSR Rejected Marshall Aid Ensured loyalty to Moscow Consolidated the power of the USSR in EuropeTruman Doctrine (1947) The world had a choice between tyranny and democratic freedom America had responsibility to fight for liberty America would send economic and military aid to threatened countries Communism should not be allowed to grow and gain territory ‘Containment’Marshall Aid (1947) $13 billion If people were wealthy, the idea of sharing resources would have less appealParis Conference (1947) Molotov storms out of meeting claiming that Marshall Aid was splitting Europeinto 2 camps 16 countries accepted Marshall AidBerlin Air lift (1948-1949) Why did Stalin Blockade Berlin? Reluctant to allow America to have further influence Did not want American troops in Germany Realised that Germany’s most valuable resources were in west Introduction of new currency in west Germany Bizonia and Trizonia2
  3. 3.  USA agreed to set up a German assembly and create a Germanconstitution The Blockade June 1948 to May 1949 Berlin Airlift-1000 tonnes a day 170,000 of supplies during January 1949 The Effects Propaganda success for Americans FDR officially created GDR established Germany and Berlin divided in twoComecon (1949) Minimise American influence in Eastern Europe Benefits of economic recovery remained in eastern Europe Eastern Europe did not have access to the prosperity of Western EuropeSoviet Atomic Bomb (1949)NATO (1949) Alliance between America and its allies Military Alliance Aim of defending the west from communismH-bombs (1953)Warsaw Pact (1955) Military alliance between USSR and its alliesHungary (1956)Oppression in Hungary Collectivisation of agriculture Resources shipped off to Russia Non-Communist political parties abolished Matyas Rakosi was appointed Hungary’s dictator Imprisoned 387,000 and 2000 deathsNagy’s Reforms Khrushchev’s secret speech created hopes of reform3
  4. 4.  Riots and demonstrations lead to nationwide disorder Khrushchev appoints Nagyto calm the situation Nagy introduces reforms-U.N to recognise them as a neutral country, Hungaryleaving Warsaw pact and holding free electionsKhrushchev’s Response to Nagy Khrushchev invades with 200,000 troops and 1000 tanks 2500 people killed, 20,000 wounded 200,000 fled to west Nagy executed in 1958 Janos Kadar re-establishes communist controlThree Cold War CrisesBerlin Crisis (1958-1961)Refugee Problem 2.7 million had fled from 1949 to 1961 East German government was extremely unpopular Skilled workers fled Easy for people to flee across the borderBerlin Ultimatum and Talks November 1958 Khrushchev declares Berlin Ultimatum- all American troops hadto withdraw from Berlin Americans didn’t withdraw troopsGeneva Summit (1959) - Eisenhower and Khrushchev No solution to the problem was agreedCamp David (1959) - Eisenhower and Khrushchev No agreement was reached but another summit meeting was plannedParis (1960) - Eisenhower and Khrushchev U2 spy plane shot down-Gary Powers Eisenhower refused to apologise to Khrushchev and Khrushchev walked out ofthe conference4
  5. 5. Vienna (1961) - Kennedy and Khrushchev Khrushchev believes he can influence the young Kennedy Khrushchev once again gave the USA an ultimatumBerlin Wall is Built Khrushchev knows that he is at a disadvantage due to his nuclear inferiority Kennedy had called Khrushchev’s bluff and this forced him to back down Khrushchev needed to solve the refugee problem Khrushchev decides to build a wallImpact of Berlin Wall Symbolises the division of Germany and division of Europe Stopped East Germans escaping 1963 Kennedy visits Berlin ‘Ich bin ein Berliner’ speechCuban Missile Crisis (1959-1962)Bay of Pigs Incident Castro had declared his revolution a socialist one when he realised that the USAwould never accept him. Castro nationalised all business including all American sugar and oil refineries. Castro found an ally in Khrushchev who would trade with Castro Kennedy inherits a CIA plan from Eisenhower which intends to capture Cubausing Cuban exiles Kennedy was misinformed that the Cubans would rebel against Castro and thatCastro’s hold on the country was weak Kennedy concerned of the international consequences withdrew American navaland aircraft support The Invasion was a disaster and all the exiles were captured or killed by the fullymobilised Cuban armyCuban Missile Crisis Despite the successful repulsion of the invasion Castro continued to feelvulnerable Castro asked Khrushchev to send him missiles.5
  6. 6.  Khrushchev realised the importance of having nuclear capabilities on Cuba as thiswould bypass the American defence systems over the North Pole and he couldstrike the American mainland. Khrushchev saw that he could use the missiles inCuba as a bargaining tool to remove American missiles from Turkey Kennedy is informed of Khrushchev’s plan and decides to blockade Cuba Khrushchev sends a letter to Kennedy stating that the soviet ships will breakthrough the blockade Both military forces are on high alert as the soviet ships approach the blockade Kennedy responds to Khrushchev’s letter asking him to withdraw nuclear missilesfrom Cuba Khrushchev responds to the letter saying that he will withdraw if the Americansnever invade Cuba Khrushchev receives intelligence that the USA is planning to invade Cuba. A dealis reached between the two sides. America promises not to invade Cuba and towithdraw nuclear weapons from Turkey. The USSR turns the ships away fromCubaEffects of the Crisis Hotline, limited test ban treaty, beginning of détente Doctrine of Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) French decide to leave NATO Khrushchev falls from powerPrague Spring (1968) Political repression and economic problems leads to Dubcek becomingCommunist Party leader. Dubcek aimed to create ‘socialism with a human face’ in order to revitaliseCzechoslovakian politics, economics and social life Dubcek’s reforms were Relaxation of press censorship Toleration of political criticism More power given to regional governments Reintroduction of capitalist elements into the economy Brezhnev Doctrine- USSR had the right to invade any country that threatened toundermine the security of the whole eastern bloc Soviet Union invades Czechoslovakia. Dubcek arrested and brought to Moscow.Reforms are reversed and communism takes control againDétenteHotline (1963)6
  7. 7.  Hotline between Moscow and WashingtonLimited Test Ban Treaty (1963) Ban the testing of all nuclear weapons in space, sea and above groundOuter space Treaty (1967) Stopped arms race spreading to outer spaceNon-Proliferation Treaty (1968) Neither superpower would supply nuclear weapons to other states or help anotherstate build nuclear weapons.SALT I (1972) Imposed limits on the number of nuclear weapons No further production strategic ballistic missiles Submarines carrying nuclear weapons could only be introduced once ICBMsbecame obsoleteApollo-Soyuz mission (1975) Joint space mission two spacecraft docked in spaceHelsinki (1975) Security- all new borders accepted, disputes settled peacefully, no country wouldinterfere in international affairs Co-operation-economic, scientific, industrial and educational Human RightsSALT II (1979) (never ratified) Senate never ratified treaty although Carter signed itA New PhaseInvasion of Afghanistan (1979)7
  8. 8.  Communist revolution in Afghanistan led by Mohammed Taraki. Taraki isassassinated by Amin. Soviet troops invade Afghanistan to prevent an Islamic state forming; Karmal saidthat he had enough popular support to overthrow Amin. Brezhnev believedAmerica would tolerate the invasionCarter Doctrine (1980) USA would not allow the USSR to gain territory in the oil rich middle-east• Imposed economic sanctions on USSR• Ended diplomatic relations with USSR• Funded the Mujahideen• Formed alliance with China (ping-pong diplomacy) and IsraelMoscow Olympic Boycott (1980)Reagan (1981) Reagan was firmly against Détente. Reagan wanted to win the Cold War Reagan rejected the idea of peaceful coexistence‘Evil Empire’ Speech (1983) Reagan claimed that the Cold War was a moral conflict between what was rightand wrong and that America had a moral duty to invest in new nuclear weaponsSDI (1983) Reagan and SDI Reagan proposed a ‘nuclear umbrella’ that would make Americaimpervious to nuclear attack The powers were no longer evenly matched in nuclear capabilities Soviet reaction to SDI USSR could not keep up with SDI The soviet economy was not producing enough wealth USSR was against computer technology, they believed that computers wouldlead to the destruction of communism by leaking information and secrets togovernments in the westLos Angeles Olympic Boycott (1984)Gorbachev (1985)8
  9. 9.  Perestroika and glasnost were introduced in order to make soviet agricultureand industry more efficient. Many soviet people had lost faith in the communist party It was never Gorbachev’s intention to dismantle communism. He only wantedto strengthen itGeneva (1985) Reagan and Gorbachev meet for the first time Leaders were able to establish a personal relationship No formal agreement was reachedChernobyl (1986) Nuclear disaster which highlighted the inefficiency and incompetence of thesoviet systemReykjavik (1986) Reagan proposed the scrapping of all ballistic missiles Gorbachev was unwilling to agree because Reagan refused to drop his belovedSDI projectWashington INF Treaty (1987) INF Treaty Eliminated all nuclear missiles with a range of 500-5500km Why did Reagan sign the INF Treaty? Public opinion was against another arms race Widespread approval of Gorbachev’s changes in the USSR Believed that Gorbachev wanted to reform the USSR and end the Cold War Why did Gorbachev sign the INF Treaty? Gorbachev new that nuclear weapons were highly expensive Reagan persuaded Gorbachev that the USA had no intention of invading Disarmament could win him popularity. This would boost trade with theUSSRMalta (1989)-George Bush and Gorbachev Began to work on the CFE9
  10. 10. Berlin Wall Falls (1989) Neighbouring states had abandoned communism. Germans called for democraticelections The East German government allowed people to travel to the west and the Berlinwall had fallenCollapse of Eastern Europe (1989) Once reform had started in the Eastern Bloc Gorbachev was unable to contain it Gorbachev no longer guaranteed military support to the Eastern Bloc leadersCFE Agreement (1990)-George Bush and Gorbachev Limits to the non-nuclear forces of the Warsaw pact and NATOSTART 1 (1991)-George Bush and Gorbachev Reduce holdings of nuclear missilesWarsaw Pact dissolved (1991)Soviet Reaction to the fall of the Berlin Wall ‘Gang of Eight’ try to remove Gorbachev. Coup is successful and old communistlaws are brought back in. Boris Yeltsin called the new government ‘illegal’ and called on the people ofMoscow to oppose them Gorbachev officially announce the dissolution of the soviet Union on 25thDecember 199110