The Fabulous Fifties


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The Fabulous Fifties

  1. 1. DECADE CD <ul><li>1. Choose a decade—60s, 70s, 80s, 90s, the New Millennium. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Prepare a powerpoint presentation that includes many of the events, people, popular culture icons </li></ul><ul><li>3. PPt must be on cd/floppy and must open in class. I must also have hard copy of each slide handed in. </li></ul>
  2. 2. The Fabulous Fifties Baby-Boomers Abound
  3. 3. The Fabulous Fifties <ul><li>1. &quot;I Love Lucy&quot; 13. Howdy Doody </li></ul><ul><li>2. Baby-Boomers 14. GI Bill </li></ul><ul><li>3. Betty Friedan/NOW 15. Cold War </li></ul><ul><li>4. Television 16. UNIVAC/ENIAC </li></ul><ul><li>5. Truman's Fair Deal 17. I Like Ike </li></ul><ul><li>6. The Checkers Speech 18. Korean Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>7. General Macarthur 19. Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>8. Syngman Rhee 20. Elvis Presley </li></ul><ul><li>9. CIA 21. Salk Vaccine </li></ul><ul><li>10. U-2 incident 22. Ray Kroc </li></ul><ul><li>11. Interstate highway system 23. Rock'n'roll </li></ul><ul><li>Levittown 24. Dr. Benjamin Spock </li></ul><ul><li>25. Israel/PLO </li></ul>
  4. 4. Timeline: The Cold War <ul><li>1950s </li></ul><ul><li>1950: February -- Joe McCarthy begins Communist witch hunt </li></ul><ul><li>1950: June -- Korean War begins </li></ul><ul><li>1951: January 12 -- Federal Civil Defense Administration established </li></ul><ul><li>1953: June 19 -- Rosenberg executions </li></ul><ul><li>1953: July -- Korean War ends </li></ul><ul><li>1954: March -- KGB established </li></ul><ul><li>1954 -- CIA helps overthrow unfriendly regimes in Iran and Guatemala </li></ul><ul><li>1954: July -- Vietnam split at 17th parallel </li></ul><ul><li>1955: May -- Warsaw Pact formed </li></ul><ul><li>1956: October - November -- Rebellion put down in Communist Hungary. Egypt took control of Suez Canal; U.S. refused to help take it back </li></ul><ul><li>1957: October 4 -- Sputnik launched into orbit </li></ul><ul><li>1958: November -- Khrushchev demands withdrawal of troops from Berlin </li></ul><ul><li>1959: January -- Cuba taken over by Fidel Castro </li></ul><ul><li>1959: September -- Khrushchev visits United States; denied access to Disneyland </li></ul>
  5. 5. Truman Doctrine <ul><li>The Truman Doctrine stated that the United States would support &quot;free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.&quot; Specifically, the doctrine was a political response to Soviet aggression in Europe, illustrated through the communist movements in Iran, Turkey and Greece. As a result, American foreign policy towards Russia shifted, as George F. Kennan phrased it, to that of containment. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. President Harry S. Truman made the proclamation in an address to the U.S. Congress on March 12, 1947 amid the crisis of the Greek Civil War (1946-1949). The doctrine was specifically aimed at assisting governments resisting communism. Truman insisted that if Greece and Turkey did not receive the aid that they needed, they would inevitably fall to communism with the result being a domino effect of acceptance of communism throughout the region. </li></ul><ul><li>Truman signed the act into law on May 22, 1947 which granted $400 million in military and economic aid to Turkey and Greece. </li></ul><ul><li>The Truman Doctrine also contributed to America's first involvements in what is now the nation of Vietnam. Truman attempted to aid France's bid to hold onto its Vietnamese colonies. The United States supplied French forces with equipment and military advisors in order to combat a young Ho Chi Minh and communist revolutionaries. Truman's policy of containment was the first American involvement in the Vietnam War. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Fair Deal <ul><li>the domestic policy of Harry S Truman's second administration. The Fair Deal aimed to extend the New Deal program, introducing legislation for civil rights, fair housing, national health programs, and federal aid to farmers and education. Most bills were blocked by Congress, but the Social Security program was expanded. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Executive Order #9981 <ul><li>Truman desegregated the military. Truman became aware that the armed forces were still segregated and had been all through WWII. He simply said that that was not right and that all of America’s fighting men were equal. He made it so by signing this executive order. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Buck Stops Here DESK SIGN The sign &quot;The Buck Stops Here&quot; that was on President Truman's desk in his White House office was made in the Federal Reformatory at El Reno, Oklahoma. Fred M. Canfil, then United States Marshal for the Western District of Missouri and a friend of Mr. Truman, saw a similar sign while visiting the Reformatory and asked the Warden if a sign like it could be made for President Truman. The sign was made and mailed to President on October 2, 1945. Approximately 2-1/2&quot; x 13&quot; in size and mounted on walnut base, the painted glass sign has the words &quot;I'm From Missouri&quot; on the reverse side. It appeared at different times on his desk until late in his administration. The saying &quot;the buck stops here&quot; derives from the slang expression &quot;pass the buck&quot; which means passing the responsibility on to someone else. The latter expression is said to have originated with the game of poker, in which a marker or counter, frequently in frontier days a knife with a buckhorn handle, was used to indicate the person whose turn it was to deal. If the player did not wish to deal he could pass the responsibility by passing the &quot;buck,&quot; as the counter came to be called, to the next player. On more than one occasion President Truman referred to the desk sign in public statements. For example, in an address at the National War College on December 19, 1952 Mr. Truman said, &quot;You know, it's easy for the Monday morning quarterback to say what the coach should have done, after the game is over. But when the decision is up before you -- and on my desk I have a motto which says The Buck Stops Here' -- the decision has to be made.&quot; In his farewell address to the American people given in January 1953, President Truman referred to this concept very specifically in asserting that, &quot;The President--whoever he is--has to decide. He can't pass the buck to anybody. No one else can do the deciding for him. That's his job. The sign has been displayed at the Library since 1957.
  9. 9. Berlin Airlift 1948 <ul><li>Russian dictator Joseph Stalin chose the night of June 23, 1948 to make good his threat to cut overland supply lines to West Berlin. He wanted to vent his frustration at refusal by the western allied powers to accept East Berlin as the capital of a communist puppet regime and at introduction of the Deutsche Mark in West Berlin. For nearly one year to come, the needs of West Berlin would be supplied by airlift on a scale never seen before. </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. played a central role in the airlift. Operation Vittles, a round-the-clock airborne shuttle from U.S. airbases outside Frankfurt at Rhein Main and nearby Wiesbaden, Germany, supplied food, fuel, and occasionally candy to the beleaguered city and its children. Memories of the recent World War gave way to a new, human partnership as the months wore on and it became apparent the inconceivable would work. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Marshall Plan <ul><li>The Marshall Plan , known officially following its enactment as the European Recovery Program (ERP), was the main plan of the United States for the reconstruction of Europe following World War II. The initiative was named for United States Secretary of State George Marshall. </li></ul><ul><li>Between 1948 and 1951, the United States contributed more than $13 billion dollars (nearly $100 billion at 2005 U.S. conversion rates) of economic and technical assistance toward the recovery of 16 European countries which had joined in the Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC, forerunner to today's OECD) in response to Marshall's call for a joint scheme for European reconstruction. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Marshall Plan <ul><li>On 12th March, 1947, Harry S Truman, announced details to Congress of what eventually became known as the Truman Doctrine. In his speech he pledged American support for &quot;free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures&quot;. This speech also included a request that Congress agree to give military and economic aid to Greece in its fight against communism. Three months later George C. Marshall, Truman's Secretary of State, announced details of what became known as the Marshall Plan or the European Recovery Program (ERP). Marshall offered American financial aid for a program of European economic recovery. Ernest Bevin, the British foreign secretary, made it clear he fully supported the scheme but the idea was rejected by the Soviet Union. A conference was held in Paris in September and sixteen nations in Western Europe agreed on a four year recovery plan. On 3rd April, 1948, Harry Truman signed the first appropriation bill authorizing $5,300,000,000 for the first year of the ERP. Paul G. Hoffman was appointed as head of the Organization for Economic Cooperation (OEEC) administration and by 1951 was able to report that industrial production in Western Europe had grown 30 per cent since the beginning of the Second World War. The European Recovery Program came to an end on 31st December, 1951. It its three year existence, the ERP spent almost $12,500,000,000. It was succeeded by the Mutual Security Administration. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Truman Doctrine <ul><li>The Truman Doctrine stated that the United States would support &quot;free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.&quot; Specifically, the doctrine was a political response to Soviet aggression in Europe, illustrated through the communist movements in Iran, Turkey and Greece. As a result, American foreign policy towards Russia shifted, as George F. Kennan phrased it, to that of containment. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. President Harry S. Truman made the proclamation in an address to the U.S. Congress on March 12, 1947 amid the crisis of the Greek Civil War (1946-1949). The doctrine was specifically aimed at assisting governments resisting communism. Truman insisted that if Greece and Turkey did not receive the aid that they needed, they would inevitably fall to communism with the result being a domino effect of acceptance of communism throughout the region. </li></ul><ul><li>Truman signed the act into law on May 22, 1947 which granted $400 million in military and economic aid to Turkey and Greece. </li></ul><ul><li>The Truman Doctrine also contributed to America's first involvements in what is now the nation of Vietnam. Truman attempted to aid France's bid to hold onto its Vietnamese colonies. The United States supplied French forces with equipment and military advisors in order to combat a young Ho Chi Minh and communist revolutionaries. Truman's policy of containment was the first American involvement in the Vietnam War. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The United Nations <ul><li>The name &quot;United Nations&quot;, coined by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt, was first used in the &quot;Declaration by United Nations&quot; of 1 January 1942, during the Second World War, when representatives of 26 nations pledged their Governments to continue fighting together against the Axis Powers. States first established international organizations to cooperate on specific matters. The International Telecommunication Union was founded in 1865 as the International Telegraph Union, and the Universal Postal Union was established in 1874. Both are now United Nations specialized agencies. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1899, the International Peace Conference was held in The Hague to elaborate instruments for settling crises peacefully, preventing wars and codifying rules of warfare. It adopted the Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes and established the Permanent Court of Arbitration, which began work in 1902. </li></ul><ul><li>The forerunner of the United Nations was the League of Nations, an organization conceived in similar circumstances during the first World War, and established in 1919 under the Treaty of Versailles &quot;to promote international cooperation and to achieve peace and security.&quot; The International Labour Organization was also created under the Treaty of Versailles as an affiliated agency of the League. The League of Nations ceased its activities after failing to prevent the Second World War. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>In 1945, representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco at the United Nations Conference on International Organization to draw up the United Nations Charter. Those delegates deliberated on the basis of proposals worked out by the representatives of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States at Dumbarton Oaks, United States in August-October 1944. The Charter was signed on 26 June 1945 by the representatives of the 50 countries. Poland, which was not represented at the Conference, signed it later and became one of the original 51 Member States. </li></ul><ul><li>The United Nations officially came into existence on 24 October 1945, when the Charter had been ratified by China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and by a majority of other signatories. United Nations Day is celebrated on 24 October each year. </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Current Middle East
  16. 16. The Founding of Israel <ul><li>The United Nations Special Commission on Palestine (UNSCOP) recommended that Palestine be divided into an Arab state and a Jewish state. The commission called for Jerusalem to be put under international administration The UN General Assembly adopted this plan on Nov. 29, 1947 as UN  Resolution (GA 181). The plan for &quot;partition with economic union&quot; divided the land into several cantons. Both the Jewish state and the Arab state had 3 cantons each that touched each other south of Nazareth and near Gaza. The borders of this plan are shown in the map below.  This jigsaw puzzle would have been difficult to implement for friendly populations, and was impossible to implement given the hostility between Arabs and Jews. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>This map shows how many countries in Eastern Europe were under communist control in 1949. All of the countries bordering Greece and Turkey were communist. This fact greatly heightened fears in the United States and Western Europe over the spread of Communism. </li></ul>Communist Europe in 1949
  18. 18. North Atlantic Treaty Organization <ul><li>The North Atlantic Treaty Organization ( NATO ), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance , Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance , is an international organization for defense collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on April 4, 1949. </li></ul><ul><li>The Parties agree that an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all. Consequently they agree that, if such an armed attack occurs, each of them, in exercise of the right of individual or collective self-defense recognized by Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations, will assist the Party or Parties so attacked by taking forthwith, individually and in concert with the other Parties, such action as it deems necessary, including the use of armed force, to restore and maintain the security of the North Atlantic area. </li></ul>Belgium Iceland Canada Portugal Denmark United Kingdom France Italy Luxembourg Norway United States Netherlands Later: Bulgaria (2004) Czech Republic (1999) Estonia (2004) West Germany (1955) Greece (1952) Hungary (1999) Latvia (2004) Lithuania (2004) Poland (1999) Romania (2004) Slovakia (2004) Slovenia (2004) Spain (1982) Turkey (1952)
  19. 19. The Warsaw Pact <ul><li>Members </li></ul><ul><li>Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>Albania, later withdrew. </li></ul><ul><li>Bulgaria </li></ul><ul><li>Romania </li></ul><ul><li>East Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Hungary </li></ul><ul><li>Poland </li></ul><ul><li>Czecho-slovakia </li></ul>The Warsaw Pact or Warsaw Treaty , officially named the Treaty of friendship, co-operation and mutual assistance , was a military alliance of the Eastern European Eastern Bloc countries, who intended to organize against the perceived threat from the NATO alliance (which had been established in 1949). The creation of the Warsaw Pact was prompted by the integration of a &quot;re-militarized&quot; West Germany into NATO via ratification of the Paris Agreements. The Warsaw treaty was drafted by Nikita Khrushchev in 1955 and signed in Warsaw on May 14, 1955.
  20. 20. The Iron Curtain <ul><li>Coined by Winston Churchill after the Soviets refuse to surrender the lands they have “liberated” in Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the Warsaw Pact were behind the iron curtain, and Yugoslavia, with Tito as its totalitarian ruler. </li></ul>
  21. 23. The Rosenbergs <ul><li>Ethel Greenglass Rosenberg (1915-1953) and Julius Rosenberg (1918-1953) were American Communists who captured and maintained world attention after being tried, convicted, and executed for spying for the Soviet Union. The accuracy of these charges remains controversial, though decades later, Soviet communications decrypted by the VENONA project became publicly available and appeared to indicate that at least Julius Rosenberg was actively involved in espionage (although they provided no new evidence that he performed the specific acts of espionage for which he was convicted). </li></ul><ul><li>The couple were the only two American civilians to be executed for conspiracy to commit espionage during the Cold War. In imposing the death penalty, Judge Irving Kaufman noted that he held them responsible not only for espionage but also for the deaths of the Korean War: </li></ul><ul><li>To the very end, the couple denied all charges and insisted they were innocent, but they were executed in New York's Sing Sing in 1953, despite protests in the United States and abroad. The Rosenbergs were convicted under the Espionage Act of 1917 of &quot;conspiring to commit espionage in wartime&quot; and sentenced to death, despite the fact that the US was not at war with the Soviet Union at the time of the alleged offenses </li></ul><ul><li>At the time, some Americans believed both Rosenbergs were innocent or received too harsh a punishment, and a grass-roots campaign was started to try to stop the couple's execution. Other Americans felt that the couple got what they deserved. Pope Pius XII appealed to President Dwight D. Eisenhower to spare the couple, but he refused on February 11, 1953 and all other appeals were also unsuccessful. </li></ul><ul><li>The couple were executed by the electric chair on June 19, 1953. </li></ul>
  22. 24. Congress of Racial Equality &quot;Making Equality a Reality for All&quot; <ul><li>Born in Marshall, Texas, Farmer was an educator, administrator, and one of the founders of the Congress of Racial Equality-CORE. </li></ul><ul><li>        Raised in an environment that valued education and religious faith, James Farmer was an outstanding student. After skipping several grades in elementary school, he entered Wiley College in Marshall, Texas (where his father, one of the few African American Ph.D.s in the South, had taught), at the age of 14. Graduating in 1938, Farmer went on to Howard University's School of Religion. He graduated from Howard in 1941. Farmer opposed war in general, and more specifically objected to serving in the segregated armed forces. When the U.S. entered World War II later that year, he applied for conscientious objector status but found he was deferred from the draft because he had a divinity degree. </li></ul><ul><li>        Rather than become an ordained Methodist minister, Farmer, who told his father he would rather fight that church's policy of segregated congregations, chose instead to go to work for the Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR). Farmer was FOR's secretary for race relations, helping the Quaker, pacifist organization craft its responses to such social ills as war, violence, bigotry, and poverty. It was a job that left Farmer, who was then living in Chicago, Illinois, enough time to begin forming his own approach to these issues — one based less on FOR's religious pacifism than on the principle of nonviolent resistance. </li></ul><ul><li>The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) was founded in 1942 as the Committee of Racial Equality by an interracial group of students in Chicago. Many of these students were members of the Chicago branch of the Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR), a pacifist organization seeking to change racist attitudes. The founders of CORE were deeply influenced by Mahatma Gandhi's teachings of nonviolent resistance. </li></ul><ul><li>        CORE started as a nonhierarchical, decentralized organization funded entirely by the voluntary contributions of its members. The organization was initially co-led by white University of Chicago student George Houser and black student James Farmer. In 1942, CORE began protests against segregation in public accommodations by organizing sit-ins. It was also in 1942 that CORE expanded nationally. James Farmer traveled the country with Bayard Rustin , a field secretary with FOR, and recruited activists at FOR meetings. CORE's early growth consisted almost entirely of white middle-class college students from the Midwest. CORE pioneered the strategy of nonviolent direct action, especially the tactics of sit-ins, jail-ins, and freedom rides. </li></ul><ul><li>      By the late 1960s, Farmer, seeing CORE drift away from its Gandhian roots, left the organization he had helped found and had led for more than 20 years. Always an active writer and speaker, he continued to lecture publicly on civil rights and eventually took a teaching position at Lincoln University in Pennsylvania. In 1968 Farmer ran for U.S. Congress on the Republican Party ticket and was defeated by Shirley Chisholm, an African American running as a Democrat. Shortly thereafter, he went to work for Republican President Richard M. Nixon's administration as Assistant Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>        In the years since retiring from politics (1971), Farmer has served on many organizational boards, including the Coalition of American Public Employees. He has also continued to teach and lecture widely. In 1985 he published his autobiography, titled Lay Bare the Heart , and in 1998 President Bill Clinton awarded him the Congressional Medal of Freedom. </li></ul>JAMES FARMER (January 12, 1920 - July 9, 1999) First National Director of CORE
  23. 25. The Cold War <ul><li>Coined by Bernard Baruch as the alternative to a “hot” or shooting war. </li></ul><ul><li>The Cold War will shape American foreign policy and military spending throughout the Baby-Boomers’ youth. Until the fall of the Berlin Wall and the dissolution of the USSR, the cold War was the motivation for a strong defensive democracy. </li></ul><ul><li>Now, we know the Bad guys are out to get us, we just don’t know who they are now…. </li></ul>
  24. 27. Mao Zedong vs. Chiang Kai-Shek <ul><li>WHAT IF? </li></ul><ul><li>If China had been a united country and combined the forces of the Peoples Liberation Army with the Nationalist Army instead of against each other, it could well be that the Japanese forces would have been forced to withdraw early in the war. The self-seeking leaders of the two armies, Chiang Kai-shek of the Nationalists and Mao (Tse Tung) Zedong of the Peoples Liberation Army uselessly wasted time in confrontation with each other instead of concentrating on the common enemy, Japan. </li></ul>Chairman Mao Chiang Kai-Shek
  25. 28. Trouble in French Indochina <ul><li>In 1945, an American intelligence team codenamed Deer parachuted into the jungles of Asia to help a band of guerrillas fighting the Japanese. They found the leader of these guerrillas, Nguyen Ai Quoc, seriously ill from malaria and dysentery. “This man doesn’t have long for this world,&quot; exclaimed the team medic, but he successfully nursed him back to health. The grateful leader agreed to provide intelligence and rescue downed American pilots in return for ammunition and weapons. </li></ul><ul><li>The team suggested that the United States continue to support Quoc after the war, but the recommendation was considered to controversial since Quoc wanted his nation’s freedom from our ally France. His request for help was ignored, although the rebel leader pleaded with President Truman to support his movement for independence from the French. The US decided that they didn’t like Quoc’s politics. </li></ul><ul><li>Nguyen Ai Quoc is known by another name: “He who enlightens”, or in Vietnamese—Ho Chi Minh. Sixty thousand Americans died in the Vietnam War, battling a former ally whose life we had once saved. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1920s, Ho worked as a busboy in a hotel in Boston. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1954, he was president of an independent North Vietnam. </li></ul><ul><li>By the 1960s, he America’s public enemy #1. </li></ul>
  26. 29. Letter from Ho Chi Minh to President Harry S. Truman, 02/28/1946.
  27. 30. #34 Dwight D. Eisenhower <ul><li>Bringing to the Presidency his prestige as commanding general of the victorious forces in Europe during World War II, Dwight D. Eisenhower obtained a truce in Korea and worked incessantly during his two terms to ease the tensions of the Cold War. He pursued the moderate policies of &quot;Modern Republicanism,&quot; pointing out as he left office, &quot;America is today the strongest, most influential, and most productive nation in the world.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Born: October 14, 1890; Denison, Texas... </li></ul><ul><li>Republican who served two terms. 1953-1961 </li></ul><ul><li>Vice President: Richard M. Nixon </li></ul><ul><li>Eisenhower was the first president to work with three sessions of Congress controlled by an opposing political party... </li></ul><ul><li>Dwight Eisenhower entered the White House intending to preside over a period of national recovery from the tumult of the Roosevelt/Truman administrations. His &quot;hidden-hand&quot; style of governing indicated to some an air of conformity and aloofness, yet the general public held him in high esteem. </li></ul><ul><li>Confounding caricature, the military legend cut defense spending and warned against the unchecked growth of a military-industrial complex... </li></ul><ul><li>Died: March 28, 1969. </li></ul>
  28. 31. Korean Conflict 1950-1953 <ul><li>Brinkmanship </li></ul><ul><li>Domino theory </li></ul><ul><li>Containment </li></ul><ul><li>Police action </li></ul><ul><li>UN Peacekeepers </li></ul><ul><li>MASH </li></ul>                U.S. Forces patrol the Demilitarized Zone.
  29. 33. Anti-War propaganda <ul><li>M*A*S*H was set in South Korea, near Seoul, during the Korean War. The series focused on the group of doctors and nurses whose job was to heal the wounded who arrived at this &quot;Mobile Army Surgical Hospital&quot; by helicopter, ambulance or bus. The hospital compound was isolated from the rest of the world. One road ran through the camp; a mountain blocked one perimeter and a minefield the other. Here the wounded were patched up and sent home--or back to the front. Here, too, the loyal audience came to know and respond to an exceptional ensemble cast of characters. </li></ul>
  30. 34. The Police Action/Korean Conflict <ul><li>45 - Korea divided into US and Soviet occupation zones along 38th parallel </li></ul><ul><li>26 July 47 - President Truman's National Security Act creates US Department of Defense </li></ul><ul><li>15 Aug 48 - After supervised elections, US military government turns over power to Republic of Korea </li></ul><ul><li>25 Jun 50 - North Korean People's Army invades South Korea - UN calls for an end of aggression </li></ul><ul><li>27 Jun 50 - UN asks member countries to aid Republic of Korea - US announces intervention. North Korea attacks Seoul airfield. </li></ul><ul><li>28 Jun 50 - US bombers attack troops in Han River area - North Korean army captures Seoul </li></ul><ul><li>30 Jun 50 - President Truman orders ground forces into Korea and authorizes Air Force to bomb North Korea </li></ul><ul><li>5 Jul 50 - Near Osan, Task Force Smith troops fight for the first time and suffer heavy casualties </li></ul><ul><li>18 Jul 50 - US Cavalry lands at Pohangdong - US aircraft destroy key oil refinery in Wonsan </li></ul><ul><li>22 Jul 50 - Battle for Taejon ends with heavy US losses and retreat </li></ul><ul><li>4 Aug 50 - Pusan perimeter established in southeastern Korea </li></ul><ul><li>13 Aug 50 - First UN counterattack collapses </li></ul><ul><li>15 Aug 50 - Four-day battle of &quot;the Bowling Alley&quot; - UN forces hold back North Korean offensive </li></ul><ul><li>15 Sep 50 - Inchon landing of UN forces </li></ul><ul><li>29 Sep 50 - UN troops complete recapture of Seoul </li></ul><ul><li>7 Oct 50 - UN forces cross 38th parallel - UN sanctions defeat of North Korea and attempted reunification </li></ul><ul><li>14 Oct 50 - Chinese Communist troops cross Yalu River into Korea </li></ul><ul><li>19 Oct 50 - UN captures P'yongyang, the North Korean capital </li></ul><ul><li>1 Nov 50 - Chinese attack in force near Unsan </li></ul><ul><li>24 Nov 50 - General Douglas MacArthur's final &quot;Home by Christmas&quot; offensive begins </li></ul><ul><li>11 Dec 50 - End of Chinese strike against marine and army divisions at Chosin Reservoir - marines retreat </li></ul><ul><li>4 Jan 51 - Seoul captured by Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>25 Jan 51 - UN forces resume offensive </li></ul><ul><li>11 Feb 51 - Chinese counteroffensive begins north of Hoengsong </li></ul><ul><li>1 Mar 51 - UN line reaches between the 37th and 38th Parallels </li></ul><ul><li>18 Mar 51 - UN forces retake Seoul </li></ul><ul><li>11 Apr 51 - MacArthur recalled - General Matthew Ridgway given command </li></ul><ul><li>13 Jun 51 - UN forces dig in on the 38th Parallel </li></ul><ul><li>10 Jul 51 - Truce talks begin at Kaesong - Communists break off talks six weeks later </li></ul><ul><li>23 Sep 51 - UN forces take Heartbreak Ridge after 18-day battle </li></ul><ul><li>27 Nov 51 - Truce talks resume at Panmunjom </li></ul><ul><li>28 Mar 53 - North Korean and Chinese leaders agree to POW exchange </li></ul><ul><li>18 Apr 53 - Three-day battle of Pork Chop Hill ends in victory for UN forces </li></ul><ul><li>26 Apr 53 - Full peace talks resume at Panmunjom </li></ul><ul><li>14 Jun 53 - Communist offensive pushes Republic of Korea troops south </li></ul><ul><li>18 Jun 53 - South Koreans release 27,000 North Korean POWs, who refuse repatriation </li></ul><ul><li>25 Jun 53 - &quot;Little Truce Talks&quot; secure Republic of Korea's acceptance of armistice. Chinese launch massive attacks against South Korean divisions. </li></ul><ul><li>10 Jul 53 - Communists return to negotiations </li></ul><ul><li>27 Jul 53 - Cease fire signed - fighting ends 12 hours later </li></ul><ul><li>4 Sep 53 - Processing of POWs for repatriation begins at Freedom Village, Panmunjom </li></ul>
  31. 35. Kilroy was here is an American popular culture expression, often seen in graffiti. Its origins are indistinct, but recognition of it and the distinct doodle of &quot;Kilroy&quot; peeking over a wall is almost ubiquitous in the US. There was one person who led or participated in every combat, training or occupation operation during WWII and the Korean War. This person could always be depended on. GI's began to consider him the &quot;super GI.&quot; He was one who always got there first or who was always there when they left. I am, of course, referring to Kilroy Was Here. Somehow, this simple graffiti captured the imagination of GI's everywhere they went. The scribbled cartoon face and words showed up everywhere - worldwide. Stories (some even true) abound. A number of years ago the Philadelphia Inquirer responded to a question about the Kilroy Was Here signs. According to them, they were started by a Quincy MA shipyard inspector named James F. Kilroy. He first chalked the slogan on tank tops and cargo boxes to show they'd been checked. Cargo went everywhere and GIs spread the slogan. The Kilroy slogan soon became a special pal of scared soldiers. To show that an area had been cleared GIs wrote the slogan Kilroy was here. James Kilroy no relation to the original
  32. 36. McCarthyism <ul><li>Joe McCarthy , Senator fro WI claimed that he had a list of 57 people in the State Department that were known to be members of the American Communist Party. McCarthy went on to argue that some of these people were passing secret information to the Soviet Union. He added: &quot;The reason why we find ourselves in a position of impotency is not because the enemy has sent men to invade our shores, but rather because of the traitorous actions of those who have had all the benefits that the wealthiest nation on earth has had to offer - the finest homes, the finest college educations, and the finest jobs in Government we can give.&quot; The list of names was not a secret and had been in fact published by the Secretary of State in 1946. These people had been identified during a preliminary screening of 3,000 federal employees. Some had been communists but others had been fascists, alcoholics and sexual deviants. As it happens, if McCarthy had been screened, his own drink problems and sexual preferences would have resulted in him being put on the list. McCarthy also began receiving information from his friend, J. Edgar Hoover, the head of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). William Sullivan, one of Hoover's agents, later admitted that: &quot;We were the ones who made the McCarthy hearings possible. We fed McCarthy all the material he was using.&quot; On 20th February McCarthy made a six hour speech on the Senate floor about how the Democratic administration had been infiltrated by communist subversives. McCarthy named four of these people, who had held left-wing views in their youth, but when Democrats accused McCarthy of smear tactics, he suggested they were part of this communist conspiracy. This claim was used against his critics who were up for re-election in 1950. Many of them lost and this made other Democrats reluctant to criticize McCarthy in case they became targets of his smear campaigns. </li></ul>                                                                         
  33. 37. <ul><li>With the war going badly in Korea and communist advances in Eastern Europe and in China, the American public were genuinely frightened about the possibilities of internal subversion. McCarthy, as chairman of the Government Committee on Operations of the Senate, was in an ideal position to exploit this situation. For the next two years McCarthy investigated various government departments and questioned a large number of people about their political past. Some people lost their jobs after they admitted they had been members of the Communist Party. McCarthy made it clear to the witnesses that the only way of showing that they had abandoned their left-wing views was by naming other members of the party. This witch-hunt and anti-communist hysteria became known as McCarthyism. Some left-wing artists and intellectuals were unwilling to live in this type of society and people such as Joseph Losey, Richard Wright, Ollie Harrington, James Baldwin, Herbert Biberman, Lester Cole and Chester Himes went to live and work in Europe. McCarthyism was mainly used against Democrats associated with the New Deal policies introduced by Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1930s. Harry S. Truman and members of his Democratic administration such as George Marshall and Dean Acheson, were accused of being soft on communism. Truman was portrayed as a dangerous liberal and McCarthy's campaign helped the Republican candidate, Dwight Eisenhower, win the presidential election in 1952. After what had happened to McCarthy's opponents in the 1950 election, most politicians were unwilling to criticize him in the Senate. As the Boston Post pointed out: &quot;Attacking him is this state is regarded as a certain method of committing suicide. One notable exception was William Benton, a senator from Connecticut and the owner of Encyclopaedia Britannica . McCarthy and his supporters immediately began smearing Benton. It was claimed that while Benton had been Assistant Secretary of State he had protected known communists and that he had been responsible for the purchase and display of &quot;lewd art works&quot;. Benton, who was also accused of being disloyal by McCarthy for having much of his company's work printed in England, was defeated in the 1952 elections. In 1952 McCarthy appointed Roy Cohn as the chief counsel to the Government Committee on Operations of the Senate. Cohn had been recommended by J. Edgar Hoover. who had been impressed by his involvement in the prosecution of Julius Rosenberg and Ethel Rosenberg. Soon after Cohn was appointed, he recruited his best friend, David Schine, to become his chief consultant. </li></ul>
  34. 38. McCarthyism <ul><li>McCarthy's next target was what he believed were anti-American books in libraries. His researchers looked into the Overseas Library Program and discovered 30,000 books by &quot;communists, pro-communists, former communists and anti anti-communists.&quot; After the publication of this list, these books were removed from the library shelves. For some time opponents of McCarthy had been accumulating evidence concerning his homosexual activities. Several members of his staff, including Roy Cohn and David Schine, were also suspected of having a sexual relationship. Although well-known by political journalists, the first article about it did not appear until Hank Greenspun published an article in the Las Vegas Sun in 25th October, 1952. Greenspun wrote that: &quot;It is common talk among homosexuals in Milwaukee who rendezvous in the White Horse Inn that Senator Joe McCarthy has often engaged in homosexual activities.&quot; McCarthy considered a libel suit against Greenspun but decided against it when he was told by his lawyers that if the case went ahead he would have to take the witness stand and answer questions about his sexuality. In an attempt to stop the rumors circulating, McCarthy married his secretary, Jeannie Kerr. Later the couple adopted a five-week old girl from the New York Foundling Home. In October, 1953, McCarthy began investigating communist infiltration into the military. Attempts were made by McCarthy to discredit Robert Stevens, the Secretary of the Army. The president, Dwight Eisenhower, was furious and now realized that it was time to bring an end to McCarthy's activities. The United States Army now passed information about McCarthy to journalists who were known to be opposed to him. This included the news that McCarthy and Roy Cohn had abused congressional privilege by trying to prevent David Schine from being drafted. When that failed, it was claimed that Cohn tried to pressurize the Army into granting Schine special privileges. The well-known newspaper columnist, Drew Pearson, published the story on 15th December, 1953. </li></ul>
  35. 39. <ul><li>Some figures in the media, such as writers George Seldes and I. F. Stone, and cartoonists, Herb Block and Daniel Fitzpatrick, had fought a long campaign against McCarthy. Other figures in the media, who had for a long time been opposed to McCarthyism, but were frightened to speak out, now began to get the confidence to join the counter-attack. Edward Murrow, the experienced broadcaster, used his television program, See It Now , on 9th March, 1954, to criticize McCarthy's methods. Newspaper columnists such as Drew Pearson, Walter Lippmann and Jack Anderson also became more open in their attacks on McCarthy. The senate investigations into the United States Army were televised and this helped to expose the tactics of Joseph McCarthy. One newspaper, the Louisville Courier-Journal , reported that: &quot;In this long, degrading travesty of the democratic process, McCarthy has shown himself to be evil and unmatched in malice.&quot; Leading politicians in both parties, had been embarrassed by McCarthy's performance and on 2nd December, 1954, a censure motion condemned his conduct by 67 votes to 22. McCarthy also lost the chairmanship of the Government Committee on Operations of the Senate. He was now without a power base and the media lost interest in his claims of a communist conspiracy. As one journalist, Willard Edwards, pointed out: &quot;Most reporters just refused to file McCarthy stories. And most papers would not have printed them anyway.&quot; McCarthy, who had been drinking heavily for many years, was discovered to have cirrhosis of the liver. An alcoholic, he was unable to take the advice of doctors and friends to stop drinking. Joseph McCarthy died in the Bethesda Naval Hospital on 2nd May, 1957. As the newspapers reported, McCarthy had drunk himself to death. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  36. 40. McCarthyism <ul><li>Senator Joseph R. McCarthy was a little-known junior senator from Wisconsin until February 1950 when he claimed to possess a list of 205 card-carrying Communists employed in the U.S. Department of State.  From that moment Senator McCarthy became a tireless crusader against Communism in the early 1950s, a period that has been commonly referred to as the &quot;Red Scare.&quot;  As chairman of the Senate Permanent Investigation Subcommittee, Senator McCarthy conducted hearings on communist subversion in America and investigated alleged communist infiltration of the Armed Forces.  His subsequent exile from politics coincided with a conversion of his name into a modern English noun &quot;McCarthyism,&quot; or adjective, &quot;McCarthy tactics,&quot; when describing similar witchhunts in recent American history.  </li></ul><ul><li>The American Heritage Dictionary gives the definition of McCarthyism as:  1.  The political practice of publicizing accusations of disloyalty or subversion with insufficient regard to evidence, and  2.  The use of methods of investigation and accusation regarded as unfair, in order to suppress opposition.]  Senator McCarthy was censured by the U.S. Senate on December 2, 1954 and died May 2, 1957. </li></ul>
  37. 41. Alger Hiss <ul><li>Alger Hiss was born in Baltimore on 11th November, 1904. Educated at John Hopkins University and Harvard Law School (1926-29) he worked for the Supreme Court Justice, Oliver Wendell Holmes, before serving in the departments of Agriculture, Justice and State, in the administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Hiss also served as Roosevelt's adviser at the Yalta Conference in 1945. After working briefly as secretary-general of the United Nations, in 1949 Hiss became president of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. In August 1948 Whittaker Chambers appeared before the House of Un-American Activities Committee and during his testimony claimed that Hiss had been spying for the Soviet Union. In a federal grand jury investigation of the case, Hiss denied Chambers's accusations. However, as a result of this investigation, Hiss was charged with perjury. His first trial in 1949 ended in a hung jury but the following year, a second jury found Hiss guilty and sentenced him to five years imprisonment. Hiss was released from prison in 1954. He spent the rest of his life trying to clear his name. In the 1970s Hiss unsuccessfully sued the U.S. government under the Freedom of Information Act in an attempt to gain access to FBI and State Department files about the case. </li></ul><ul><li>Telegraph cables between the Soviet Union and the United States during the Second World War were released by the National Security Agency. One of the messages dated March 30, 1945, refers to an American with the code name Ales. According to the message, Ales was a Soviet agent working in the State Department, who accompanied President Franklin D. Roosevelt to the 1945 Yalta Conference and then flew to Moscow. As Hiss was with Roosevelt at Yalta it has been claimed that he was the Ales referred to in the cable. </li></ul><ul><li>With the collapse of communism in the Soviet Union, attempts were made to obtain information on the case from the Soviet intelligence files. In 1992 Hiss wrote to the Russian historian Dimitry Antonovich Volkogonov, the overseer of the Soviet intelligence archives, to request the release of any files on the case. On 14th October 1992, Volkogonov published a report that stated that he had found no evidence that Hiss had ever been an agent for KGB, for the GRU or for any other intelligence agency of the Soviet Union. </li></ul><ul><li>Alger Hiss died on 15th November, 1996. </li></ul>
  38. 42. Nikita Khrushchev (1894-1971) <ul><li>Premier of Russia </li></ul><ul><li>First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 1953-1964. </li></ul><ul><li>Certainly the most colorful Soviet leader, Khrushchev is best remembered for his dramatic, oftentimes boorish gestures and &quot;harebrained schemes&quot; designed to attain maximum propaganda effect, his enthusiastic belief that Communism would triumph over capitalism, and the fact that he was the only Soviet leader ever to be removed peacefully from office--a direct result of the post-Stalin thaw he had instigated in 1956. </li></ul>
  39. 43. Khrushchev <ul><li>Khrushchev's enthusiasm for flashy gestures had not been liked by more conservative elements from the very start; many Soviets were greatly embarrassed by his antics, such as banging a shoe on the podium during a speech to the UN General Assembly. There were elements in the Party who were actively looking for an opportunity to oust him. Their opportunity came with the Cuban Missile Crisis. </li></ul><ul><li>In yet another case of showmanship that he was unable to back up with deeds, in 1962 Khrushchev deployed nuclear missiles in newly Communist Cuba, within easy striking distance of most major American population centers. Thanks to intelligence received from Oleg Penkovsky, a Soviet double agent, the United States was aware that the missiles were still only partially developed and did not pose an immediate threat. President John Kennedy called Khrushchev's bluff, and the latter was forced to remove the missiles from Cuba, with great loss of face both at home and abroad. Khrushchev never regained his prestige after the incident, and was quietly ousted two years later by opponents in the Politburo--significantly, with no bloodshed. He spent the rest of his life in peaceful retirement, and was the only Soviet leader not to be buried in the Kremlin wall after his death. </li></ul>
  40. 44. Sergei Khrushchev <ul><li>PROVIDENCE, R.I. -- Sergei Khrushchev will take the oath of U.S. citizenship on Monday, July 12, 1999, at 2 p.m. in Bishop McVinney Auditorium, One Cathedral Square, Providence. </li></ul><ul><li>Khrushchev, whose father, Nikita, was the leader of the Soviet Union during the Cold War, is a senior fellow at Brown's Watson Institute for International Studies. He and his wife, Valentina Golenko, will be sworn in as citizens along with 250 other candidates by U.S. District Court Chief Judge Ronald Lagueux. </li></ul><ul><li>To become citizens, Khrushchev and his wife passed a test of history, government, and English writing skills on June 23 administered by the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service in Providence. </li></ul><ul><li>Khrushchev, 64, decided to become a citizen after eight years at Brown University, where he writes and teaches a senior seminar on relations among the post-Soviet states. </li></ul><ul><li>Khrushchev's fields of expertise are Soviet and Russian political and economic development, Soviet history, international security, and computer science. He has written numerous books, including Nikita Khrushchev: Creation of a Superpower and Khrushchev on Khrushchev: An Inside Account of the Man and His Era, by His Son. </li></ul>
  41. 45. Fidel Castro <ul><li>has ruled Cuba since 1959, when he overthrew the military dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista. Castro established a dictatorship and made Cuba the first Communist state in the Western Hemisphere. He became famous for his fiery, anti-American speeches. </li></ul><ul><li>Castro was born on Aug. 13, 1926, in Biran, near Mayari, Cuba. His given and family name was Fidel Castro Ruz. His father was a Spanish immigrant who owned a small plantation. Castro graduated from the University of Havana in 1950 with a law degree. Afterwards, Castro opened a law office in Havana. In 1952, he ran for election to the Cuban House of Representatives. But troops led by Batista halted the election and ended democracy in Cuba. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result of Batista's actions, Castro tried to start a revolution against the Batista dictatorship. On July 26, 1953, Castro's forces attacked the Moncada army barracks in the city of Santiago de Cuba. Castro was captured and sentenced to 15 years in prison. Batista released him in 1955, however. Castro then formed the 26th of July Movement, a group of revolutionaries named after the date of his first revolt. He then went into exile in Mexico. Castro's forces landed in Cuba in December 1956. Many rebels were killed, and Castro and other survivors fled to the Sierra Maestra, a mountain range in southeast Cuba. People from the surrounding countryside joined the rebellion. Batista fled from Cuba on Jan. 1, 1959, and Castro took control of the government. </li></ul>
  42. 46. <ul><li>Castro seized property owned by Americans and other foreigners as well as Cubans. In 1960, the Castro government took over United States oil refineries in Cuba. The United States then stopped buying Cuban sugar. Castro responded by taking over all United States businesses in Cuba. </li></ul><ul><li>Castro has supported a number of revolutionary movements in South America, Central America, and Africa. The Castro government has provided improved education and health facilities for many Cubans. But the economy has often been troubled. </li></ul><ul><li>In the early 1960's, Cuba began depending heavily on the Soviet Union for economic support. This support ended in 1991, when the Soviet Union was dissolved. Castro vowed that Cuba would remain a Communist country. However, in the early 1990's, Cuba undertook limited reforms that loosened state control over parts of the country's economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Castro has been closely assisted by his brother Raul. He has named Raul as his eventual successor. </li></ul>
  43. 47. <ul><li>Consider what might have turned out differently had Fidel taken up a career in professional baseball rather than politics: no revolution overthrowing the Batista regime, no establishment of a Soviet-aligned government in Cuba, and thus no Bay of Pigs or Cuban Missile Crisis — watershed events in the history of the Cold War. Would the results of this alternate scenario have been a profound difference in the course of world events or merely a historical footnote of minor global significance? </li></ul><ul><li>Even if one opts for the &quot;historical footnote&quot; interpretation, the Castro legend is still appealing because of its unconventionality. </li></ul>One of the quirkier historical &quot;What if?&quot; scenarios involves the legend that Cuban leader Fidel Castro was once given a tryout (and rejected) by an American major league baseball team (usually specified as either the Washington Senators or the New York Yankees). URBAN LEGEND
  44. 48. Counterpoint <ul><li>There is a well-known baseball trivia question that makes its way around most press boxes involving Fidel Castro as a 21 year-old pitching prospect for the Pittsburgh Pirates. Seems two corpulent scouts, hired by the parent club, went to Havana to watch the diminutive lefty break nasty curves and dip sinkers in and around the aggressive Latin competition, but were somewhat lukewarm about his speed. “The kid Castro has some command of breaking pitches (stop),” the report told the front office the next morning via Western Union. “Has nothing on the fast ball (stop) Double AA talent at best (stop).” </li></ul><ul><li>The Pirates never did have the patience to develop short Cuban kids with little pop on the cheese, so a dejected Fidel attended law school, went to prison, and disappeared into the Cuban socialist underground. Those were the days when his family and friends were subsisting on a steady diet of dung beetles and palm leaves chased by rotten disease-ridden water, while the mob ran numbers for a dictatorship backed by the muscle of Harry Truman’s United States. </li></ul><ul><li>It was a short walk from the entrance of Forbes Field to the den of hate. And hate turned into revolution on New Year’s Eve 1959, when the failed pitcher became champion of the weak and an American thorn; followed closely by the CIA’s spring invasion gone terribly wrong two years later. And when the Bay of Pigs sent the slugs from Florida’s underbelly to the right people, Jack Kennedy paid with his life in Dallas two years after that. </li></ul>
  45. 49. Marguerite Higgins <ul><li>After the war and covered the Nuremberg War Trials and the growing tension between west and eastern Europe for the New York Tribune . In 1947 Higgins was promoted to bureau chief in Berlin. In 1950 Higgins was assigned to Japan where she became the newspaper's Far East bureau chief. On the outbreak of the Korean War, Higgins moved to South Korea where she reported the fall of the capital, Seoul, to North Korean forces. The New York Tribune sent their top war reporter, Homer Bigart, to South Korea and ordered Higgins to return to Tokyo. Higgins refused to go and continued to compete with Bigart to get the best stories. This became more difficult when all women reporters were banned from the front-line. Higgins was furious but was eventually able to persuade General Douglas MacArthur to allow her to resume her front-line reporting. Higgins, who was with the Marines when they landed in Inchon, 200 miles behind the North Korean lines, on 15th September, 1950, soon established herself as an outstanding war journalist. Her more personal style of reporting the war was popular with the American public. In October, 1950, Higgins was the subject of an article in Life Magazine . In 1951, her book, War in Korea , became a best seller. That year she won the Pulitzer Prize for international reporting and was voted Woman of the Year by the Associated Press news organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Higgins was sent to Vietnam in 1953 where she reported the defeat of the French Army at Dien Bein Phu. During the fighting she narrowly escaped injury when while walking alongside the photographer, Robert Capra, he was killed when he stepped on a land mine. In 1955 ,she traveled extensively in the Soviet Union and afterwards published her book Red Plush and Black Bread (1955). This was followed by another book on journalism, News is a Singular Thing (1955). Higgins also covered the civil war in the Congo. Higgins made many visits to Vietnam and her book Our Vietnam Nightmare (1965), documented her concerns about United States military involvement in the region. While in Vietnam in 1965 she went down with leishmaniasis, a tropical disease. Marguerite Higgins was brought back to the United States but died on 3rd January, 1966. In recognition of her outstanding war reporting, she was buried at Arlington National Cemetery. </li></ul><ul><li>Marguerite Higgins was born in Hong Kong on 3rd September, 1920. Her father, Lawrence Higgins, an American working at a shipping company, moved the family back to the United States in 1923. Higgins was educated at the University of California. In her first year she worked on the student newspaper, The Daily Californian . After Higgins graduated in 1941, she moved to Columbia University where she completed a masters degree in journalism. In 1942 Higgins was hired by the New York Tribune . Higgins wanted to report the war in Europe but it was not until 1944 that her editor agreed to send her to London. The following year she moved to mainland Europe, first reporting the war from France and later in Germany. This included accompanying Allied troops when they entered the Nazi extermination camps of Dachau and Buchenwald. </li></ul>
  46. 50. Jackie Robinson <ul><li>Jackie Robinson (1919-1972), was the first black person to play modern major league baseball. Robinson joined the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947 and played all 10 years of his major league career with the Dodgers. </li></ul><ul><li>Robinson started as a first baseman for the Dodgers but gained his greatest fame playing second base. Robinson was an outstanding hitter and finished with a .311 lifetime batting average. He was also a superior runner and base stealer. In 1947, Robinson was named Rookie of the Year. In 1949, he won the National League's Most Valuable Player award, as well as the league's batting championship with a .342 average. </li></ul><ul><li>Jack Roosevelt Robinson was born on Jan. 31, 1919, in Cairo, Georgia. He starred in four sports at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA). In 1945, Robinson played with the Kansas City Monarchs of the Negro American League. In 1946, he played minor league baseball for the Montreal Royals. In 1956, Robinson received the Spingarn Medal. He was elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1962. He died on Oct. 24, 1972. </li></ul>Jackie Robinson, shown here sliding into home plate, became the first African American player in modern major league baseball. He joined the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947. Robinson gained fame for his hitting and his daring base running.
  47. 51. Dr. Benjamin Spock <ul><li>While specializing in pediatrics, Spock realized that he could best help his young patients and their parents if he gained a greater understanding of their psychological needs and family dynamics. With the dedication and intensity that marked his every endeavor, he studied psychoanalysis for six years, making him the only practicing pediatrician of his time with this combination of training. The more he talked with parents and studied the psychological and emotional aspects of childhood, the more convinced he became that much of the prevailing wisdom of the day was flawed. And, in 1946, he was given the chance to publish his iconoclastic views in The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care, a tome he penned for Pocket Books that initially sold for a modest 25 cents. During Spock's long lifetime, his book would be translated into 39 languages and sell more than 50 million copies, making it second in sales only to the Bible. Spock's ideas have become such a part and parcel of the parenting landscape that it's easy to forget how revolutionary they were. In post-war America, parents were in awe of doctors and other childcare professionals; Spock assured them that parents were the true experts on their own children. They had been told that picking up infants when they cried would only spoil them; Spock countered that cuddling babies and bestowing affection on children would only make them happier and more secure. Instead of adhering to strict, one-size-fits-all dictates on everything from discipline to toilet training, Spock urged parents to be flexible and see their children as individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps most revolutionary of all, he suggested that parenting could be fun, that mothers and fathers could actually enjoy their children and steer a course in which their own needs and wishes also were met. All this and much more, including a wealth of helpful medical advice, was delivered in a friendly, reassuring, and common-sense manner completely at odds with the cold authoritarianism favored by most other parenting books of the time. </li></ul><ul><li>With characteristic modesty, Spock never would have predicted the overwhelming success that Baby and Child Care would come to enjoy. He once admitted that if he had known that his editors were entrusting him with producing the most influential parenting book ever written, he would have replied, &quot;I don't know enough.&quot; As it turned out, he knew plenty-- Baby and Child Care was an instant success with parents and struck a chord with other progressive doctors and childcare practitioners. </li></ul>
  48. 52. <ul><li>As his celebrity grew in the '50s and '60s, Spock worked feverishly on behalf of children and parents. He taught child development at Western Reserve University (now Case Western) in Cleveland, Ohio, for 12 years, wrote many other books on childcare, and lectured around the world. He even had a television program devoted to the concerns of families. Dr. Spock had become a household name. </li></ul><ul><li>As the Cold War escalated and American troops were sent to Vietnam, he became a vocal political activist, speaking out for disarmament and against the war in Southeast Asia. To Spock, this was just another way of protecting the young people to whom he was so devoted. His political views made him unpopular in some circles and hurt the sales of Baby and Child Care, but he persisted, convinced that politics was an essential part of pediatrics. He participated in anti-nuclear demonstrations well into his 80s and 90s, and ran for President on a third-party ticket in 1972, speaking out on issues concerning working families, children, and minorities. </li></ul>
  49. 53. Elvis Elvis Aaron Presley January 8, 1935 - August 16, 1977
  50. 54. Elvis the Pelvis <ul><li>Elvis charted more songs on Billboard's Hot 100 than any other artist. (149) Elvis spent more weeks at the top of the charts than any other artist. (80) Elvis had the greatest number of consecutive #1 hits. (10) Elvis is second only to the Beatles in total of #1 hits. (18) Elvis has the most Multi-Plaintum records (25)    (The Beatles have 24; Led Zepplin and Barbra Streisand have 13) Elvis has more Platinum records than any other artist (55)    (The Beatles have 37; Barbra Streisand has 30) Elvis has more Gold records than any other artist (97)    (Barbra Streisand has 51; The Beatles have 42) No wonder they call him The King. </li></ul>SINGLES Jailhouse Rock Treat Me Nice (with Jailhouse Rock) All Shook Up Love Me Too Much Teddy Bear Loving You (with Teddy Bear)
  51. 55. Univac <ul><li>The Eckert and Mauchly Computer Co. of Philadelphia (which was soon purchased by Remington Rand) sells the first commercial computer, the UNIVAC 1, to the U.S. Census Bureau. UNIVAC stands for Universal Automatic Computer. The memory called up data by transmitting sonic pulses through tubes of mercury. An additional 45 UNIVAC 1 machines would eventually be sold. The massive computer was 8 feet high, 7-1/2 feet wide and 14-1/2 feet long. It has lots and lots of tubes that dimmed lights all over Washington when it cranked out information The UNIVAC was not the first computer ever built. A host of companies, including Eckert-Mauchly, Remington Rand, IBM, and others, all were developing computers for commercial applications at the same time. Perhaps the most famous computer of the era was the ENIAC, a computer developed for the U.S. military during World War II. Other computers developed in the 1940s were mostly used by academia. But the UNIVAC I was the first computer to be widely used for commercial purposes - 46 machines were built, for about $1 million each. UNIVAC I came to the public's attention in 1952, when CBS used one to predict the outcome of the presidential election. The computer correctly predicted the Eisenhower victory, but CBS did not release that information until after the election because the race was thought to be close. Rights to the UNIVAC name are currently held by Unisys. </li></ul>
  52. 56. The original Mr. Potato Head <ul><li>The original Mr. Potato Head toy consists entirely of pieces! We used a real potato for the body! The Mr. Potato Head toy is the first toy ever advertised on network TV. </li></ul>
  53. 57. Ray Kroc <ul><li>McDonald's begat an industry because a 52-year-old mixer salesman understood that we don't dine — we eat and run </li></ul><ul><li>On his travels he picked up the beat of a remarkable restaurant in San Bernardino, Calif., owned by two brothers, Dick and Mac McDonald, who had ordered eight mixers and had them churning away all day. Kroc saw the restaurant in 1954 and was entranced by the effectiveness of the operation. It was a hamburger restaurant, though not of the drive-in variety popular at the time. People had to get out of their cars to be served. The brothers had produced a very limited menu, concentrating on just a few items: hamburgers, cheeseburgers, french fries, soft drinks and milk shakes, all at the lowest possible prices. </li></ul><ul><li>Kroc, ever the instigator, started thinking about building McDonald's stores all over the U.S. — each of them equipped with eight multimixers whirring away, spinning off a steady stream of cash. The following day he pitched the idea of opening several restaurants to the brothers. They asked, &quot;Who could we get to open them for us?&quot; Kroc was ready: &quot;Well, what about me?&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>His confidence in what he had seen was unshakable. He was even more convinced than the McDonalds and eventually cajoled them into selling out to him in 1961 for a paltry $2.7 million. </li></ul>
  54. 58. <ul><li>Ray Kroc was the founder of the McDonald's Corporation. Brothers Mac and Dick McDonald opened the first &quot;Speedee Shakes and Burgers&quot; drive-in called McDonald's in 1953 in San Bernardino, California. They were persuaded to sell the name to milkshake salesman, Kroc, who opened the first store of the McDonald's Corporation in 1955 in Des Plaines, Illinois. McDonald's now has over 20,000 stores in 90 countries. The company claims it serves 29 million people a day and that a new store opens somewhere in the world every seven hours. </li></ul>
  55. 59. Salk Vaccine <ul><li>Jonas Salk (October 28, 1914 - June 23, 1995) is the discoverer/inventor of the Salk vaccine (polio vaccine). In America in the 1950s, summertime was a time of fear and anxiety for many parents; this was the season when children by the thousands became infected with the crippling disease poliomyelitis, or polio. This burden of fear was lifted forever when it was announced that Dr. Jonas Salk had developed a vaccine against the disease. Salk became world-famous overnight, but his discovery was the result of many years of painstaking research. </li></ul><ul><li>Salk was born in New York City. He spent his career as a professor at the University of Pittsburgh. Later in his career, Salk devoted much of his energy to developing an AIDS vaccine. </li></ul><ul><li>His vaccine was one of the first successful attempts at immunization against a virus, specifically the Poliomyelitis virus. The vaccine provides the recipient with immunity against Polio, and was seminal in the near eradication of a once widely-feared disease. Salk used a &quot;killed&quot; virus technique which required the patient to be injected with the vaccine. The patient would develop immunity to the live disease due to the body's earlier reaction to the killed virus. By contrast, Albert Sabin developed a &quot;live&quot; vaccine which was released in 1961, and which could be taken orally. </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike some scientists who sought wealth or fame accompanying their innovations, Salk stated &quot;'Who owns my polio vaccine? The people! Could you patent the sun?&quot;. The Salk Institute in La Jolla, California was named in Jonas Salk's honor. </li></ul>
  56. 60. 50s TV
  57. 61. Philo T. Farnsworth: The Mormon Who Invented TV <ul><li>On Sept. 7, 1927, Philo T. Farnsworth scrawled in his journal perhaps the most understated report of the century: &quot;The received line picture was evident this time.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Over the next 70 years that line picture would morph into Leave It to Beaver , man's first steps on the moon, the Vietnam War, the shooting of J.R., the beating of Rodney King, MTV, CNN and the chase of O.J. Simpson. </li></ul><ul><li>Farnsworth -- a 20-year-old college dropout -- had created the first electronic television. </li></ul>
  58. 62. Black and White (Under age 40? You won't understand.) <ul><li>  You could hardly see for all the snow,   Spread the rabbit ears as far as they go.   Pull a chair up to the TV set,   &quot;Good Night, David. Good Night, Chet.&quot;   Depending on the channel you tuned,   You got Rob and Laura - or Ward and June.   It felt so good. It felt so right.   Life looked better in black and white.   I Love Lucy, The Real McCoys,   Dennis the Menace, the Cleaver boys,   Rawhide, Gunsmoke, Wagon Train,   Superman, Jimmy and Lois Lane.   Father Knows Best, Patty Duke,   Rin Tin Tin and Lassie too,   Donna Reed on Thursday night! -   Life looked better in black and white.   </li></ul><ul><li>    I wanna go back to black and white.   Everything always turned out right.   Simple people, simple lives...   Good guys always won the fights.   Now nothing is the way it seems,   In living color on the TV screen.   Too many murders, too many fights,   I wanna go back to black and white.   In God they trusted, alone in bed, they slept,   A promise made was a promise kept.   They never cussed or broke their vows.   They'd never make the network now.   But if I could, I'd rather be   In a TV town in '53.   It felt so good. It felt so right.   Life looked better in black and white.   I'd trade all the channels on the satellite,   If I could just turn back the clock tonight   To when everybody knew wrong from right.   Life was better in black and white! </li></ul>
  59. 63. The Howdy-Doody Show Let's see how much you remember! The show took place in Doodyville, a circus town which had both puppet and human inhabitants. The audience of kids was called the Peanut Gallery and there was a huge waiting list for tickets to the show. Everybody wanted to sit in the Peanut Gallery! The show typically had a short film, a song or two and visits by the various residents of Doodyville. Did you know that... Buffalo Bob Smith was one of the first to recognize the potential of television to market products to kids. Welch's Grape Jelly, Wonder Bread, Colgate. Howdy Doody was the first show to ever hit the 2,000 episode mark? Howdy Doody was the first regular network series in color? Howdy Doody had the first theme song to become popular outside of the show? Buffalo Bob Smith died in 1998 of cancer.
  60. 64. Davy Crockett <ul><li>Davy Crockett was our hero. And to prove it, we all went out and bought coonskin caps. About 100 million dollars worth of raccoon caps sold in one year certainly qualifies as a fad of serious economic proportions. But we didn't stop there. We also bought capguns, wrist watches, books, moccasins, lunch boxes and all manner of merchandise. America had a major case of Davy Crockett-itis. Fess Parker portrayed both Davy Crockett and later Daniel Boone on TV. Many historians feel that this caused a permanent blurring of the two real life men into one entity forever making each less distinct. What's curious about this is that Davy Crockett was only a five feature Frontierland adventure which aired as part of Disneyland. The first three episodes were: &quot;Davy Crockett Indian Fighter&quot; 12/15/54 &quot;Davy Crockett Goes to Congress&quot; 1/26/55 &quot;Davy Crockett At the Alamo&quot; 2/23/55 Now as any student of history knows, Davy at the Alamo kind of boxed Disney into a corner because that's where his tale ends. So they had to go back and make episodes about his earlier exploits. Which were: &quot;Davy Crockett's Keelboat Race&quot; 11/16/55 &quot;Davy Crockett and the River Pirates&quot; 12/14/55 Davy Crockett never got a series of his own. Like most fads that come in with a vengeance, they tend to go out with the proverbial whimper. Thus it was with Davy Crockett and the coonskin cap. </li></ul>
  61. 65. Quiz Show Corruption <ul><li>Twenty One </li></ul><ul><li>Albert Freedman Producer 1956-1958 30 minutes Black and White Jack Barry, host </li></ul><ul><li>Twenty-One broke the game show scandals wide open. Contestants were placed in isolation booths, given a category and asked how many points they wished to risk. Producer Freedman approached a young attractive English instructor at Columbia University, Charles Van Doren, about becoming a player on Twenty-One. Assistance would be provided to augment the &quot;entertainment value&quot; of the show. As Van Doren kept winning, his popularity grew until he became a recognized celebrity. His acting ability didn't suffer either as America watched him &quot;agonize&quot; over each question. Ultimately, he won $129,000 - a hefty sum at any time, but a huge amount in the 50's. One opponent, Herbert Stempel, didn't like being passed over for greatness by the producers. Bitter, he talked to investigators about Twenty-One and the practice of supplying some players with answers. Van Doren, now a broken and humiliated man, gave one last public performance - testifying before the Congress about his complicity in the deception. </li></ul>
  62. 66. I Love Lucy
  63. 67. I Love Lucy Many networks did not want to cover a sit-com that featured a mixed marriage, so Lucille Ball and her Cuban band-leader, Desi Arnaz, formed Their own production company called Desilu and Produced their own show. It captured the public’s hearts and became a classic. Two of my favorites episodes: The Candy Factory and the Vitameatavegamin commercial.
  64. 68. The Andy Griffith Show With Sheriff Andy Taylor, Deputy Barney Fife, Thelma Lou, Gomer, cousin Goober, Opie, Floyd the Barber, Otis the town drunk, and Aunt Bee life was safe and secure in Mayberry.
  65. 69. Captain Kangaroo This was my favorite kid show growing up. I watched it every morning before going off to school. He was as gentle as Mister Rogers, but had cartoons, books, and drawing. All of these will be found in other kid shows, but his was one of the first.
  66. 70. Ozzie & Harriet Ozzie and Harriet Tidbits For 14 years we watched Ozzie, in his alpaca cardigan and Harriet, with her ever ready pot of coffee and a plate of brownies. Boomers grew up with Ricky and David. When asked if this was a realistic view of family life, the answer is a resounding no. Their idea of a life crisis was having two chairs mistakenly delivered to the house. Speaking of the house at 522 Sycamore Road, Hilldale, the set was an exact replica of their real life home in Hollywood. If you remember all those scenes in the kitchen, that's because up until 1956, Hotpoint, the sponsor, was displaying their products! After that, you probably recall more outdoors scenes. Did you notice the cameras around everyone's necks? Yup, Kodak became the sole sponsor. Ozzie was producer, director and head writer. In short, he had control. Ricky has been bugging his father to let him sing a tune on the show. So on April 10,1957 in &quot;Rick the Drummer&quot; he covered Fat's Domino's &quot;I'm Walkin.&quot; The song shot to the top of the charts. Eventually, the boys grew up and married and their real life wives joined the show. David married June and Ricky married Kris Harmon, daughter of Tom and brother to Mark. Ozzie Nelson died in 1975 of cancer, Rick Nelson died 1985 in a plane crash, and Harriet died in 1999 of congestive heart failure.
  67. 71. Sputnik—October 1958 <ul><li>History changed on October 4, 1957, when the Soviet Union successfully launched Sputnik I. The world's first artificial satellite was about the size of a basketball, weighed only 183 pounds, and took about 98 minutes to orbit the Earth on its elliptical path. That launch ushered in new political, military, technological, and scientific developments. While the Sputnik launch was a single event, it marked the start of the space age and the U.S.-U.S.S.R space race. </li></ul><ul><li>Immediately after the Sputnik I launch in October, the U.S. Defense Department responded to the political furor by approving funding for another U.S. satellite project. As a simultaneous alternative to Vanguard, Wernher von Braun and his Army Redstone Arsenal team began work on the Explorer project.  </li></ul><ul><li>Fear filled all American hearts when the Commies launched a successful satellite to orbit the earth—we feared nukes raining from the skies…death and destruction. Some built bomb shelters in their back yards. We practiced Air Raid/Bomb drills at school. </li></ul>
  68. 73. The Upheaval of the Sixties <ul><li>1. The New Frontier 23. JFK </li></ul><ul><li>2. Camelot 24. 5 o'clock shadow </li></ul><ul><li>3. NASA/Space Race 25. John Glenn </li></ul><ul><li>4. Peace Corps 26. Bay of Pigs Invasion </li></ul><ul><li>5. Cuban Missile Crisis 27. 1000 Days </li></ul><ul><li>6. Warren Commission 28. Lee Harvey Oswald </li></ul><ul><li>7. Jack Ruby 29. Magic Bullet Theory </li></ul><ul><li>8. The Great Society 30. LBJ </li></ul><ul><li>9. VISTA 31. War on Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>10. desegregation 32. Malcolm X </li></ul><ul><li>11. Jackie Robinson 33. Brown v. Board of Education </li></ul><ul><li>12. Little Rock incident 1957 34. Sesame Street/PBS </li></ul><ul><li>13. Freedom Rides 35. Rosa Parks </li></ul><ul><li>14. Martin Luther King, Jr. 36. SCLC </li></ul><ul><li>15. SNCC 37. CORE </li></ul><ul><li>16. Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955 38. &quot;I Have A Dream&quot; speech </li></ul><ul><li>17. Mohandas Gandhi 39. non-violent protest/sit-ins </li></ul><ul><li>18. Rachel Carson/ Silent Spring 40. Thurgood Marshall </li></ul><ul><li>19. Civil Rights Act 1964/Voting Rights Act 1965 41. Medicare/Medicaid </li></ul><ul><li>20. Black Power 42. Black Panthers </li></ul><ul><li>21. Woodstock 1969 43. RFK </li></ul><ul><li>22. OPEC 44. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution </li></ul>
  69. 74. Timeline: The Cold War <ul><li>1960s </li></ul><ul><li>1960: May -- Soviet Union reveals that U.S. spy plane was shot down over Soviet territory/U-2 incident </li></ul><ul><li>1960: November -- John F. Kennedy elected President </li></ul><ul><li>1961: April -- Bay of Pigs invasion </li></ul><ul><li>1961: July -- Kennedy requests 25% spending increase for military </li></ul><ul><li>1961: August 13 -- Berlin border closed </li></ul><ul><li>1961: August 17 -- Construction of Berlin Wall begins </li></ul><ul><li>1962: -- U.S. involvement in Vietnam increased </li></ul><ul><li>1962: October -- Cuban Missile Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>1963: July -- Nuclear Test Ban Treaty ratified </li></ul><ul><li>1963: November -- President Kennedy assassinated in Dallas, Texas </li></ul><ul><li>1964: August -- Gulf of Tonkin incident </li></ul><ul><li>1965: April -- U.S. Marines sent to Dominican Republic to fight Communism </li></ul><ul><li>1965: July -- Announcement of dispatching of 150,000 U.S. troops to Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>1968: January -- North Korea captured U.S.S. Pueblo </li></ul><ul><li>1968: August -- Soviet troops crush Czechoslovakian revolt </li></ul><ul><li>1969: July 20 -- Apollo 11 lands on the moon </li></ul>
  70. 75. JFK bio <ul><li>His maturing command of his powers was cut short by his assassination by Lee Harvey Oswald, as determined by the Warren Commission. </li></ul><ul><li>Revelations in later years of Kennedy's steady series of sexual liaisons with women tarnished his image in the minds of some Americans, but most people around the world continue to think of him as the fallen prince of Camelot. </li></ul>US statesman and 35th president (1961–3), born in Brookline, Massachusetts, USA. Descended from Irish-Americans who had shown a talent for politics, he studied at Harvard, and his senior thesis became the best-selling Why England Slept (1940). His later Profiles in Courage (1956) won the Pulitzer Prize. He enlisted as a seaman in the US Navy, and after Pearl Harbor was commissioned as an ensign, given command of a PT boat, and assigned to the South Pacific. He was wounded when his boat was cut in two by a Japanese destroyer. (The public would never really be aware of the extent of his various medical problems.) Returning to Massachusetts after the war, he was elected as a Democrat to the US House of Representatives (1947–53) and the US Senate (1953–61). Having failed in his 1956 bid for the Democratic vice-presidential nomination, in 1960 he became the youngest man, and first Catholic, to be elected US president. His short term in office would become one of legendary high hopes that was not always matched by tangible accomplishments. His liberal slate of social programs, called the ‘New Frontier’, largely faltered in Congress, although he gradually did actively support desegregation. In 1962 he went to the brink of nuclear war in the Cuban missile crisis, but in 1963 he secured an important nuclear test ban treaty with the USSR. He also established the Alliance for Progress, the Green Berets, and the Peace Corps, and above all he inspired a whole new generation to seek to better their world through government service.
  71. 76. Kennedy-Nixon Debate <ul><li>1960 Kennedy-Nixon </li></ul><ul><li>The age of televised politics is upon us as Senator John F. Kennedy and Vice President Richard Nixon square off in four so-called &quot;Great Debates.&quot; The first, on September 26, 1960, draws the largest single audience in television history to that point, 70 million U.S. viewers. </li></ul><ul><li>Nixon, who had been the first to successfully harness television for personalized political persuasion with his 1958 &quot;Checkers&quot; speech, loses the war of impressions. Famously, a majority of those listening on radio give the nod to Nixon; on television the veep looks pale and sweaty and downright spooky next to a young and camera-ready Kennedy. One woman says she couldn't vote for Nixon because she &quot;didn't like the look in his eyes, especially the left one.&quot; A heavy 5 o’clock shadow gave Nixon a smarmy look. He had refused to use stage makeup. </li></ul><ul><li>Kennedy goes on to define the televised presidency, mastering the medium as only Reagan and Clinton have since. </li></ul>Many people listening on the radio thought that Nixon won this debate or that it was a tie. But most people watching it on television were sure that Kennedy won. How do you think their judgments could be so different? Kennedy looked healthier than Nixon, who was getting over the flu. Nixon also seemed nervous, while Kennedy acted more confident. This debate, and three others that year, helped Kennedy win the Presidency that year.
  72. 77. Camelot <ul><ul><li>&quot;I felt as though I were inside a golden coach drawn by four pure-bred white horses into the glitter of mythic Camelot.“ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-- Isaac Stern on meeting President Kennedy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Due to the charismatic and stylish couple inhabiting 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, the Kennedy White House became known as Camelot. Alan Jay Lerner, Kennedy’s Harvard classmate, had penned the hit song &quot;Camelot&quot; for the Broadway musical, a personal favorite of President Kennedy. The tune quickly became the unofficial theme of the Kennedy administration. </li></ul><ul><li>In an interview with Life magazine a few days after her husband’s assassination, Jackie Kennedy confessed that &quot;I’m so ashamed of myself--all I keep thinking of is this line from a musical comedy.&quot; At night they would listen to the musical on their record player before they went to sleep, and JFK’s favorite song came at the very end of the recording. According to Jackie, President Kennedy had been enamored with the Knights of the Round Table from early childhood, and he held to an idealistic view of history replete with heroes. Linking JFK with Camelot, Jackie Kennedy remarked that &quot;There’ll be great presidents again… but there’ll never be another Camelot.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t let it be forgot That once there was a spot For one brief, shining moment that was known as Camelot. --President Kennedy's favorite lyrics from the Broadway show </li></ul>
  73. 78. JFK <ul><li>&quot;And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you--ask what you can do for your country. My fellow citizens of the world: ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man.&quot; </li></ul>
  74. 79. JFK pix <ul><li>With kids and family </li></ul>
  75. 80. 1965 <ul><li>Music (3/13/65) 1. Eight Days A Week (The Beatles) 2. My Girl (Temptations) 3. Stop! In The Name of Love (Supremes) Television 1. Bonanza (NBC) 2. Gomer Pyle, U.S.M.C. (CBS) 3. Bewitched (ABC) Books Malcolm X, &quot;The Autobiography of Malcolm X&quot; Ralph Nader, &quot;Unsafe at Any Speed&quot; Sylvia Plath, &quot;Ariel, The Uncollected Poems&quot; Movies The Sound of Music Dr. Zhivago </li></ul>The first US combat troops arrive in Vietnam. By the end of the year, 190,000 American soldiers are in Vietnam. In February, Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and more than 2,600 others arrested in Selma, Alabama, during civil rights demonstrations. Later that month, black nationalist leader Malcolm X is shot and killed at a Harlem Rally. In August, 34 people are killed, over 1,000 injured and nearly 4,000 arrested during the Watts Riots in Los Angeles. In March, Soviet cosmonaut Aleksei Leonov performs the first spacewalk. American Edward White II performs the second, but is the first American to spacewalk, in June. Influenced by rock music, particularly The Beatles, the &quot;Mod&quot; scene makes its way from London to the U.S. Fun clothes, considered revolutionary at the time, included bell bottoms, paisley prints, psychedelic colors and go-go boots. Fabrics shifted from the traditional to the unique, and included plastic, vinyl, paper, cellophane, fur and metal. False eyelashes and the rail-thin Twiggy look were also popular.
  76. 81. <ul><li>American Bandstand - Broadcast History </li></ul><ul><li>Bandstand began as a local program on WFIL-TV (now WPVI), Channel 6 in Philadelphia on October 7, 1952. Then it was hosted by Bob Horn and was called Bob Horn's Bandstand. </li></ul><ul><li>On July 9 of 1956 the show got a new host, a clean-cut 26 year old named Dick Clark. When ABC picked the show up, it was renamed American Bandstand, airing it's first national show on August 5, 1957. </li></ul><ul><li>The show was moved to Los Angeles in 1964. From 1963 to 1987 Bandstand was on only once a week, on Saturday. </li></ul><ul><li>Briefly it was part of the USA Network with new host David Hirsh but went off the air in 1989. </li></ul>
  77. 82. It's got a great beat and you can dance to it.&quot; Those immortal words came to represent the most popular feature of American Bandstand, Record Review. The formula was simple: three kids listened to three records and rated them between thirty-five and ninety-eight. A fourth teen calculated the average, often with the help of Dick Clark. The kids were usually right in their judgments, picking scores of songs that became top ten winners, demonstrating once again how their opinions counted. <ul><li>After years of glamorous teen rebels, making teen idols was one of the ideas behind the celebrity machine that Chancellor Records created in the late fifties. Two of the chosen boys, Frankie Avalon and Fabian, were white, Italian, likable, easygoing teens from the same South Philadelphia neighborhood. Avalon was Chancellor's first success. His initial releases in 1957, &quot;Cupid&quot; and &quot;Teacher's Pet,&quot; were bombs. His third release &quot;DeDe Dinah&quot; (1958), an innocuous ditty that even Avalon had no feel for, sold a million copies, and was the first of six top ten hits. Avalon soon left Philadelphia </li></ul>
  78. 83. Bob Hope <ul><li>Hope earned a fortune, gave lavishly to charity and was showered with awards, so many that he had to rent a warehouse to store them. </li></ul><ul><li>Through he said he was afraid of flying, Hope traveled countless miles to entertain servicemen in field hospitals, jungles and aircraft carriers from France to Berlin to Vietnam to the Persian Gulf. His Christmas tours became tradition. </li></ul><ul><li>He headlined in so many war zones that he had a standard joke for the times he was interrupted by gunfire: ''I wonder which one of my pictures they saw?'' </li></ul><ul><li>So often was Hope away entertaining, and so little did he see his wife, Dolores, and their four adopted children, that he once remarked, ''When I get home these days, my kids think I've been booked on a personal appearance tour.'' </li></ul><ul><li>Hope had a reputation as an ad-libber, but he kept a stable of writers and had filing cabinets full of jokes. He never let a good joke die - if it got a laugh in Vietnam, it would get a laugh in Saudi Arabia. </li></ul><ul><li>On his 100th birthday, he was too frail to take part in public celebrations, but was said to be alert and happy - and overwhelmed by the outpouring of affection. The fabled intersection of Hollywood Boulevard and Vine Street was renamed Bob Hope Square, and President Bush established the Bob Hope American Patriot Award. </li></ul>LOS ANGELES (July 28, 2003) - Bob Hope, ski-nosed master of the one-liner and favorite comedian of servicemen and presidents alike, has died, less than two months after turning 100.
  79. 84. The Road Pictures with Bing <ul><li>Bob Hope's unwavering commitment to the morale of America's servicemen and women is entertainment history, indeed, world history. Many say 'legend.' </li></ul><ul><li>For nearly six decades, be the country at war or at peace, Bob, with a band of Hollywood gypsies, has traveled the globe to entertain our service men and women. </li></ul><ul><li>The media dubbed him &quot;America's No. 1 Soldier in Greasepaint.&quot; To the GIs, he was &quot;G.I. Bob&quot; and their clown hero. It began in May 1941 when Bob, with a group of performers, went to March Field, California, to do a radio show for airmen stationed there. </li></ul><ul><li>Throughout World War II, with only two exceptions, all of Bob's radio shows were performed and aired from military bases and installations throughout the United States and theaters of war in Europe and the South Pacific. His first trip into the combat area was in 1943 when he and his small USO troupe - Frances Langford, Tony Romano, Jerry Colonna, and Jack Pepper visited US military facilities in England, Africa, Sicily and Ireland. In later years his itinerary included the South Pacific. </li></ul><ul><li>Bob began what was to become a Christmas custom in 1948. He, with wife Dolores, went to Germany at the request of then Secretary of the Air Force, Stuart Symington, to entertain the troops involved in the Berlin Airlift. </li></ul><ul><li>With the end of the Vietnam conflict in sight, Hope hailed his 1972 trip as his &quot;last Christmas show.&quot; But each Christmas that followed, he was somewhere in the country doing a show at a military base or veterans hospital. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1983 the call came from Beirut and Hope was &quot;on the road again.&quot; In 1987, Hope flew around the world to entertain servicemen and women in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans and in the Persian Gulf. </li></ul><ul><li>He embarked on a goodwill tour in May 1990 to entertain military personnel stationed in England, Russia, and Germany. At Christmas that year, he and wife Dolores, were in Saudi Arabia entertaining the men and women of &quot;Operation Desert Storm.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>1994 was a good year for Bob. His &quot;Bob Hope: The First 90 Years,&quot; produced by daughter Linda Hope, won an Emmy. And he returned to his native England for a personal appearance tour in June, commemorating the 50th anniversary of the end of World War II. </li></ul>Bob Hope Hosted the Oscars every Year but never Won one.
  80. 85. Peace Corps <ul><li>Since 1961, the Peace Corps has shared with the world America's most precious resource—its people. Peace Corps Volunteers serve in 72 countries in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, Central and South America, Europe, and the Middle East. Collaborating with local community members, Volunteers work in areas like education, youth outreach and community development, the environment, and information technology.   Coming from all walks of life and representing the rich diversity of the American people, Volunteers range in age from college students to retirees. Every Peace Corps Volunteer's experience is different. From teaching English to elementary school children in Zambia to launching a computer learning center in Moldova to promoting HIV/AIDS awareness in South Africa to working on soil conservation in Panama, Volunteers bring their skills and life experiences to where they are needed most. </li></ul>
  81. 86. Green Berets <ul><li>The first widespread use of the headgear by U.S. forces came shortly after, when a new Army organization that was specially trained for insurgency and counter guerrilla warfare began wearing a green variety in 1953. It took another eight years for the Army’s Special Forces — the “Green Berets” — to win presidential approval from John F. Kennedy to make their headgear official. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1970s, Army policy allowed local commanders to encourage morale-enhancing uniform distinctions, and the use of berets boomed. </li></ul>
  82. 87. INVASION at Bay of Pigs <ul><li>Richard M. Nixon proposed it | Dwight D. Eisenhower planned it | Robert F. Kennedy championed it | John F. Kennedy approved it | The CIA carried it out | 1,197 invaders were captured | 200 of them had been soldiers in Batista's army (14 of those were wanted for murder in Cuba) | One CIA soldier fired the first shot | A volunteer teacher was the first Cuban casualty | 4 American pilots and over 100 Cuban invaders were killed in battle | 1,400 Cuban invaders felt betrayed by their sponsor | One U.S. senator lied to the United Nations | One U.S. president was embarrassed in front of the world. April 17. </li></ul><ul><li>Cuban exiles, trained, armed and funded by the CIA, invade Cuba at Bay of Pigs (known in Cuba as Playa Girón). After three days of fighting the invading force is defeated by the Cuban army. </li></ul>
  83. 88. <ul><li>The plan included: 1) the creation of a responsible and unified Cuban opposition to the Castro regime located outside of Cuba, 2) the development of a means for mass communication to the Cuban people as part of a powerful propaganda offensive, 3) the creation and development of a covert intelligence and action organization within Cuba which would respond to the orders and directions of the exile opposition, and 4) the development of a paramilitary force outside of Cuba for future guerrilla action. These goals were to be achieved “in such a manner as to avoid the appearance of U.S. intervention.” </li></ul><ul><li>Invasion </li></ul><ul><li>The counterrevolutionary forces, known as Brigade 2506, were assembled on the west coast of Guatemala, where U.S. engineers refurbished the airport especially for the mission. On April 14 six ships sailed from Nicaragua’s Puerto Cabezas, cheered on by Nicaraguan president and U.S.-friendly dictator Luis Somoza., The Cuban government knew an invasion was coming, but could not guess exactly when or where the attack would take place. When teams of U.S. B-26 bombers began attacking four Cuban airfields simultaneously on Saturday, April 15, the Cubans were prepared. The few planes belonging to the Cuban Air Force were dispersed and camouflaged, with some obsolete, unusable planes left out to fool the attackers and draw the bombs. As part of the CIA cover story, the attacking B-26 planes were disguised to look as if they were Cuban planes flown by defecting Cuban pilots. Prior to the start of the operation, CIA operatives were sent to Cuba. Their job was to aid the invading forces by blowing up key bridges and performing other acts of terrorism that would make it appear that the people of Cuba were joining the invasion. Shortly after the attack started, </li></ul><ul><li>Ambassador Adlai Stevenson, at the United Nations, flatly rejected Cuba’s Minister of Foreign Affairs Raúl Roa’s report of the attack to the assembly, saying that the planes were from the Cuban Air Force and presenting a copy of the photograph published in the newspapers. In the photo, the plane shown has an opaque nose, whereas the model of the B-26 planes used by the Cubans had a Plexiglas nose. Stevenson was extremely embarrassed a few hours later when the truth was revealed and he learned that Kennedy had referred to him as “my official liar.” </li></ul>
  84. 89. <ul><li>Without supplies or air cover, the invading forces fell. To them, the lack of air cover was a direct betrayal. In the end, 200 rebel soldiers were killed, and 1,197 others were captured. </li></ul><ul><li>The reality,” wrote Schlesinger, “was that Fidel Castro turned out to be a far more formidable foe and in command of a far better organized regime than anyone had supposed. His patrols spotted the invasion at almost the first possible moment. His planes reacted with speed and vigor. His police eliminated any chance of sabotage or rebellion behind the lines. His soldiers stayed loyal and fought hard. He himself never panicked; and, if faults were chargeable to him, they were his overestimate of the strength of the invasion and undue caution in pressing the ground attack against the beachhead. His performance was impressive.” </li></ul><ul><li>The controversial inspector general’s report concluded that ignorance, incompetence, and arrogance on the part of the CIA was responsible for the fiasco. It criticized nearly every aspect of the CIA’s handling of the invasion: misinforming Kennedy administration officials, planning poorly, using faulty intelligence and conducting an overt military operation beyond “agency responsibility as well as agency capability.” The report added, “The agency reduced the exile leaders to the status of puppets.” </li></ul><ul><li>Aside from being at once a major victory for the Cuban Revolution and a major embarrassment for Kennedy and the CIA, the attack at the Bay of Pigs set the stage for the major confrontation between the U.S. and the Soviet Union: the missile crisis that brought the world to the brink of nuclear war. </li></ul><ul><li>In the meantime, perhaps as a result of the Bay of Pigs embarrassment, Kennedy’s obsession with eliminating Castro grew. A plan code-named “Operation Mongoose” spurred by Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, attempted to eliminate Castro by any means necessary. </li></ul>Bay of Pigs concluded
  85. 90. Cuban Missile Crisis <ul><li>Cuban missile crisis occurred in October 1962 when the United States learned that the Soviet Union had secretly installed missiles in Cuba, about 90 miles (140 kilometers) from Florida. The missiles could have been used to launch nuclear attacks on American cities. The crisis was one of the most serious incidents of the Cold War, a period of intense U.S.-Soviet rivalry that had begun after World War II ended in 1945. Most experts believe that the missile crisis brought the United States and the Soviet Union to the brink of nuclear war. </li></ul><ul><li>The Soviet Union had placed the missiles in Cuba earlier in 1962, after Cuban leaders became convinced that the United States was planning to attack Cuba. During the Cold War, Cuba was an ally of the Soviet Union. President John F. Kennedy of the United States learned of the missiles' presence on October 16 and demanded that the Soviet Union remove them. On October 22, he ordered a naval quarantine (blockade) of Cuba to stop further shipment of arms. </li></ul><ul><li>At first, the United States expected to invade Cuba to destroy the missiles. At one point, an invasion was scheduled for October 29 or October 30. Nearly all of Kennedy&a