APUSH 1950s Culture Society


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APUSH 1950s Culture Society

  1. 1. Social and Culture of the 1950s
  2. 2. Politics <ul><li>Era of prosperity and growth- Modern Republicanism of Ike leads to much of this prosperity and change </li></ul><ul><li>Concensus Era- what does this mean? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Republicans no longer bent on destroying New Deal Liberalism </li></ul><ul><li>Actually expands the welfare state </li></ul><ul><ul><li>extended SS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dept of Health, Education and Welfare headed by Oveta Culp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>polio vaccine by Jonas Salk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interstate Highway System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opens St. Lawrence Seaway in 1959 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atomic Energy Act 1954- research use of nuclear energy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Does keep a small role over widesweeping changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tax cuts to wealthy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>smaller defense budget/balance budget </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>education overlooked until National Defense Education Act 1958 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil Rights avoided </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Economics <ul><li>Economy grows steadily with small recession in 1957 </li></ul><ul><li>Inflation remains under control under Eisenhower </li></ul><ul><li>Service Sector and women’s employment grows as farming (low prices on goods) and factory work dies down with higher levels of mechanization (less workers) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes half the hours to make a car, meaning less workers are needed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Corporations grow/profits grow </li></ul><ul><li>Labor Unions enjoy success with he merger of the AFL and CIO to increase bargaining power-BUT ultimately DECLINE! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial wages rise 40% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>membership down because of shift to service sector (No Unions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress of individualism against collective action (communist like) of strikes of unions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Move of industries to the South and West means a shift of the population to the SW </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arizona becomes 50 th State in 1958 with population boom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>California most populous state over NY!! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defense industries move (Gunbelt) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1/3 of AA’s who leave South go SW (Cali gets largest pop) for industry jobs </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Society of the 1950s <ul><ul><li>Focus on achieving middle class standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Baby Boom: 152 mill in 1950, 180 million in 1960 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2% Divorce rate by 1959 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>80% homes had a television, wash machine, refrigerator by 1960 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(TV in 1923 by Vladimer Zworykin) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>25% of people live in suburbs by 1960 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>11 of 13 million new homes in suburbs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Levittown in NY - William Levitt (began by Philo T. Farnsworth patent in 1927) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parks, playgrounds, libraries, sidewalks, driveways </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interstate Highway Act 1956 (auto & gas taxes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kills urban centers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education- GI Bill sends 2 million to college, $ to schools to defense education (NEDA-1958) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1940: 1.5 mil, in college, 1960- 3.6 mil, 40% of young americans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AA- 5% of pop in 1960 (37,000 to 90,000) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women- 33% by 1960 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement to the sunbelt - CA, AZ, TX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>African-Americans move to cities, whites to suburbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women and rise of domesticity in reaction to uncertainty of CW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Betty Friedan The Feminine Mystique 1963- attacks women’s role, equal to en, should not be simply servers! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. 1950s Culture <ul><li>Religion: Increase in church membership: up to 63% by 1960 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-In God we Trust on money by 1955, “Under God” by 1954 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Culture of Abundance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GDP and family income raised by 25% in decade, 60% middle class, 20% poverty, desire to be middle class </li></ul></ul><ul><li>television </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I Love Lucy, Mickey Mouse Club, Honeymooners, Howdy Doody Time, Leave it to Beaver… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Movies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>James Dean (Rebel without a Cause), Marilyn Monroe, Elizabeth Taylor, Marlon Brando </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sandra Dee, Rock Hudson, Doris Day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Art & Literature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paul Jackson Pollack - abstract expressionist, painter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hugh Hefner - Playboy in 1953 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beat Generation- reject materialism, social restraints, sexual repression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alfred Kinsey - Sexual Behavior in the Human Male (male 1947, female 1953) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allen Ginsberg - HOWL poetry on what frightens him in USA (bombs, suburbs…) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jack Kerouac - On The Road influence people to do their own thing, be passionate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>David Riesman - The Lonely Crowd looked at lack of independent thinking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sloan Wilson- Man in the Grey Flannel Suit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dr. Spock - common sense book to raise children </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elvis Presley, Chubby Checker, Frankie Avalon, Fabian, Paul Anka, Bobby Darren,… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cool Toys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Silly putty, slinky, Hula Hoop, matchbox cars, Etch-A-Sketch, Lego, Barbie </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jonas Salk - Polio vaccine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sputnik launched by Soviet Union 1957 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1956 first solar powered wrist watch invented </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elvis Presley, Chubby Checker, Frankie Avalon, Fabian, Paul Anka, Bobby Darren,… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cool Toys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Silly putty, slinky, Hula Hoop, matchbox cars, Etch-A-Sketch, Lego, Barbie </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jonas Salk - Polio vaccine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sputnik launched by Soviet Union 1957 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1956 first solar powered wrist watch invented </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Native American Society <ul><li>What to do with the Indians? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>USA trend was to desegregate so… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Termination Policy of 1953 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Goal was to give Indians same rights and responsibilities as other Americans. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To end federal responsibility of the Indians </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two challenges Indians will be faced with the termination policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First, Indians were required to vote if they wanted their tribe to be terminated (they would lose their name,identity, federal aid like schools, free electricity…) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The tribes would have 7-15 years to terminate / prepare </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tribes were offered money for their land based on the available resources, so you can see the problem - an Indian voting yes to get $80,000 cash. Indians didn’t use banks… what do you do with no home no land, and a paper bag with $80,000? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Klamath, Oregon & Menomenie, Wisconsin two of the first to accept - FAILED! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Second, Indians offered to move to cities to work, shown pictures of suburbs (TV, fridge, parks, … but they were relocated to cities not suburbs) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indians away from family, homeland, not used to phones, city slums - FAILED! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1961 Indians fight to stop termination and Menomenie (1972), Klamath (1988) fight for 11 - 27 years to get their tribal names legally back. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. 1950s Civil Rights Movement <ul><li>Emmett Till murder - 1954 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>14 year old boy leaves Chicago to visit grandpa in Mississippi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Witness say he whistle at white woman at Bryant’s Grocery & Meat Market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emmett’s body missing an ear, bullet through head, he’s found attached to a 75 pound cotton gin industrial fan drowned in the Tallahatchie River </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roy Bryant & J. W. Milam charged with murder… found not guilty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brown versus Board of Education - 1954 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linda Brown walked 1 mile to school, case to go to white school blocks from her house </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NAACP and Thurgood Marshal make the case - overturn Plessy versus Ferguson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chief Justice Earl Warren rule education were inherently unequal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Montgomery Bus Boycott - December 1955 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rosa Parks refusal to give seat on bus up to a man </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to Montgomery Bus Boycott - Martin Luther King Jr. of SCLC leads (also CORE, NAACP) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Little Rock, Arkansas - 1957 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Governor Orval Faubus sends Arkansas national guard to protect (deny) 9 AA students from entering an all white school. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ike tales over National Guard to allow students into the school, brings in 101st Army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9 students - Minnijean Brown, Elizabeth Ekford, Melba Beals , Earnie Green, Terrence Roberts, Jefferson Thomas, Thelma Mothershed, Carlotta Walls, Gloria Ray. </li></ul></ul>