Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Ch22 sec1&2 new2012


Published on

A look at the causes and early U.S. involvement in Vietnam War.

Designed for high school U.S. History students, from "The American Nation" textbook.

Published in: Education, Travel, Business
  • Be the first to comment

Ch22 sec1&2 new2012

  1. 1. Ch. 23 The War in Vietnam Section 1: Background to Conflict Section 2: US Involvement & EscalationInfo from American Nation textvook: Fighting photo:, Paul S., Sterling Stuckey, and RinehartHolt. "Vietnam War." The American nation: Civil %27s_UH-1D.jpg/300px-Bruce_Crandall%27s_UH-1D.jpgWar to present. Annotated teachers ed. Austin, Map photo: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2001. Ch23. HoCMT.pngPrint.
  2. 2. Causes of the War Vietnams desire for freedom : After WWII, France reclaimed Vietnam as a colony. The Communist Vietminh fought against the French. The Domino Theory : The U.S. believed if the Communists took over Vietnam, communism would spread throughout Southeast Asia. South Vietnam fails to comply with Geneva Accords : After French rule ended in 1954, elections to unify Vietnam under one rule were set for 1956. However, the leader of South Vietnam refused to hold them. North Vietnam attempts to unite country under Communist rule : In 1959, North Vietnam began sending weapons to Vietminh in the south in hopes of uniting the country under Communist rule. U.S. supports anti-communist South Vietnam : The United States began to send South Vietnam military advisers and troops.
  3. 3. French Rule in Vietnam Vietnam had been a French colony for almost a 100 years. During WWII Japan invaded Vietnam and took it over. After WWII the French attempted to regain control over Vietnam but was met with resistance from Ho Chi Minh, a communist leader of the Vietminh, also called the Vietnamese Nationalists. _Minh_1946_cropped.jpg
  4. 4. French vs. Vietminh  The Vietminh were based in the north and fought against the French who were based in the south.  The U.S. backed the French with money and supplies because Eisenhower feared domino theory.  The French were ousted out of Vietnam in May 1954 when they were overran at Dien Bien Phu. hu002.jpg/800px-Dien_Bien_Phu002.jpg
  5. 5. Geneva Accords The Vietminh and Vietnamese nationalists (non- communists) negotiated the Geneva Accords:  temporarily split Vietnam at the 17th parallel  planned a national election in 1956 to determine the government of Vietnam The Vietminh (communist) were based in the north while the Nationalists (non-communist) were based in the south. Ngo Dinh Diem, the president of South Vietnam, canceled the elections; the US, afraid of the communists gaining control of all of Vietnam, backed Diem.
  6. 6. Ho Chi Minh Trail Due to Diem’s harsh government a communist rebel group formed in South Vietnam (Vietcong) to oppose Diem. Ho Chi Minh supported the Vietcong by sending them supplies along the Ho Chi Minh Trail. umb/c/cd/HoCMT.png/365px-HoCMT.png
  7. 7. of a Buddhist monk setting himself on fire in public toprotest Diem’s government.Even though Diem grew more and more unpopular in SouthVietnam the US continued to back him; until Nov. 1, 1963 aUS backed military coup executed him.
  8. 8. Vietnamese Leaders  Ho Chi Minh  Ngo Dinh Diem  Communist  Anti-communist  North Vietnam  South Vietnam  Totalitarian  Unpopular because  Popular because he seen as corrupt, brutal gave land to peasants and favored wealthy.  Supported Viet Cong  Refused to partake in in South Vietnam. 1956 nationwide election. a/commons/9/9b/Ngo_Dinh_Diem_-hi_Minh_1946_cropped.jpg _Thumbnail_-_ARC_542189.gif
  9. 9. Gulf of Tonkin Incident  In 1964 the U.S.S Destroyer Maddox was operating in waters off the coast of North Vietnam and reported being under attack.  President Johnson took this opportunity to ask Congress to give him the power to escalate the war in Vietnam. 4/MaddoxTonkin1.svg/608px-MaddoxTonkin1.svg.png
  10. 10. Gulf of Tonkin IncidentBritannica Encylopndia, ‘Gulf of Tonkin Resolution’, from on May 10, 2012.
  11. 11. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Congress passed the Tonkin Gulf Resolution on August 7, 1964; which gave Johnson broad military powers in Vietnam. With the advice of his advisors Robert McNamara Robert McNamara and Dean Rusk official_portrait.jpg/480px-Robert_McNamara_official_portrait.jpg president Johnson decided to escalate the war and began sending large numbers of American troops to Vietnam. The 3 men together %2C_Lyndon_B._Johnson_and_Robert_McNamara_in_Cabinet_Room_meeting_February_1968.jpg /250px-Dean_Rusk %2C_Lyndon_B._Johnson_and_Robert_McNamara_in_Cabinet_Room_meeting_February_1968.jpg
  12. 12. The war escalates… In 1965, over 61% of Americans favored escalation of the war and by the end of 1965 180,000 US soldiers were in Vietnam General William Westmoreland, leader of American forces in Vietnam, was unimpressed by the South Vietnamese allies and continually asked for more troops. By 1967 there were over 500,000 US soldiers in Vietnam. humb/9/94/Gen_William_C_Westmoreland.jpg/4 80px-Gen_William_C_Westmoreland.jpg
  13. 13. U.S. Involvement in Vietnam: • Domino Theory; aided French forces at regaining control after WWII.Eisenhower • Began sending money and weapons to South Vietnam • Military advisors sent to train South Vietnamese army • Believed in the Domino Theory • Increased the number of military advisors and army special forces,Kennedy or Green Berets • Advisors were not to take part in combat, but many did • Believed an expanded U.S. effort was the only way to prevent aJohnson Communist victory in Vietnam • Asked Congress to pass the Tonkin Gulf Resolution • Escalated war by sending more troops
  14. 14. War in the Jungle The US believed its superior weaponry would lead to victory in Vietnam but the jungle terrain and guerrilla tactics used by the enemy turned the war into a frustrating stalemate. They used booby traps, land mines and even American weapons against them. The Vietcong used hit-and-run tactics and were interspersed amongst the civilian population making it hard for 110612-M-EV637-065.jpg/800px-110612-M-EV637-065.jpg American’s to determine friend from foe.
  15. 15. Tunnels  The Vietcong added to their elusiveness by constructing elaborate tunnels that they could use to launch surprise attacks and then quickly disappear. They could eat, sleep, store weapons, and treat their wounded in the tunnels.
  16. 16. Tunnel Rats and VC, ‘’Tunnel Rats in Vietnam War’’, from on May 10, 2012.
  17. 17. U.S. weaponry and techniques Westmoreland believed that the superior weapons and manpower the US possessed would make the communists crumble. The communists continued to suffer and resist and were willing to fight to the last to obtain their freedom. Americans also tried to win the “hearts and minds” of the rural population but their tactics to combat the Vietcong included the use of napalm and Agent Orange which left the countryside in ruins. US soldiers also conducted Search-and-Destroy missions which destroyed villages suspected of ties to the Vietcong.
  18. 18. NapalmA gasoline based bomb that set fire to the jungle
  19. 19. Agent Orange  a chemical defoliant used by the US.  It was later found to be toxic and to cause many deaths and birth defects.
  20. 20. Search & Destroy Mission Click the Link Below to watch a movie on Search and Destroy missions in Vietnam: “Search and Destroy.” 2012. The History Channel website. May 10 2012, 6:44
  21. 21. The Soldiers As the war continues soldiers became disillusioned with the war effort and morale declined a lot. Many soldiers turned to alcohol, marijuana, or other drugs Some soldiers even resorted to “fragging” their superior officers.  killing them in the heat of the battle with a fragmentation grenade. king_house_during_patrol.jpg
  22. 22. The Early War at Home The high cost of the war led to a decline in the economy and the lack of funds to continue the Great Society programs President Johnson had initiated. Johnson and military personnel continually told the American public that the war was going well. A credibility gap developed between what Johnson said about the war and what the public began to believe based on the gruesome images of US soldiers in body bags that they saw on the nightly news.
  23. 23. Ch 22 Sec 1&2 Assignment Take out a sheet of paper and answer the following:  1. Evaluate why you believe soldier morale dropped steadily as the Vietnam War dragged on. Use 3 specific examples from Ch 22 Sec 1&2 to back up your argument.  2. Assess the United States military tactics in fighting the Vietnam War. What could they have done differently?