GWC14: Teresa colombi - "Psychological basis of gamification" (gHealth workshop)

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Presentation from Teresa Colombi's talk at gamification education workshop in Gamification World Congress 2014

Presentation from Teresa Colombi's talk at gamification education workshop in Gamification World Congress 2014

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  • 1. Psychological basis of Gamification: how to use motivation and persuasion techniques to influence human behaviour T. COLOMBI 05/24/2014
  • 2. 1. Why we play games? 2. Psychology of the player 3. Psychological mechanism: the basics of motivation 4. How to implement gamification Overview
  • 3. Why Psychology Motivation How Why we play games?  First Human activity  Innate activity  Playing is a really serious activity for a baby  Playing is the best way to discover the world and learn
  • 4. Why Psychology Motivation How … finally, what is a game? Everything can be a game if:  there is a system of rules, understood by the user  the user has an objective and some means to achieve it  it is adapted to his/her characteristics/skills  there is a “challenge”  there is a good “flow” TODAY OBJECTIVE: Treat at least 12 cases Yesterday score: 11 in 7h Total points: 321 2 3
  • 5. Why Psychology Motivation How The power of “playing”: an example Washburn (2003) Experience Game 20% of H 80% of X Such a small difference can generate significant consequences related to the playful situation  gamification is always possible
  • 6. Why Psychology Motivation How How to keep the user in the good “flow”  Clear objectives  Immediate feedback after the actions  Good trade-off skills/challenge  Good knowledge of rules and User Interface Results:  frustrations of everyday life are forgotten  loss of self-consciousness, distortion of time perception  Great user experience Csikszentmihalyi (1975)
  • 7. 1. Why we play games? 2. Psychology of the player 3. Psychological mechanism: the basics of motivation 4. How to implement gamification Overview
  • 8. Why Psychology Motivation How Several reasons: To change his/her mind Why we want to play
  • 9. Why Psychology Motivation How Several reasons: To test their own limits Why we want to play
  • 10. Why Psychology Motivation How Several reasons: To learn something new Why we want to play
  • 11. Why Psychology Motivation How Several reasons: To exchange and cooperate Why we want to play
  • 12. Why Psychology Motivation How Each user is sensible to one or more these aspects, but in any case we learn a lot from playing:  organisation  planification & strategy  self-respect  trials and failures  collaboration  ... From a business and/or a pedagogical point of view, it is useful that people play games! Psychology behind the behaviour
  • 13. Why Psychology Motivation How PEOPLE LOVE TO PLAY GAMES … so, Gamification can be a great tool! + IT IS USEFUL THAT PEOPLE PLAY GAMES + VIRTUALLY ALL MAY BE CONVERTED INTO A GAME = GAMIFICATION
  • 14. Why Psychology Motivation How Through fun and pleasure, the gamified product aims to :  deliver a message/knowledge  change users opinion  influence users behaviors (shopping…) The frontier between gamification and persuasion (and even manipulation) is often thin… Use gamification with caution and under a psychologist supervision! The final aim of gamification POSSIBLE MANIPULATION
  • 15. Why Psychology Motivation How Gamification is a mean to increase the persuasion, which is the ability  to get someone to be convinced of something, to believe something  to get someone to do or to want to do something Gamification and persuasion “Positive/good persuasion” = the final goal is profitable for the user (learn, achieve goals, improve skills…) “Negative persuasion” or Manipulation = the final goal is profitable only for the source, which exercises control and influence user’s attitudes and behaviors
  • 16. Why Psychology Motivation How  Reciprocity ○ If you give, you will obtain something back  Commitment and Consistency ○ If the user say “yes” now, he/she will be consistent in the future  Social Proof ○ If other people do that, I should do it (consensus)  Authority ○ if the source is respected / known, it deserves to be heard  Liking ○ if my friends join/like/do, I should do it too  Scarcity ○ if it is rare, it's worth Cialdini’s key principles of persuasion
  • 17. 1. Why we play games? 2. Psychology of the player 3. Psychological mechanism: the basics of motivation 4. How to implement gamification Overview
  • 18. Why Psychology Motivation How The “fuel” of gamification is the human motivation. Several ways exist to motivate the users, for example show them:  that they have something new to discover  a challenge to face  the way to create a social link with other users  the possibility to obtain something very special and customised  … Gamification is all about motivation MOTIVATION Try to raise internal motivation (I do it for myself) rather that external ones (I do it to have a reward), for a better engagement
  • 19. Why Psychology Motivation How Several mechanisms possible:  create a “scenario” (characters, goal, situations…)  let the user be “someone else”  mark clearly the user’s progression and path to guide him/her  put enigmas and difficulties on the path  Unlock contents/bonus according to the progression Useful in Health for :  better empathy with patients and understanding of contexts  good anticipation of critical situations Create an interest: discover
  • 20. Why Psychology Motivation How Several mechanisms possible to stimulate competition and achievement:  scores  badges  leaderboards  Challenges and rewards Useful in Health for :  better performances  task needing optimal reaction time Create an interest: challenge
  • 21. Why Psychology Motivation How Several mechanisms possible:  emulation/copying other’s behaviour  reward the information sharing and cooperation  challenges solvable only in group, with different skills Useful in Health for :  team building  clear team member tasks and objectives  develop respect for the others (colleagues and patients) Create an interest: social link
  • 22. Why Psychology Motivation How Several mechanisms possible:  choose characters, goals, paths, options…  customise the interface  give different feedbacks according to user’s choices, parameters and setting Useful in Health for :  try different solutions and understand interpersonal differences  better anticipate the results related to interpersonal differences Create an interest: customisation
  • 23. 1. Why we play games? 2. Psychology of the player 3. Psychological mechanism: the basics of motivation 4. How to implement gamification Overview
  • 24. Why Psychology Motivation How Motivation is a necessary ingredient for a great user experience in a gamified product, as the need to have the good abilities and skills to succeed Ok, we have fuel. But how to start the engine? Activation threshold Here triggers work! But Fogg’s behaviour model emphasizes the need for triggers
  • 25. Why Psychology Motivation How To gamify something in the right way, first of all it is necessary to understand what is wrong about  Motivations ○ The user has understood the importance of this application? How to improve the engagement?  User’s abilities ○ The user has all the required skills? The app can be simplified (smaller and simpler tasks)?  Triggers ○ The user is aware of them? He/she understand them? Right time/place? The problem can be also related to the user’s journey in the product Understand when something is wrong
  • 26. Why Psychology Motivation How User experience and user’s journey Novice Expert Master
  • 27. Any question? Teresa Colombi teresa@ludo-tic.com @colombi_teX Thank you and see you in the workshop 