WJEC GCSE Geography Quick Tips Paper 2


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WJEC GCSE Geography Quick Tips Paper 2

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WJEC GCSE Geography Quick Tips Paper 2

  1. 1. Three questions- choose Changing Coasts Retail and urban change Tourism
  2. 2. State the meaning of.... (2) Usually for definitions, data response, notice the marks, this indicates you need to give an example.
  3. 3. Reason – to give a cause or justification.
  4. 4. Describe- say what it shows. 1. Describe the general pattern. 2. Give figures, dates, place names. 3. Provide any exceptions.
  5. 5. Explain- say why it has happened. Explanation questions usually carry 3 marks- think Point Consequence Elaboration
  6. 6. Evaluate – to give the good and bad points
  7. 7. http://www.flickr.com/photos/silverxraven/2995854149/
  8. 8. •Erosion – mechanical wearing away of rocks •Corrasion – rocks hurled at the base of a cliff between high and low tide •Attrition – rocks smashing and rubbing against each other become smaller over time •Solution – rocks dissolve by the sea •Hydraulic action – water forced into cracks, the pressure causes them to widen •Long shore drift – the zigzag movement of material along a coastline (Swash and Backwash) •Deposition - the dropping of rock
  9. 9. Prevailing wind. Waves travel towards the beach at an angle driven by the prevailing wind- moving material towards the beach- SWASH. Waves runs back down at right angles to the beach- following the steepest gradient under gravity- called BACKWASH. Material will travel with it. In this way material is transported along the coastline- called Long Shore Drift (L.S.D).
  10. 10. Draw a diagram that illustrates the formation of a how a cliff retreat and the formation of a wave cut platform.
  11. 11. 1.Between high and low tide rocks are hurled at the base of a cliff- corrasion. 2.This forms a wave cut notch. 3.Continued corrasion will cause the wave cut notch to expand. 4.The rock above the wave cut notch becomes unstable and collapses into the sea. 5.The cliff has now retreated. 6.A wave cut platform is left behind- erosion cannot take place below low tide. FORMATION OF A WAVE CUT PLATFORM
  12. 12. Draw a diagram that illustrates how a coastal stack forms.
  13. 13. The headland is made of chalk which is sedimentary, lines of weakness run throughout it. Between high and low tide corrasion occurs. Corrasion will continue to undercut the cliff, forming a cave. If two caves are formed either side of a headland corrasion will erode them backwards till they meet. Continued corrasion undercuts the base of the arch, it will collapse to form a stack. Continued corrasion at the base of the stack will undercut it; it will collapse to form a stump. Hydraulic action will exploit these weaknesses, making the cracks larger. Corrasion produces a wave cut notch at the base of the cliff. Corrasion evacuates the cave so it becomes larger and deeper. When they meet an arch is formed. Formation of a coastal stack
  14. 14. Draw a diagram that illustrates the formation of a spit.
  15. 15. 7. The area behind the spit is now sheltered encouraging greater deposition- over time a salt marsh may form. 6. Occasionally the wind direction may change- this will also change the direction of LSD.- this cause the spit to curve. ‘With the aid of a labelled diagram, explain the formation of the spit at Blakeney Point.’ 4. Here there is a change in direction of the coastline, this means the sea is quite calm and shallow. 5. This encourages deposition to occur and a spit begins to form. LSD can continue. 3. Material is moved along the beach in a zig-zag motion- called long shore drift. 1. Direction of the prevailing wind- North-East. 2. Swash transports material up the beach. Backwash transports material down the beach. 8.Here the spit is limited from developing further by a river- which will carry material away.
  16. 16. EROSION MANAGEMENT Hard engineering techniques. Controlled disruption of a natural process by using man-made structures. •Sea walls •Groynes •Gabions Soft engineering techniques. Use of environmentally sustainable strategies to reduce the impact of a natural process. •Beach nourishment
  17. 17. CASE STUDY OF A COASTAL MANAGEMENT- HOLDERNESS COAST, UK Causes •Soft clay cliffs. •Long fetch from North-East •2 metres of erosion per year. Strategy •Roll back policy. •Caravan parks moved 400 metres from the coast. •New developments must be 30-200 metres from the coast. •Only major settlements protected. Mappleton- 450 metres of cliffs protected. 61,500 tonnes of rock armour, two groynes and sloping revetment.
  18. 18. Protecting Against Coastal Flooding Reasons for increased coastal flooding • Rising temperatures, leading to melting of land based ice and thermal expansion. • Warmer seas leading to more intense tropical storms, .i.e cyclones, resulting in storm surges and heavy rainfall. • Coastlines are densely populated, increasing the ice of flooding. Thames Barrier, London - Hard Engineering • Open 1983 • Current cost £1.6 billion • 10 gates raised within 30 minutes to stop storm surges • Protects 80 billion pounds of assets • Protects 12 million people •  No flood in central London since opening •  Will need to be rebuilt in the future – 2030. Bangladesh- Hard/Soft Engineering • Afforestation along the coastline • Development of flood walls in some area • Public education about living next to the coast • Early warning system of potential flooding events • Cyclone shelters Medberry, West Sussex- Soft Engineering • U.K’s largest scheme- £28 million pounds • Original shingle beach unsustainable- required maintenance each year- risk increase die to sea level change. Cost £300,000 a year. Breached 14 times since 1994. • Sea will be allowed to flood, defences built further inland. 7km flood wall 2 km inland- protect from 1 in 1000 year flood • Previous flood in March 2008 caused £5 million pounds of damage. • 183 hectares of land.
  20. 20. Area Why at risk? Social impacts Economic Impacts Environmental Impacts Bangladesh  25% only 12 metres above sea level  On Ganges Delta  Experiences cyclone activities  Low GNP $1,800 - therefore can’t invest in widespread hard engineering techniques  Densely populated 161 million people  Increase in standing water leading to disease i.e. Cholera  Food insecurity  Estimated 4,600 deaths and 75,000 injuries per year by 2050  Predicted 20 million flooding refugees by 2050  Reduction in GNP due to damage to industry, estimated at $1 billion a year by 2050  Increased cost of flood protection, increased tax or debt- estimated at $17 million a year  Destruction of home and property estimated at $1.9 billion dollars per year by 2050  Pollution of fresh water supplies  Loss of fertile agricultural land, 830,000 hectares lost since 2000.  Resulting in food insecurity/ rising food prices  Estimated 30% of species to be lost due to flooding by 2030
  21. 21. Area Why at risk? Social impacts Economic Impacts Environmental Impacts London, U.K.  Isostatic readjustment- South-East sinking into the sea  Extract of water from clay foundations resulted in subsidence.  Exposed to storm surges, due to funnelling water from between Channel and continent  City densely populated 12 million people  Building on Thames floodplain  Potential risk to 12 million people- loss of life and injury  420,000 homes at risk  Homelessness and loss of possessions  Flooding of sewers leading to illness  400 schools and 16 hospitals at risk  29% of Londoners have no insurance  £80 billion worth of real estate  Financial capital of world- impact on the value of stocks and shares across the world  Funding of flood defence schemes Thames Barrier needs replacing by 2030, estimated cost £4 billion  Likely to be publically funded by taxpayer  350 sq km of land at potential risk  55 sq km of habitat sites  3100 hectares of sensitive heritage sites  4 World heritage sites i.e. Westminster Abbey  Wide range of birds, i.e. Lapwings, and mammals, i.e. voles.
  23. 23. Explain how erosion and deposition can change the shape of a coastline. Using your own knowledge, describe and explain how people make use of the coastline. Describe some of the threats that coastal erosion can bring. Explain how the coastline can be protected. Describe how corrasion (abrasion) erodes the cliffs. Draw an annotated diagram to explain the movement of sand and pebbles along a beach. Describe ways in which rapid erosion by the sea affects the lives of people who live along the coast. Explain two ways that could be used to protect the coastline from erosion. Use an example or examples to help your answer. Explain how hydraulic action erodes cliffs. Draw an annotated diagram to explain why processes of coastal erosion, other than hydraulic action, may result in cliff retreat. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of different strategies to manage the coastline. Use one or more examples you have studied to help your answer. Explain how named processes lead to the formation of one coastal landform. You must use one or more labelled diagrams to support your answer. Rising sea-levels pose a threat to many coastal areas. Explain how different coastal management strategies along the coastline can be used to reduce this threat. Refer to named places. Describe how hard engineering strategies, like the use of groynes, can help protect the coastline from erosion by waves. Evidence shows that coastal environments may need to be managed differently in the future. What do you think is the most sustainable way to manage coastlines in the face of rising sea level? Explain your reasons for recommending this strategy. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
  24. 24. http://www.flickr.com/photos/carreon/462155740/
  25. 25. Factors influencing the growth of tourism. Increase in leisure time. Increase in disposable incomes. Cheaper travel, increase in travel options. Rise of global media. Increased wealth and health of pensioners.
  26. 26. Exam question
  27. 27. TOURISM BENEFITS DRAWBACKS  Employment  Seasonal, low skill, low pay  Positive multiplier effect within community  Profits may leak abroad- foreign owned facilities  Cultural exchanges  Clashes between differing lifestyles  Maintains cultural heritage  Environmental damage by increased numbers  Develops local infrastructure  May put a strain on local services/utilities  Growing market  Destinations may become unpopular/unfashionable
  28. 28. Exam question
  29. 29. Location Why go? Positive Impact Negative Impacts Sustainability Nam Ha, Laos Ethically diverse -33 tribes View village life Deciduous forest 288 species birds/37 mammal species 8% income used for community projects Slash and burn agriculture has reduced. Hunters have been deterred by the presence of outsiders. Some villagers are concerned about increasing materialism, including begging. Some tourists have complained the village stays are somewhat voyeuristic. Niche market Small groups people Live with locals Low impact activities Nam Ha, Laos
  30. 30. Location Why go? Positive Impact Negative Impacts Sustainability Peak District, Derbyshire Visiting market towns Visiting historic houses Cultural events i.e. well dressing. Walking Climbing Cycling Rock climbing Camping Tourists spend £356 million a year. Generates employment, 2000 jobs in hotels and catering, though seasonal. Employment brings skills in the tourist industry. Multiplier effect, worth an additional £125 million Towns have become dominated by tourist shops, at the expense of local needs, for example Bakewell. Increased visitor numbers, increases, wear and tear on buildings and monuments. The popularity of the area has encouraged the development of second homes Soil erosion Replace eroded areas with natural stone. Reroute walkers from areas of heavy erosion. Lay down geotextile mats Ban walkers from some areas altogether. Peak District, Derbyshire
  31. 31. Mark scheme Level descriptor Level 1 1-2 marks List or simple description of advantages/disadvantages. Information is communicated by brief statements. There is a basic structure. There is reasonable accuracy of spelling, punctuation and grammar. Level 2 3-4 marks One or more advantages/disadvantages are described with some elaboration. May not be balanced between people and/or environment. Reference to MEDC region is generalised and lacks detail. Max 4 marks for an LEDC Communication is clear and logical. Spelling, punctuation and grammar have considerable accuracy. Level 3 5-6 marks Description / explanation of advantages and / or disadvantages of tourism on both people and the environment. Reference to an MEDC region is specific. Communication is clear, logical and has structure. Specialist terms are used with proficiency. Spelling, punctuation and grammar have considerable accuracy. Level 4 7-8 marks Advantages and disadvantages of tourism on both people and the environment are explained with more than one example of elaboration. Reference to an MEDC region is specific and detailed. Communication is very clear, sophisticated and well structured. Specialist terms are used adeptly. Spelling, punctuation and grammar have consistent accuracy. Explain why tourism can bring both advantages and disadvantages for people and the environment of one MEDC region you have studied. [8]
  32. 32. James I have studied the Peak District. An advantage of tourist going to the area is that they provide jobs for local people at tourist attractions like Chatsworth House; this means that local people are employed. If people are employed they are more likely to spend in the local area, this creates more business for local traders- this is called the positive multiplier effect. The disadvantage of these jobs are that they are often low paid and seasonal, this means that people are likely to be out of work in the slower winter months and will need to find alternative employment. Tourists often travel to the Peak District to walk, but this has created huge areas of erosion along the Pennine Way. Hundreds of people walking off the paths remove the vegetation; the soil is then washed away when it rains. As a result vegetation can’t regrow on these areas, this look unsightly. Tourists thought also provide income that maintains the environment, without tourist receipts historic locations like Chatsworth House could not be maintained as they are not funded by the government. Level Mark Positives Improvements Peer assessment
  33. 33. Location Why go? Positive Impact Negative Impacts Sustainability Ibiza, Spain Beaches Sun- over 2,700 hours of sunlight a year Warm temperatures in summer reaching up to 30 degrees Clubbing scene Unemployed is only 4% compared to Spain’s 14%. Tourists spend in the local economy- positive multiplier effect 72% of Ibiza’s GDP is from tourism. Mainly jobs are seasonal and low skill/low pay Many jobs go to foreign nationals - 13% Farmers annoyed about tourists damaging crops within fields. Focusing on more exclusive crowd of visitors- encourage the development on top end hotels. All new hotels have to be 5* Local government is enforcing early closing of bars and clubs to limit noise pollution Ibiza, Spain
  34. 34. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS Explain how any two natural factors can lead to the development of tourism in one region you have studied. Explain how tourism can have a negative impact on the environment in an MEDC. Why have LEDCs attempted to develop sustainable tourism? Why have these efforts been sometimes abandoned? Give two reasons that help to explain why more people may decide to take their holidays in the UK instead of going abroad. Explain why tourism can bring both advantages and disadvantages for people and the environment of one region you have studied. Explain how tourism can have different impacts on one MEDC region you have studied. Explain how tourism can be managed sustainably. Describe how tourism can be developed in a sustainable way. Explain how tourism can bring disadvantages for people and the environment. Use a located example to help your answer.
  35. 35. How are city centres changing? Nottingham • £3.5 billion pound private- public regeneration • Improving the city centre • Market Place- £7 million pound make-over • Pedestrianisation of shopping areas • Use of heritagisation- Victorian signs and furniture • Attracting shops- allowing the redevelopment of Broadmarsh shopping centre • Development of improved public transport links- new tram lines and improved train station • Development of waterfront areas along the canals and the River Trent • Investment in inner city communities such as St.Anns and Sneinton • Sneinton Market • Creating a creative quarter for the media industry. • Improved environment in ex-industrial areas, i.e. Hockley, has lead to private gentrification. Area now focused upon nightlife and entertainment. Remember you can also use Freiburg as an example of urban change…
  36. 36. How are city centres changing? Nottingham- Impacts Daytime- focus on retail Negative Positive Mostly part-time, low paid jobs Job creation 9/10 jobs in services Unemployment below national average High cost of regeneration on local population i.e. tax burden Increased number of beggars and street crime 53 per 1000 compared to national average of 29 Retail generates £1,280 million in the city 3rd largest shopping area in country 1300 outlets Night time- focus on leisure and entertainment Negative Positive Increased cost of policing Top stag and hen do destination 11 million night time visitors a year Disturbance to city residents Increase in crime – 20% crimes linked to alcohol 300 bars and clubs Creation of jobs
  37. 37. Exam question
  38. 38. Changing shopping Case study of an out of town shopping area: Meadowhall, Sheffield Internet shopping i.e. Amazon • £7 billion pounds profit, controversially no corporate tax paid in U.K • Employs 20,000 people across 8 warehouses • Concerns over zero hour contracts, strict working conditions – workers can walk up to 11 miles in 10.5 shift • Concerns about impacts on high street i.e. decline of HMW etc… Positives  24 hour access  Wider range of goods  Purchases can be made from across the world  Delivered to your door Negatives  Waiting for deliveries to come, or not turn up  You do not get to view the purchase beforehand  Sometimes complex return processes  Fraud! Access Ex-industrial site- large 12,000 car parking spaces 300 coach spaces 120 buses per hour Train and train access All reduced friction of distance. Shopping 233 stores, many multiple Longer opening hours Shopping environment Undercover CCTV Light and bright Vegetation Leisure World’s largest food court 11 cinema screens Special events i.e. classical concerts and tea dances.
  39. 39. Changing shopping Impact of out of town shopping CBD Outskirts Few shoppers Loss of greenfield land, urban sprawl Increased vacant units, less choice for shoppers Decline in shopping environment Increased traffic congestion Why have out of town shopping stores developed? • Land is cheaper on the outskirts of cities • Large areas of land- allows large stores, larger range of products.. Also allows a large car park. • Large area of land allows stores to be built on one level • Better access for cars via roads- reduces the friction of distance • Environment is often attractive on the outskirts of a city. Enhancing the High Street, Ilkeston Replicate the conditions of OFT shopping • Pedestrianisation • CCTV • Undercover areas i.e. Albion Centre • Improving shop frontages • Greening – vegetation • Free car parking • Exploiting heritage Why have our shopping habits changed? • Cars allow bulk buying, reducing frequency of visits needed • Monthly wage packets • Fridge and freezers allow bulk buying • Cheaper technology in the home and access to the internet.
  40. 40. Exam question
  41. 41. Consumer choices Case study, Cocoa farming in Ghana (Chocolate) Ghana Cocoa farmers • Low profit, price goes up and down • Small farms • Labour intensive-, including children, injury from snakes, using machete • Poor quality of life, lack of healthcare, access to education Fairtrade • Set price- covers cost of production • Paid upfront to farmer to allow planning • Collective • Consumer pays 20% - social premium used for quality of life projects Case study, China- Apple Social  • 47,000 employee directly • 230,000 indirectly • Jobs for graduates in research and development Economic  • Supports 349 supplies- positive multiplier effect • Expanding stores from 13 to 25 • Billion dollar investment Environmental • Recycling of e-waste creates jobs Social  • Low paid long hours, 69 hrs a week $10 dollars a week Economic  • Profits $1.3 billion leak abroad • Company exempt from first 15% of tax Environmental  • 37 manufacturers known to be serious polluters • 70% of e-waste ends in China • Contamination of groundwater with heavy metals You could also discuss the impact of buying Cocoa Cola.
  42. 42. Consumer choices Case study, tomato farming in Ghana Background Impact on Ghana.  E.U. produces 16 million tonnes of tomatoes each year. Second only to China.  E.U. provides £250 million pounds of subsidy each year to tomato farmers in Europe.  The EU currently puts an import tariff of 15% on tomatoes.  The impact of the subsidies is to reduce the cost of tomato paste and canned tomatoes by 65%.  As a result this makes E.U. tomatoes products cheaper.  The E.U. is therefore a major exporter of tomatoes.  If the subsidy was to be removed, this export market would collapse.  Imports would increase by 100%.  World prices would increase by 5%.  It currently generates 250 million Euros for the European economy.  Ghana adds a tariff of 25% for imported tomatoes.  The World Bank has forced Ghana to remove import quotas on tomatoes into the country, otherwise it wouldn’t receive loans.  The E.U. subsidies mean that the world price is depressed by up to 5%.  A European farmer’s tomato is half the cost of a Ghanaian farmer’s tomato.  Ghana farmers therefore get a very low price for their crop.  As a result their quality of life is poor. Lack of healthcare, nutrition and education.  Crops are they left to rot in the field, if they can’t be sold.  Domestic consumption has collapsed as Ghanaians purchase cheaper imports.  The country doesn’t have the factories to process the tomatoes into secondary products which would command a higher price. You could also reuse this case study as an example of the impact of trade and consumer choice.
  43. 43. Consumer choices Food miles Organic shopping Consumers only purchase food locally. Technically locally is within 25 miles- this is mostly impossible! Positives  Reduces carbon footprint of household. Less fossil fuel used for transport.  Supports local farmers and producers.  Know source of your food and how it has been grown or reared.  Food is more nutritious, quality hasn’t declined during transport. Negatives  Reduced choice.  Food may only be available in season.  LEDC farmers may lose out; they tend to produce primary foodstuffs.  Food may be more expensive; UK farmers need to maintain a fair quality of life.  Food may be travelling a shorter distance, but greenhouses may be needed to grow it within the UK, therefore increasing the carbon footprint of the products. Consumers only buy food produced without the use of chemicals. Positives  Reduces carbon footprint of household, no chemicals need to be manufactured and used during production.  Chemicals do not leak into the environment, therefore damaging it.  Food is free from chemical residues. Safer for health?  Some believe the food tastes better.  Many organic farmers tend to be from LEDC countries; therefore you are supporting their quality of life. Negatives  Usually around 10% more expensive.  Tends to be a smaller range of products.  There is no evidence that organic products taste better, or are better for your health.  70% of organic food is imported, increasing carbon footprints.
  44. 44. Exam question
  45. 45. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS Explain why C.B.D.’s contain many national chain stores. Name two land-uses found within the C.B.D. . Describe and explain how changing shopping habits have made out of town shopping areas popular. To what extent are these shopping centres a good development? The shopping centre is next to the motorway. Using examples, explain the advantages of this type of location. Explain why pedestrianisation, and other named recent changes, have attempted to make city centres more attractive to shoppers. Explain why city centres present opportunities and problems for locals and visitors at night time. To what extent could the increasing use of the internet be a concern for traditional retail outlets in town and cities? Explain how global trade can have advantages and disadvantages for people in developing countries. Use one or more examples to help your answer. Many people prefer to visit out of town shopping centres. Explain two factors why people prefer these locations to city centres. Describe how changes in customer choice are having an impact on the global environment. Explain the advantages and disadvantages linked to the regeneration of one European city centre. Use an example of a named place to help your answer.