Erik Erikson

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Erikson's theory of Development

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  • Erik Erikson

    1. 1. Erik Erikson Amber Steele Brianne Boesiger Theory of Psychosocial Development
    2. 2. Erik Erikson 1902 - 1994
    3. 3. Timeline- The Early Years <ul><li>1902- Born in Frankfurt, Germany </li></ul><ul><li>1911- Is adopted by step-father Theodor Homburger </li></ul><ul><li>1919- Begins travels throughout Europe </li></ul>
    4. 4. Timeline- Young Adulthood <ul><li>1927- Becomes teacher at Hietzing School in Vienna </li></ul><ul><li>1928- Studies child psychology with Anna Freud </li></ul><ul><li>1930- Marries Joan Serson, a dance teacher at the school </li></ul>
    5. 5. Timeline- Career <ul><li>1933- Emigrates to US </li></ul><ul><li>1939- Becomes US citizen </li></ul><ul><li>1960- Begins teaching at Harvard </li></ul>
    6. 6. Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory <ul><li>8 Stages of man </li></ul><ul><li>Each stage includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Significant relationship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Psychosocial crisis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Potential positive or negative outcome </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Disagreement on ages of stages, even among contemporaries </li></ul>
    7. 7. The Eight Stages <ul><li>Stage 1- Infancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0-1½ years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maternal persons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trust vs. Mistrust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>+ Hope, drive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Sensory distortion, withdrawal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage 2- Early Childhood </li></ul><ul><li>- 1- 3 years </li></ul><ul><li>- Parental persons </li></ul><ul><li>- Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt </li></ul><ul><li>+ Will power, self control </li></ul><ul><li> - Impulsivity, compulsivity </li></ul>
    8. 8. The Eight Stages <ul><li>Stage 3- Pre-school </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3-6 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiative vs. Guilt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>+ Purpose, direction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ruthless, inhibition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage 4- School child </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6-12 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neighborhood, school, family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry vs. inferiority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>+ Competence, initiation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Narrow character, low motivation </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. The Eight Stages <ul><li>Stage 5- Adolescent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12-20 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity vs. role confusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>+ Self certainty, fidelity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Withdrawal, fanaticism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimentation of different roles to find one most suitable or comfortable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assimilating morals learned as a child to ethnics needed as adults (ChildStudy.net) </li></ul></ul>“ Who am I?”
    10. 10. The Eight Stages <ul><li>Stage 6- Young adulthood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Friends, co-workers, sexual partners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intimacy vs. isolation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage 7- Middle adulthood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Family (partner, children), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generosity vs. self absorption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage 8- Late adulthood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Society, the world community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrity vs. despair </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Application of Erikson’s Theory <ul><li>Stage 4 (school age) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hands on projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage sense of accomplishment and self worth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Finding the natural talents of individuals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stressing the importance of individual success </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Application of Erikson’s Theory <ul><li>Stage 5 (adolescence) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek leadership/ inspiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding of distractions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not belittling adolescence ideals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimentation requires acceptance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of sameness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encouragement of natural individual talents </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Critics <ul><li>Doubted his academic integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Questioned the stage theory as opposed to continuous development </li></ul><ul><li>Said that his theory is more applicable to boys than to girls </li></ul><ul><li>Complain that more attention is paid to infancy and childhood than to adult life </li></ul>
    14. 14. Questions <ul><li>What about those adults who rediscover themselves and develop a different understanding of their lives due to life's changes and experiences? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it possible for an individual to change throughout life? </li></ul><ul><li>How can his theory be applicable to the changing environment of today? </li></ul>
    15. 15. References <ul><li>http:// www.alanchapman.com/erik_erikson_psychosocial_theory.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.childdevelopmentinfo.com/development/erickson.shtml </li></ul><ul><li>http://childstudy.net/erikson.php </li></ul><ul><li>http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/erikson.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.nndb.com/people/151/000097857/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.nytimes.com/books/99/08/22/specials/erikson-obit.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.phillwebb.net/History/TwentiethCentury/Continental/Psychoanalysis/Erikson/Erickson.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.nytimes.com/books/99/08/22/specials/erikson.html </li></ul><ul><li>http ://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/1960/Erikson-Erik-1902-1994.html </li></ul><ul><li>Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice </li></ul>

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