Crowded Coasts – An introduction <ul><li>Understand that geology affects a coast’s topography and relief </li></ul><ul><li...
Starter <ul><li>Key Questions to consider: </li></ul><ul><li>Why do coasts vary so much? </li></ul><ul><li>What are they u...
Mangrove Coastline
Mangrove Coastline <ul><li>Low trees and shrubs with dense roots that grow in the marginal tidal zones between TROPICAL se...
Tropical Coastline
Salt Marsh coasts
Salt Marsh <ul><li>Defined as the vegetation that occurs on muddy shores between mean high water neap and extreme high wat...
Mudflats
Polar Coastline
Sand Dunes
Reef Coastline
Reef Coastline <ul><li>Great Barrier Reef in Australia is 1500km long and comprises of 2900 different reefs </li></ul><ul>...
Desert Coastline
The British Seaside?
What is a coast? <ul><li>‘ that part of the land most affected by its proximity to the sea and that part of the ocean most...
<ul><li>The Coast is the narrow zone where the land overlaps the sea and interacts </li></ul><ul><li>It is affected by Ter...
The Coastal Zone
The Importance of Coastal Environments <ul><li>The Coastal zone is an  interface  between the sea and the land. Where the ...
Factors influencing coasts The Nature of Coasts <ul><li>Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal (marine) ecosystems </li></ul><ul><l...
Did you know? <ul><li>3 billion people live within 100km of the coast </li></ul><ul><li>Two thirds of our largest cities a...
<ul><li>Coastal ecosystems are coming under constant pressure from human activities </li></ul><ul><li>There is constant co...
THE FACTORS
Waves <ul><li>Created by the transfer of energy from the wind blowing over the surface of the sea. </li></ul>
Tsunamis <ul><li>Are created not by the wind but by submarine shock waves generated by earthquakes or volcanic activity. <...
<ul><li>With waves the greater the wind the greater the  frictional drag  and therefore the size of wave </li></ul><ul><li...
Wave Energy <ul><li>Wind velocity </li></ul><ul><li>Period of time the wind has blown </li></ul><ul><li>Length of the  fet...
Exercise 1. <ul><li>On a map of the UK find areas which have the biggest  fetch </li></ul>
Wave terminology <ul><li>CREST  </li></ul><ul><li>TROUGH </li></ul><ul><li>WAVE PERIOD </li></ul><ul><li>LENGTH </li></ul>...
<ul><li>CREST – Highest point of the wave </li></ul><ul><li>TROUGH </li></ul><ul><li>WAVE PERIOD </li></ul><ul><li>LENGTH ...
<ul><li>CREST – Highest point of the wave </li></ul><ul><li>TROUGH – lowest point of the wave </li></ul><ul><li>WAVE PERIO...
<ul><li>CREST – Highest point of the wave </li></ul><ul><li>TROUGH – lowest point of the wave </li></ul><ul><li>WAVE PERIO...
<ul><li>CREST – Highest point of the wave </li></ul><ul><li>TROUGH – lowest point of the wave </li></ul><ul><li>WAVE PERIO...
<ul><li>CREST – Highest point of the wave </li></ul><ul><li>TROUGH – lowest point of the wave </li></ul><ul><li>WAVE PERIO...
<ul><li>CREST – Highest point of the wave </li></ul><ul><li>TROUGH – lowest point of the wave </li></ul><ul><li>WAVE PERIO...
<ul><li>CREST – Highest point of the wave </li></ul><ul><li>TROUGH – lowest point of the wave </li></ul><ul><li>WAVE PERIO...
<ul><li>CREST – Highest point of the wave </li></ul><ul><li>TROUGH – lowest point of the wave </li></ul><ul><li>WAVE PERIO...
 
World map – coastal hotspots?
Types of coasts? <ul><li>Trade Coasts? </li></ul><ul><li>Recreation coasts? </li></ul><ul><li>Residential coasts? </li></u...
High Value coastal environments? <ul><li>Exercise 3: Identify the features, opportunities, value and pressures for each of...
Exercise 4 <ul><li>Annotate photo to identify  </li></ul><ul><li>Physical features </li></ul><ul><li>Human features </li><...
So... <ul><li>As you can see there are many different forms of coasts and they vary enormously. </li></ul><ul><li>In group...
Finally <ul><li>Using your textbooks look at some of the places and answer these questions below: </li></ul><ul><li>Physic...
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Crowded Coasts

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Introduction to AS Edexcel crowded coasts with lots of info on things like mangroves, salt marshes, reefs, population amonst other stuff with some extras in it, I have altered this from one I got from the NING site

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Crowded Coasts

  1. 1. Crowded Coasts – An introduction <ul><li>Understand that geology affects a coast’s topography and relief </li></ul><ul><li>Draw spider diagrams to show how coasts vary physically, and the variety of human uses of coasts </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that coastal populations are increasing worldwide </li></ul>
  2. 2. Starter <ul><li>Key Questions to consider: </li></ul><ul><li>Why do coasts vary so much? </li></ul><ul><li>What are they used for? </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Mangrove Coastline
  4. 4. Mangrove Coastline <ul><li>Low trees and shrubs with dense roots that grow in the marginal tidal zones between TROPICAL seas and land. </li></ul><ul><li>Adapted to area due to thick waxy leaves which conserve water by reducing transpiration during low tide. </li></ul><ul><li>Roots anchor into mudflats </li></ul><ul><li>Salt tolerant ‘halophytes’ </li></ul><ul><li>Protects against storm surges and tsunamis </li></ul>
  5. 5. Tropical Coastline
  6. 6. Salt Marsh coasts
  7. 7. Salt Marsh <ul><li>Defined as the vegetation that occurs on muddy shores between mean high water neap and extreme high water spring tides, form on the shore due to a lack of wave action and the tide. </li></ul><ul><li>Incoming tide moves across the sheltered shore bringing sediment and detritus, the lack of wave action results in this material settling out at slack water </li></ul><ul><li>Accretion takes place; sediment builds up forming soil and can even raise the level of mud. </li></ul><ul><li>Abiotic Factors : (Non Living) </li></ul><ul><li>Saline Mud/Soil : Seawater deposits salts (solutes) in the sediment. Causing problems for plants growing </li></ul><ul><li>Waterlogged Soil: The air spaces within the soil are filled with water rather than air. Roots need oxygen for respiration as much as other parts of the plant. Long-term waterlogging creates an anaerobic condition of black mud. Which is toxic to plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Drag and Scour: The tidal movement across the surface causes a sideways drag on the plant. With two tides a day this will possibly uproot the plants. The water contains sediment like sand and mud particles and this will scour the plants like being buffed with sandpaper. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Mudflats
  9. 9. Polar Coastline
  10. 10. Sand Dunes
  11. 11. Reef Coastline
  12. 12. Reef Coastline <ul><li>Great Barrier Reef in Australia is 1500km long and comprises of 2900 different reefs </li></ul><ul><li>3 types of reef: Fringe, barrier reefs and atolls. Charles Darwin first found these three </li></ul><ul><li>Helps dissipate wave energy </li></ul><ul><li>Fragile and open to exploitation </li></ul>
  13. 13. Desert Coastline
  14. 14. The British Seaside?
  15. 15. What is a coast? <ul><li>‘ that part of the land most affected by its proximity to the sea and that part of the ocean most affected by its proximity to the land ’ </li></ul><ul><li>It’s called the ‘ Zone of Transition ’ </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>The Coast is the narrow zone where the land overlaps the sea and interacts </li></ul><ul><li>It is affected by Terrestrial, Human, marine and Atmospheric processes and their relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the most varied and rapidly changing of all landforms and ecosystems. </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Coastal Zone
  18. 18. The Importance of Coastal Environments <ul><li>The Coastal zone is an interface between the sea and the land. Where the marine and terrestrial processes combine to produce a variety of changing landforms. </li></ul><ul><li>Coasts suffer from rapid erosion and flooding thus can threaten lives and property. </li></ul><ul><li>Changes to coastlines are both short term (eg Storms) and long term (Rising sea levels) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Factors influencing coasts The Nature of Coasts <ul><li>Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal (marine) ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>Wave energy and direction </li></ul><ul><li>size and type of waves </li></ul><ul><li>Local currents and LSD </li></ul><ul><li>Tidal changes </li></ul><ul><li>Water depth </li></ul><ul><li>Offshore sediments </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term changes in sea level </li></ul><ul><li>Land </li></ul><ul><li>Shape of the coastline </li></ul><ul><li>Relief </li></ul><ul><li>Presence or lack of beach </li></ul><ul><li>Structure of the coast </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance of the rocks </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-aerial processes </li></ul><ul><li>River sediments </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal (land) ecosystems) </li></ul><ul><li>Weather and Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Wind strength and direction </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfall and temp </li></ul><ul><li>Storms and surges </li></ul><ul><li>Human activities </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention in natural ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>Use of land for development </li></ul><ul><li>Exploitation of resources </li></ul>
  20. 20. Did you know? <ul><li>3 billion people live within 100km of the coast </li></ul><ul><li>Two thirds of our largest cities are within 60km of the sea </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal population densities are usually 80 people/km2 – 50% more than inland areas </li></ul><ul><li>These can rise up to 1000+ in the Nile and Ganges Deltas </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Coastal ecosystems are coming under constant pressure from human activities </li></ul><ul><li>There is constant competition for it’s natural resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal management is becoming a major issue </li></ul><ul><li>Human intervention has lead to unexpected impacts </li></ul><ul><li>With human development and global warming demands will increase so need for management, particularly sustainable management strategies are needed. </li></ul>
  22. 22. THE FACTORS
  23. 23. Waves <ul><li>Created by the transfer of energy from the wind blowing over the surface of the sea. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Tsunamis <ul><li>Are created not by the wind but by submarine shock waves generated by earthquakes or volcanic activity. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>With waves the greater the wind the greater the frictional drag and therefore the size of wave </li></ul><ul><li>Those that travel short distances and are the result of local waves are seen as sea waves </li></ul><ul><li>Those that are formed from distant storms and travel large distances are known as swell . </li></ul>
  26. 26. Wave Energy <ul><li>Wind velocity </li></ul><ul><li>Period of time the wind has blown </li></ul><ul><li>Length of the fetch </li></ul>
  27. 27. Exercise 1. <ul><li>On a map of the UK find areas which have the biggest fetch </li></ul>
  28. 28. Wave terminology <ul><li>CREST </li></ul><ul><li>TROUGH </li></ul><ul><li>WAVE PERIOD </li></ul><ul><li>LENGTH </li></ul><ul><li>VELOCITY </li></ul><ul><li>STEEPNESS </li></ul><ul><li>ENERGY </li></ul><ul><li>SWELL </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>CREST – Highest point of the wave </li></ul><ul><li>TROUGH </li></ul><ul><li>WAVE PERIOD </li></ul><ul><li>LENGTH </li></ul><ul><li>VELOCITY </li></ul><ul><li>STEEPNESS </li></ul><ul><li>ENERGY </li></ul><ul><li>SWELL </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>CREST – Highest point of the wave </li></ul><ul><li>TROUGH – lowest point of the wave </li></ul><ul><li>WAVE PERIOD </li></ul><ul><li>LENGTH </li></ul><ul><li>VELOCITY </li></ul><ul><li>STEEPNESS </li></ul><ul><li>ENERGY </li></ul><ul><li>SWELL </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>CREST – Highest point of the wave </li></ul><ul><li>TROUGH – lowest point of the wave </li></ul><ul><li>WAVE PERIOD – Time taken for wave to travel one wave length </li></ul><ul><li>LENGTH - </li></ul><ul><li>VELOCITY </li></ul><ul><li>STEEPNESS </li></ul><ul><li>ENERGY </li></ul><ul><li>SWELL </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>CREST – Highest point of the wave </li></ul><ul><li>TROUGH – lowest point of the wave </li></ul><ul><li>WAVE PERIOD – (T) Time taken for wave to travel one wave length </li></ul><ul><li>LENGTH – (L) Distance between two successive waves </li></ul><ul><li>VELOCITY - </li></ul><ul><li>STEEPNESS </li></ul><ul><li>ENERGY </li></ul><ul><li>SWELL </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>CREST – Highest point of the wave </li></ul><ul><li>TROUGH – lowest point of the wave </li></ul><ul><li>WAVE PERIOD – (T) Time taken for wave to travel one wave length </li></ul><ul><li>LENGTH – (L) Distance between two successive waves </li></ul><ul><li>VELOCITY – (C) speed of movement of a crest in a given period of time </li></ul><ul><li>STEEPNESS - </li></ul><ul><li>ENERGY </li></ul><ul><li>SWELL </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>CREST – Highest point of the wave </li></ul><ul><li>TROUGH – lowest point of the wave </li></ul><ul><li>WAVE PERIOD – (T) Time taken for wave to travel one wave length </li></ul><ul><li>LENGTH – (L) Distance between two successive waves </li></ul><ul><li>VELOCITY – (C) speed of movement of a crest in a given period of time </li></ul><ul><li>STEEPNESS – (H/L) ratio of wave height divided by length it can not exceed 1:7 (0.14) as it will break </li></ul><ul><li>ENERGY </li></ul><ul><li>SWELL </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>CREST – Highest point of the wave </li></ul><ul><li>TROUGH – lowest point of the wave </li></ul><ul><li>WAVE PERIOD – (T) Time taken for wave to travel one wave length </li></ul><ul><li>LENGTH – (L) Distance between two successive waves </li></ul><ul><li>VELOCITY – (C) speed of movement of a crest in a given period of time </li></ul><ul><li>STEEPNESS – (H/L) ratio of wave height divided by length it can not exceed 1:7 (0.14) as it will break </li></ul><ul><li>ENERGY – (E) expressed as E~ (Is proportional to) LH2 </li></ul><ul><li>SWELL – </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>CREST – Highest point of the wave </li></ul><ul><li>TROUGH – lowest point of the wave </li></ul><ul><li>WAVE PERIOD – (T) Time taken for wave to travel one wave length </li></ul><ul><li>LENGTH – (L) Distance between two successive waves </li></ul><ul><li>VELOCITY – (C) speed of movement of a crest in a given period of time </li></ul><ul><li>STEEPNESS – (H/L) ratio of wave height divided by length it can not exceed 1:7 (0.14) as it will break </li></ul><ul><li>ENERGY – (E) expressed as E~ (Is proportional to) LH2 </li></ul><ul><li>SWELL – have low height, gentle steepness and long wave length </li></ul>
  37. 38. World map – coastal hotspots?
  38. 39. Types of coasts? <ul><li>Trade Coasts? </li></ul><ul><li>Recreation coasts? </li></ul><ul><li>Residential coasts? </li></ul><ul><li>Resource coasts? </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise 2: Complete a table with examples of each </li></ul>
  39. 40. High Value coastal environments? <ul><li>Exercise 3: Identify the features, opportunities, value and pressures for each of the following: </li></ul>Mangroves Reefs Salt Marshes
  40. 41. Exercise 4 <ul><li>Annotate photo to identify </li></ul><ul><li>Physical features </li></ul><ul><li>Human features </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Threats/pressure </li></ul>
  41. 42. So... <ul><li>As you can see there are many different forms of coasts and they vary enormously. </li></ul><ul><li>In groups define the benefits for differing regions in terms of geology and relief that an area may possess and see if you can think of examples from your own ideas. </li></ul>
  42. 43. Finally <ul><li>Using your textbooks look at some of the places and answer these questions below: </li></ul><ul><li>Physical features (use the words topography, geology, relief). How have these affected the coast? </li></ul><ul><li>its human activities (e.g. industry, tourism, port)/ What were the reasons for these activities developing here? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the possible futures for these areas? </li></ul>
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