Week 7 EDS 220Moral Development Dr. Evrim Baran
Assignmentforthisweek• Interview people of different ages to learn about Eriksons stages, their conflicts, and how they could resolve or could not resolve their conflicts.• Some questions: – What advice would you give to someone our age? (Stage 7) – Which stages of your life have been most enjoyable? The most important? (Stage 8) – What have been some of the most significant events of your life? Why? What age were you at each event? – What aspect of your life has influenced you the most?
Erikson: Stages of Psychosocial Development• Trust vs. mistrust (birth to 1 year)• Autonomy vs. shame & doubt (2 to 3 years)• Initiative vs. guilt (4 to 5 years)• Industry vs. inferiority (6 to 11 years)• Identity vs. role confusion (12 to 18 years)• Intimacy vs. isolation (young adulthood)• Generativity vs. stagnation (middle adulthood)• Integrity vs. despair (older adulthood)
Overview• Piaget: Cognitive development• Vygotsky: Cognitive development• Freud: Psychosexualdevelopment• Erikson: Psychosocial development• Piaget, Kohlberg, & Gilligan: Moral development
Why did you come to class today? Why do you do your assignment? Why do you listen the presentation quietly? Would you cheat in the midterm next week?Would you share your notes with your friends?Are you doing things to avoid trouble?
• If you do your assignments, I will give you chocolate each week.• If you don’t do your assignments, I will give you 0 grade. I am doing these assignments, because they are helping me understand the course concepts.
What is morality? Distinguishing what is right and wrong.
What is morality? What do studentsthinkaboutclassroo mrules? How do theythinkaboutthelawsandco nventionsthatgovernoursocie ty? Whatinfluencestheirinterpret ations? How do
We shouldnt steal things.Old ladies should be helped across the street. Killing or injuring people is wrong.We should give time and money to charities. We shouldnt tell lies.
Piagetand Moral Development? • Moral lives of children • How childrenplaygames? – Alldevelopmentemergesfr omaction – Morality is a developmentalprocess
Moral Stories Are these children equally guilty? • A little girl called Marie wanted to give her mum a nice surprise Which of these is and so she cut out a piece of sewing for her. But she didn’t naughtiest, know how to use the scissors andwhy? properly and she cut a big hole in her dress. • A little girl called Margaret went and took her mother’s scissors one day when her mother was Youngerchildren out. She played with them for a bit and then, as she didn’t know Vs. how to use them properly, she Olderchildren made a hole in her dress.
Marbles• Watch children between the ages of 3 and 12 playing marbles, and get them to explain the rules, and the reasons for the rules, to him• Ruleswere the key to moral understanding and marbles was ideal since children played the game without adult interference.
Morality of Morality of Constraintor Moral Cooperationor Moral Realism Relativism Egocentrisism Perspectivetaking.• Projectingwishesandthoughtsontooth • Children 11 or over ers.• Outcomes of • Ability to consider rules critically, actionsratherthantheintentions of and selectively thepersonsdoingtheact. • Apply rules because of mutual• Moral realism: respect and cooperation and mutual Objectiveresponsibility and mutual concern for rights and• Belief in immanentjustice: Whobreakstherulewill be wrongs. punishedimmediatelybysomeone, somewhereandsomehow.
Heteronomousstage of moral Autonomousstage of moralreasoningormorality of constraint reasonngorMorality of Cooperation(Typical of 6 yearolds) (Typical of 12 yearolds)Holds single and absolute moral perspective Aware of different viewpoints regarding rules.(right or wrong) Different people have different rules.Rules are fixed and cannot be changed or Believes people can make the rules andbroken. change them.When rules are broken just the amount of When rules are broken both the damagedamage done is taken into account. done and the intention of the offender are taken into account.Moral wrongness is defined in terms of what Moral wrongness is defined in terms ofis forbidden and punished. violation of spirit and cooperation.Believes punishment should stress Believes punishment should involve eitherredemption and does not need to ‘fit the restitution or suffering the same fate as one’scrime’ victim.Believes an external authority should punish Believes to punish aggressive peer victimaggressive peers. should take his/her revenge.Believes that rules come from authority Consider rules critically, and selectively(parents, god) and are to be obeyed without applies these rules based on a goal of mutualquestion. respect and cooperation.
Schools? Teachers?• Children do not simplylearnandinternaliz ethenormsfor a group• Whiletheyarestrugglingt oarrive a afairsolution, they define morality. Commonrules (cooperativedecisionmakingan d problem solving) Opportunieisforpersonaldisco verythrough problem solving
Kohlberg’sTheory of Moral Development• Children form ways of thinking through experiences.• Justice, rights, equality, human welfare• The process of moral maturity• Makingdecisions on ambiguous moral dilemmas
Heinz Dilemma - Kohlbergs stages of Moral Development1. Should Heinz have stolen thedrug?2. Would it change anything ifHeinz did not love his wife?3. What if the person dying wasa stranger, would it make anydifference?4. Should the police arrest thechemist for murder if thewoman died? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YxJ07klMhr0
Children’s Moral Developmenthttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=riugWInqiaE&feature=related
Level 1: Preconvenional moral reasoning• Generally found at elementary school level.• Children do not understand the rules set by others.• Personal needs are considered in terms of rewards and punishments or others’ rules.
Level 1: Preconvenional moral reasoning1. Punishment/Obedience 2. Instumental-Relativist What must I do to avoid punishment? Do something for me and I will do something for you. What can I do to force my Consequences of action for will uponothers? themselves Recognize self-interest in others Determinerightorwrongbytheconseq ence of an action. Personal needs determine right and wrong. Obeying rules bring rewards.
Heinz Dilemma ?1. Punishment/Obedience 2. Instumental-Relativist Heinz should not Heinz should not steal because of steal if he doesn’t he does he will be love his wife caught, locked up, because then it or put in jail. would not worth all the trouble.
Level 2: Conventional Moral Reasoning• 9-20 year olds• Conform the conventions of society because they are excepted as rules to be followed.• Approach problems as members of society.
Level 2: Conventional Moral Reasoning 3. Good boy-nice girl 4. Law and order orientation orientation Strong adherence to rules and laws Aware of shared feelings, for their own sake rather than agreements, and expectations pleasing other people. Define what is right in terms of what Member society perspective: one isis expected by people who are close moral only if she fulfills the actual to them duties defining one’s social responsibilities.Stereotypical roles that define “good person” (good brother, mother, Obeying the law is necessary in teacher) order to maintatin the system of laws which protects everyone. Approaval of friends, pleasing others. Rules are seldom questioned.
Heinz Dilemma ?3. Good boy-nice girl 4. Law and order orientation orientation Heinz should not Breaking the law steal. If he steals, cannot be he will leave a bad considered impression in the acceptable community. behavior in any circumstance.
Level 3: Postconventional Reasoning• After the age of 20 and by only a small portion of adults.• Moral principles that underlie the conventions are understood.
Level 3: Postconventional Reasoning 5. Social Contract 6. Universal Ethical Orientation Principle OrientationDecisions based on humanistic and democratic principles. İdeal stage a few people reach Rationally agreed upon laws to function society. Universal ethical principles, abstract concepts of justice, human dignitiy,Laws are based on the principle of and equality.utility, and are not accepted blindly. Laws are evaluated with the basicAside from what is constitutionally principles of fairness. and democratically agreed upon,right action is a matter of personal Regard for human life and welfare. values and opinions. Strong inner conscience over and Possibility of changing the law in abve obeying authority figures andterms of rational considerations of concrete laws. the social utility.
Heinz Dilemma ?5. Social Contract 6. Universal Ethical Orientation Principle Orientation Human life and its preservation must take All parties should precedence over other understand others’ needs. values, like Heinz’s desire The druggist should put to be honest and law himself in the husband’s abiding, or the druggist’s shoes so that he would love of money and his agree that life must berights. All values stem from saved. the ultimate valueof life. Stage 6 is a theoretical stage that is rarely encountered in life.
Piaget Kohlberg• Moral reasoning The rules are determined • First four stages by authority. (morality of constraint)• Older children observed Each moral decision • Postconventional thinkers takes special circumstances account.• Moral thinking is not sequential and related to • Order of stages are universal specific ages. Changes as and sequential. children mature. • With proper type of• Moral development instruction moral thinking cannot be accelerated. To can accelerate. understand logic behind logical relativism, formal operational schemes are prerequisite. • Post conventional moral• Formal operational stage Abstract principles reasoning
Research on Kohlberg’s Work• Moral development is gradual and continuous• Pass through stages at different rates but every person’s moral reasoning develops through the same stages in the same order.• Intervention usually results in moving only to the next higher stage of moral reasoning.
Criticisms of Kohlberg’s Theory• Lack of cross-cultural validations vs. Moral dilemmas are more or less the same across cultures• Stages exist, children pass stages in the same sequence in the western cultures – Rate and end point varies with the extent to which different societies encourage moral problem solving and dialogue, and debate about moral issues. – Western male individualism vs. group-oriented cultures• Questioning stage 6-Universal ethical principle orientation.• Thinking about moral dilemmas are influenced by domain specific knowledge.• Biased in favor of males.
Carol Gilligan’s Critique on Kohlberg’s Theory• Adolescent males not adolescent females• Women and men respond to the dilemmas differently – Man base their judgment on abstract concepts (justice, rules, individual rights, obligations) – Women on personal relationships, interpersonal connections, attending to human needs
Carol Gilligan’s Critique on Kohlberg’s Theory Morality of Care Morality of Justice •Attachment Relations with the•Interconnectedness mother.•Early connection in identity •Identity formation requires boysformation with their mothers. to be separate from their mothers•Continued attachment to their •Increases the awareness ofmothers are not as aware of such differences in power relationsinequalities as boys. between themselves and adult,•Less concerned with fairness issues. causes intense concern over inequalities.
Latest research?•Moral reasoning does not follow the distinct genderlines.•Females were more advances in moral judgment thanmales in early adolescence, but this differencedisappears in late adolescence and adult years.•In hypothetical moral dilemmas, males and femalesuse justice and fairness.•BUT, in real life moral dilemmas (e.g., abortion, civilrights, and environmental polition), they are more likelyto favor a caring/helping/cooperation orientation thana justice/fairness/individual rights.