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Introduction to AS Edexcel crowded coasts with lots of info on things like mangroves, salt marshes, reefs, population amonst other stuff with some extras in it, I have altered this from one I got from …

Introduction to AS Edexcel crowded coasts with lots of info on things like mangroves, salt marshes, reefs, population amonst other stuff with some extras in it, I have altered this from one I got from the NING site

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  • 1. Crowded Coasts – An introduction
    • Understand that geology affects a coast’s topography and relief
    • Draw spider diagrams to show how coasts vary physically, and the variety of human uses of coasts
    • Understand that coastal populations are increasing worldwide
  • 2. Starter
    • Key Questions to consider:
    • Why do coasts vary so much?
    • What are they used for?
    • Why?
  • 3. Mangrove Coastline
  • 4. Mangrove Coastline
    • Low trees and shrubs with dense roots that grow in the marginal tidal zones between TROPICAL seas and land.
    • Adapted to area due to thick waxy leaves which conserve water by reducing transpiration during low tide.
    • Roots anchor into mudflats
    • Salt tolerant ‘halophytes’
    • Protects against storm surges and tsunamis
  • 5. Tropical Coastline
  • 6. Salt Marsh coasts
  • 7. Salt Marsh
    • Defined as the vegetation that occurs on muddy shores between mean high water neap and extreme high water spring tides, form on the shore due to a lack of wave action and the tide.
    • Incoming tide moves across the sheltered shore bringing sediment and detritus, the lack of wave action results in this material settling out at slack water
    • Accretion takes place; sediment builds up forming soil and can even raise the level of mud.
    • Abiotic Factors : (Non Living)
    • Saline Mud/Soil : Seawater deposits salts (solutes) in the sediment. Causing problems for plants growing
    • Waterlogged Soil: The air spaces within the soil are filled with water rather than air. Roots need oxygen for respiration as much as other parts of the plant. Long-term waterlogging creates an anaerobic condition of black mud. Which is toxic to plants.
    • Drag and Scour: The tidal movement across the surface causes a sideways drag on the plant. With two tides a day this will possibly uproot the plants. The water contains sediment like sand and mud particles and this will scour the plants like being buffed with sandpaper.
  • 8. Mudflats
  • 9. Polar Coastline
  • 10. Sand Dunes
  • 11. Reef Coastline
  • 12. Reef Coastline
    • Great Barrier Reef in Australia is 1500km long and comprises of 2900 different reefs
    • 3 types of reef: Fringe, barrier reefs and atolls. Charles Darwin first found these three
    • Helps dissipate wave energy
    • Fragile and open to exploitation
  • 13. Desert Coastline
  • 14. The British Seaside?
  • 15. What is a coast?
    • ‘ that part of the land most affected by its proximity to the sea and that part of the ocean most affected by its proximity to the land ’
    • It’s called the ‘ Zone of Transition ’
  • 16.
    • The Coast is the narrow zone where the land overlaps the sea and interacts
    • It is affected by Terrestrial, Human, marine and Atmospheric processes and their relationships.
    • It is the most varied and rapidly changing of all landforms and ecosystems.
  • 17. The Coastal Zone
  • 18. The Importance of Coastal Environments
    • The Coastal zone is an interface between the sea and the land. Where the marine and terrestrial processes combine to produce a variety of changing landforms.
    • Coasts suffer from rapid erosion and flooding thus can threaten lives and property.
    • Changes to coastlines are both short term (eg Storms) and long term (Rising sea levels)
  • 19. Factors influencing coasts The Nature of Coasts
    • Sea
    • Coastal (marine) ecosystems
    • Wave energy and direction
    • size and type of waves
    • Local currents and LSD
    • Tidal changes
    • Water depth
    • Offshore sediments
    • Long-term changes in sea level
    • Land
    • Shape of the coastline
    • Relief
    • Presence or lack of beach
    • Structure of the coast
    • Resistance of the rocks
    • Sub-aerial processes
    • River sediments
    • Coastal (land) ecosystems)
    • Weather and Climate
    • Wind strength and direction
    • Rainfall and temp
    • Storms and surges
    • Human activities
    • Intervention in natural ecosystems
    • Use of land for development
    • Exploitation of resources
  • 20. Did you know?
    • 3 billion people live within 100km of the coast
    • Two thirds of our largest cities are within 60km of the sea
    • Coastal population densities are usually 80 people/km2 – 50% more than inland areas
    • These can rise up to 1000+ in the Nile and Ganges Deltas
  • 21.
    • Coastal ecosystems are coming under constant pressure from human activities
    • There is constant competition for it’s natural resources.
    • Coastal management is becoming a major issue
    • Human intervention has lead to unexpected impacts
    • With human development and global warming demands will increase so need for management, particularly sustainable management strategies are needed.
  • 22. THE FACTORS
  • 23. Waves
    • Created by the transfer of energy from the wind blowing over the surface of the sea.
  • 24. Tsunamis
    • Are created not by the wind but by submarine shock waves generated by earthquakes or volcanic activity.
  • 25.
    • With waves the greater the wind the greater the frictional drag and therefore the size of wave
    • Those that travel short distances and are the result of local waves are seen as sea waves
    • Those that are formed from distant storms and travel large distances are known as swell .
  • 26. Wave Energy
    • Wind velocity
    • Period of time the wind has blown
    • Length of the fetch
  • 27. Exercise 1.
    • On a map of the UK find areas which have the biggest fetch
  • 28. Wave terminology
    • CREST
    • TROUGH
    • WAVE PERIOD
    • LENGTH
    • VELOCITY
    • STEEPNESS
    • ENERGY
    • SWELL
  • 29.
    • CREST – Highest point of the wave
    • TROUGH
    • WAVE PERIOD
    • LENGTH
    • VELOCITY
    • STEEPNESS
    • ENERGY
    • SWELL
  • 30.
    • CREST – Highest point of the wave
    • TROUGH – lowest point of the wave
    • WAVE PERIOD
    • LENGTH
    • VELOCITY
    • STEEPNESS
    • ENERGY
    • SWELL
  • 31.
    • CREST – Highest point of the wave
    • TROUGH – lowest point of the wave
    • WAVE PERIOD – Time taken for wave to travel one wave length
    • LENGTH -
    • VELOCITY
    • STEEPNESS
    • ENERGY
    • SWELL
  • 32.
    • CREST – Highest point of the wave
    • TROUGH – lowest point of the wave
    • WAVE PERIOD – (T) Time taken for wave to travel one wave length
    • LENGTH – (L) Distance between two successive waves
    • VELOCITY -
    • STEEPNESS
    • ENERGY
    • SWELL
  • 33.
    • CREST – Highest point of the wave
    • TROUGH – lowest point of the wave
    • WAVE PERIOD – (T) Time taken for wave to travel one wave length
    • LENGTH – (L) Distance between two successive waves
    • VELOCITY – (C) speed of movement of a crest in a given period of time
    • STEEPNESS -
    • ENERGY
    • SWELL
  • 34.
    • CREST – Highest point of the wave
    • TROUGH – lowest point of the wave
    • WAVE PERIOD – (T) Time taken for wave to travel one wave length
    • LENGTH – (L) Distance between two successive waves
    • VELOCITY – (C) speed of movement of a crest in a given period of time
    • STEEPNESS – (H/L) ratio of wave height divided by length it can not exceed 1:7 (0.14) as it will break
    • ENERGY
    • SWELL
  • 35.
    • CREST – Highest point of the wave
    • TROUGH – lowest point of the wave
    • WAVE PERIOD – (T) Time taken for wave to travel one wave length
    • LENGTH – (L) Distance between two successive waves
    • VELOCITY – (C) speed of movement of a crest in a given period of time
    • STEEPNESS – (H/L) ratio of wave height divided by length it can not exceed 1:7 (0.14) as it will break
    • ENERGY – (E) expressed as E~ (Is proportional to) LH2
    • SWELL –
  • 36.
    • CREST – Highest point of the wave
    • TROUGH – lowest point of the wave
    • WAVE PERIOD – (T) Time taken for wave to travel one wave length
    • LENGTH – (L) Distance between two successive waves
    • VELOCITY – (C) speed of movement of a crest in a given period of time
    • STEEPNESS – (H/L) ratio of wave height divided by length it can not exceed 1:7 (0.14) as it will break
    • ENERGY – (E) expressed as E~ (Is proportional to) LH2
    • SWELL – have low height, gentle steepness and long wave length
  • 37.  
  • 38. World map – coastal hotspots?
  • 39. Types of coasts?
    • Trade Coasts?
    • Recreation coasts?
    • Residential coasts?
    • Resource coasts?
    • Exercise 2: Complete a table with examples of each
  • 40. High Value coastal environments?
    • Exercise 3: Identify the features, opportunities, value and pressures for each of the following:
    Mangroves Reefs Salt Marshes
  • 41. Exercise 4
    • Annotate photo to identify
    • Physical features
    • Human features
    • Opportunities
    • Threats/pressure
  • 42. So...
    • As you can see there are many different forms of coasts and they vary enormously.
    • In groups define the benefits for differing regions in terms of geology and relief that an area may possess and see if you can think of examples from your own ideas.
  • 43. Finally
    • Using your textbooks look at some of the places and answer these questions below:
    • Physical features (use the words topography, geology, relief). How have these affected the coast?
    • its human activities (e.g. industry, tourism, port)/ What were the reasons for these activities developing here?
    • What are the possible futures for these areas?