6GEO2 Unit 2 Geographical Investigations –Student Guide: Crowded Coasts – Part 1
CONTENTS 1. Overview 2. Requirements of the specification 3. What are crowded coasts? 4. Investigating crowded coasts 5. Ideas for fieldwork In Part 2 6. Research on crowded coasts 7. Making it work for the examClick on the information icon to jump to that section.Click on the home button to return to this contents page
1. Overview• Unit 2 has four components, but you are only required to study two of UNIT 2: The Paired these. Options –you only study one in each• In the 75 minute exam you answer pair! one question based on your two chosen topic areas. This means there The ‘Physical’ Pair is no choice. 1. Extreme• This exam is designed to test both Weather knowledge and understanding of 2. Crowded Coasts geographical concepts as well as geographical skills. The ‘Human’ Pair• Fieldwork, research and the enquiry 1. Unequal Spaces process lie at the heart of this exam. 2. Rebranding• The most important ways of ensuring the highest possible grades in this module is (i) being able to focus on the question set, (ii) to be able to use resources effectively, and (iii) to get your fieldwork in a form that works for the exam.
UNIT 2 – Assessment overview and structure• Normally the first part of each question starts with a data stimulus element.• The fieldwork and research elements are related directly to work you have carried out during a field trip AND may involve questions about how you processed, interpreted etc what you found. •The data stimulus in unlikely• The remaining question to be the 15 mark question is more management and •Data stimulus with an analysis issues based. Here case element is possible study knowledge will be required.
What makes the coast so attractive?The factors opposite show why thecoastal zone has always attracted settlers and been favoured by developers. European countries built great ports to receive goods from their colonies abroad (e.g. The port of Hong Kong). Of the factors opposite, which do you think is the most important and why? How might this vary from place to place and time to time? Global - Quick coasts facts • 3 billion people live within 100km of the coast • Coastal population densities are typically 80 people / km2 – 50% more than non coastal areas; they rise to 1000+ in the Nile and Ganges deltas. • Migration is a key component of growth
Growth in the southern USACoastal countiesoccupy 17% of USA 1500 new 400% populationland area, yet are houses growth since 1980home to and 53% of approved in some Floridapopulation. each day in countiesThere are a number all coastalof growth hotspots countiesincluding Florida, combined.Georgia, Texas andCalifornia The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill has focused ideas of coastal pressure – the impacts on fishing + ecosystems will likely be enormous
Many coasts are multi-purpose, with an overlap of different types of activity occurring inDifferent types of coast adjacent locations or at the same places. Coasts may be developed for a number of reasons – they can be classified into a Retirement Resource- Tourism Industrial number of coasts Coasts rich coasts different types Examples Examples Examples Coasts include: include: – there are include: Examples (almost all some examples Rotterdam, Parts of include: coasts), but Norfolk, South-east specifically south East opposite. UK, Pearl Cornwall, Asia shrimp any coastal River Delta, What other plus UK industry, counties of coastal cities southern of China, types of coast south coast, Nile and Florida Niger Delta England, including are there and Costa Blanca Hong Kong where might they be found? Other types of coasts may exist, e.g. The ‘Golf Coast’, the ‘Eco-coast’, the ‘Activity Coast’.
1. Competition for coastsCoasts attract awide range of users –this can bringchallenges andopportunities formanagers of coastalareas. Conservationof areas is becomingincreasinglycomplex, especiallywhen weighed upagainst theeconomic argumentsof industry andtourism. Who might be the different coastal stakeholders?
A number of physical andhuman factors shape thecoastline. Factors thatAn exam question could shape the ask you to identify the coastline physical and humanfactors from a resource,e.g. GIS map / satellite image Physical factors, e.g. sand dunes, mudflats, estuary, sand banks, woodland , river Human factors, e.g. roads, agriculture / farming. Settlement, bridge
2. Coping with the pressure Coastal developments create patterns resulting from the competition for space. This can lead to pressure on coastal environments. The sea and shoreline can distort the patterns of land use.
A pressurised coastal system….• Tossa de Mar, Spain• Increasingly crowded as tourist market changes.• No longer fully ‘coastal’.• Potential conflicts between old and new, residents and visitors, development versus conservation.• A big issue is the future of such places with demands for water especially during the summer tourist season.
3. Increasing risks You should be aware of the risks posed by the growing incidence of coastal hazards – and potentially their social, economic and environmental impacts •Context links back to Unit 1 in terms of climate change •Rising sea levels; increased storm activity + coastal flood risk •Importance of ‘one off’ events such as 1953, tsunami and hurricanes •Touch on issues such as isostatic change for the UK The Fal estuary •There is a fieldwork choice (‘coastal in Cornwall; areas retreat or flood risk’); in many cases vulnerable to sea both can easily be covered. level rise
Coastlines have always changed and responded to physical and human processes. What is now of particularCoastal change….. concern is rates of change and numbers of vulnerable people Climate change and rapid coastalisation are big threats globally. In the UK large amounts of money are being spend to try to manage threat and reduce risk.
You could link the hazard risk equation from Unit 1 to assess your chosen coast or coasts VULNERABILITY HAZARDS A brief contrast might Frequency and be useful; physical and magnitude of events human factors both such as storm surges importantRisk = CAPACITY: present resources and ability to prepared for the futureRisk The probability of harmful consequences, or expected losses (deaths, injuries, property, livelihoods, economic activity disrupted or environment damaged) resulting from interactions between natural or human-induced hazards and vulnerable conditions.Hazard A potentially damaging physical event, phenomenon or human activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.Vulnerability The conditions determined by physical, social, economic, and environmental factors or processes, which increase the susceptibility of a community to the impact of hazards.Capacity A combination of all the strengths and resources available within a community, society or organization that can reduce the level of risk, or the effects of a disaster.
4. Coastalmanagement You should be aware that there are a range of coastal management and defence strategies. What are their advantages and disadvantages? - Hold the line (hard and soft approaches) - Strategic retreat - Do Nothing - Advance the line Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) and SMPs (Shoreline Management Plans) and ideas that should be researched.
Example – Newbiggin, N.E England Context – (1) coastal mining subsidence leading to beach scour, (2) sea level rise is an increasing risk. Also, the town itself has suffered from mining job losses and relative isolation within SE Northumberland An ambitious £10million plan to improve the beach and promenade area through a replenishment scheme
Plan details 2007-8 Removal of some sea wall to improve beach access and appearance Landscaping works500,000 tonnes beach Offshore breakwater around the town to nourishment to maintain beach improve image and reduce wave energy; built from concrete tetrapods