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  1. 1. CoastsAim: Geography Revision on the topic of coasts.
  2. 2. The coast as a resource 1. The coast can be seen as a multi use resource. What does this mean?
  3. 3. The coast as a resource Industry- large areas of flat land and access for shipping for the import of raw materials and the export of finished Products. Transport- growing industrial globalisation and trade has meant that ports are increasingly important. Also, there has been a growth of cruise holidays has seen the expansion of ports. Tourism and Recreation- Increasing wealth and more leisure time has increased the demand for water sport activities. Residential- Coastal areas are seen as attractive places to live because of the scenery and recreational opportunities they offer. Nature Conservation- Salt marsh and sand dune habitats are important environments for rare plant and animal species.
  4. 4. Destructive Waves -Describe a destructive wave
  5. 5. -Associated with storm conditions. -Are created when the wave energy is high and there is a large fetch. -Tend to remove material from the coast and are therefore associated with erosion. -Backwash is stronger than the swash.
  6. 6. Constructive Waves -Describe a constructive wave
  7. 7. -Associated with calm weather. -Are less powerful waves. -Break on the shore and tend to deposit material. -Are responsible for transporting material. -Swash is stronger than the backwash.
  8. 8. Coastal weathering and erosion Weathering is the breakdown of rocks in situ. Erosion is the wearing away of rock and then this rock being carried away (in this case by the sea or gravity) They are happening at the same time. 1.Physical weathering is the breakdown of rock without changing its chemical composition. Freeze thaw is one such type of mechanical weathering. Explain this process 2.Chemical weathering is the breakdown of rock by changing its chemical composition. Carbonation is a type of chemical weathering. Explain this process. 3.Biological weathering is when the roots of vegetation and burrowing animals breakdown rock. Explain how this happens
  9. 9. - What are the four ways in which waves erode?
  10. 10. Features of coastal erosion- wave cut platform -Draw a series of simple diagrams to explain how cliffs are eroded and retreat and ultimately form wave cut platforms
  11. 11. Features of coastal erosion headlands and bays animation -How are headlands and bays formed? -How is a headland eroded to form caves, arches, stacks and stumps arch, cave, stack and stump Watch the clips below
  12. 12. LSD - Double CLICK Transportation -Describe how material is moved along the beach Watch this clip..
  13. 13. -Why are constructive waves involved in deposition? -How are beaches formed? Deposition and depositional features
  14. 14. Spits and bars spit formation 14. Fill in the gaps. Spits form at sharp bends in the coastline, for example a ___________. Long shore ________ transports sand and shingle past the bend and deposits it in the sea. Strong winds and ________ can curve the end of the spit. The sheltered area behind the spit is protected from waves and lots of material accumulates – this means plants can ______ here. Over time the sheltered area becomes a mud flat or _______ marsh. When a spit joins to headlands together a ________ is formed. Behind this a lagoon forms. A bar that connects the shore to an island is called a ___________. Drift Bar Tombolo Grow River mouth Salt Waves Use these words to help you
  15. 15. Coastal Management
  16. 16. Coastal management Coastal areas are at risk from erosion and flooding. -What are the reasons for protecting coastlines? Social Economic Environmental
  17. 17. Coastal management strategies -What is the difference between hard and soft engineering? -What two types of hard engineering are shown in the picture? -How do they work? -Name two other hard engineering techniques
  18. 18. Coastal management strategies -What is shown in the picture below? -How do groynes work? -What is the major disadvantage of groynes?
  19. 19. Coastal management strategies -This is a type soft engineering. What is it and how does it work? -What is managed retreat? -How would sand dune regeneration reduce the risk of flooding and erosion? -Generally hard engineering methods are less sustainable than soft – why?