Week 8 EDS 220Behavioral Approach to EDS-220 Learning Week Dr. EvrimEvrim Baran Dr. Baran
MidtermResults• Section 5 Average: 34.5• Section 8 Average: 30.5There is a positivecorrelationbetweenthenumber of assignmentscompletedandthemidtermscore.There is a positivecorrelationbetweenthenumber of sessionseachstudentattendandthemidtermscore.
Metaphors of LearningLearning is The learner is a The teacher is Typical a instructional methodsResponse Passive recipient of Dispenser of rewards Drill and practice onstrengthening rewards and and punishments basic skills punishmentsKnowledge Information Dispenser of Textbooks,acquisition processor information workbooks, and lecturesKnowledge Sense maker Guide for Discussion, guidedconstruction understanding discovery, and academic tasks supervised participation in meaningful tasks
What is learning?• A relatively permanent change in behavior and knowledge (Woolfolk, 1993, p. 196).• Behavioral approachbehavior that is observable and measurable to a certain degree• Cognitiveapproachknowledgewhich is not observableanddifficulttomeasure.
BehavioralView CognitiveView HumanistView • Behaviorthat is • Knowledge which is • Highlightsthe role observableandm not of easurableto a certaindegree observableanddiffic emotionsandfeelin • Exploreunderlyin ulttomeasure. gs in learning. gprocesses in • Learning is an • Humansareemotio whichwelearnan internalprocessthatc nalbeings, dmaintainbehavi andemotionsinflue ors annot be • Learning is a observeddirectly, nce how change in changes in theyrecieveandrea observablebehav behaviorare a cttoinformationfro ior. reflection of mtheenvironment. internalchange.
Songs and Feelings• Think bout some songs you like and how they make you feel. Why do you feel that way when you hear a particular song? Can you trace those feelings to significant occasions in your life when each song was playing? Feeling Song – Anxiety ______ – Sadness ______ – Happiness ______ – Relazation _____
Songs and Feelings• Songs may make you feel the way you do because you associate it with particular events. – At school dance Brenda has a dance with Joe, a boy on whom she has a tremendous crush. They dance to “Michelle”’ an old Beatles song. Later’ whenever Brenda hears “Michelle”’ she feels happy. – UCS: Joe, UCR: Happy reaction to Joe – CS: “Michelle”, CR: Happy reaction to “Michelle”
ClassicalConditionin• Learning process in which an originally neutral stimulus becomes associated with a particular physiological or emotional response that the stimulus did not originally produce. – Unconditioned: Unlearned, untaught, preexisting, already-present-before-we-got-there. – "Conditioning”: We try to associate, connect, bond, link something new with the old relationship.
• Thekey element in classical conditioning isassociation.• It means that if two stimuli repeatedly experienced together, they will become associated.• For example, if a student frequently encounters unpleasant stimuli in Psychologyclass such as unfriendly teachers, difficult questions, and a lot of homework, he may learn to dislike Psychology.
Pavlov’s apparatus for classically conditioning a dog to salivate
Example• Duringmusicclass, Lisa enthusiasticallysingsaloudwith her class, but theteachercomments, “Lisa, please… yousoundlike an owl in a torturechamber.” Lisa turnsbrightred. Thenextweek, shefeelsillwhen it is time togotomusicclassagain. Feelingill at theprospect of musicclassserve as the …• (A) conditionedresponse• (B) conditionedstimulus• (C) unconditionedresponse• (D) unconditionedstimulus
Classical Conditioning in Everyday Life• Phobias• Medical Treatments• Advertising
Example: I love my mother and she loves me. This loving bond makes me feelgood and relaxed. My mother wears Miracle perfume. Now because I associatethe smell of miracle perfume with my mom, whenever I smell it, I feel good. Unconditioned stimulus The loving relationship between my mom and me Unconditioned Feeling good and relaxed response Neutral stimulus The smell of Miracle perfume before I associated. Conditioned stimulus The smell of Miracle perfume Conditioned response Feeling good and relaxed after smelling perfume. Extinction Ifmymomstarts not towearthatperfumeregularly, aftersometimethisassociationwillweaken Discrimination I do not feelgoodandrelaxedwhen I smellotherbrandsorperfume.
Applying Classical Conditioning in the ClassroomThe key element in classical conditioning is association.Therefore, teachers areencouraged to associate variety ofpositive and pleasant events with learning andclassroomactivities. For example, a teacher may:
Operant Conditioning• Consequencesof behaviourlead to changes in the probability that the behavior will occur• Students often learn and demonstrate new behaviors for the consequences that those behaviors bring. • Example: Sandy studies hard for her Accounting test. She gets an A on the test.
OperantConditioning• Mostlearningexperiencesareintentionalandgoalor iented.• Human beingsareconsciouslyinvolved in theirownlearningmost of the time. 1. Operants: Deliberate actions influenced by the consequences that follow them 2. Operant conditioning: Effort to influence learning control of the consequences of behavior 3. Basic elements of operant conditioning: Antecedents, Behavior, Consequence (ABC)
Types of ReinforcementandPunishmentReinforcement:A consequence that increases theprobability that a behaviour will occur.Punishment: A consequence that decreasesthe probabilitya behaviour will occur Reinforcementwill strengthen a behaviour while punishment will weakena behaviour.
Take note that when something is added orpresented, the process of learning is calledpositiveand when something is removed or taken away, the process of learning is called negative.
Types of Consequences• Something Good can start or be presented, so behavior increases = Positive Reinforcement (R+)• Something Good can end or be taken away, so behavior decreases = Negative Punishment (P-)• Something Bad can start or be presented, so behavior decreases = Positive Punishment (P+)• Something Bad can end or be taken away, so behavior increases = Negative Reinforcement (R-)
Schedules of Reinforcement• Reinforces are more effective when they are given as soon as possible after a student performs the target behaviour.• In continuous reinforcement like this, a student learns very rapidly but when the reinforcement stops, the behaviour decreases rapidly too.• Therefore, the schedule of reinforcement was developed.The schedule will determine when a behaviourwill be reinforced.
Reinforcement SchedulesReinforcingbehaviorevery time it Reinforcingbehaviorpoccurstoteach a eriodically (not everynewbehaviorfaster. time) tomaintain an establishedbehavior.
Antecedents and Behavior Change• Antecedents (events preceding a behavior): Provide information about which behaviors will lead to positive and negative behavior• Cueing: Providing an antecedent stimulus just before a certain behavior is to occur• Prompting: Providing students help in responding to cues
Applied Behavioral Analysis• Strengthen desirable behaviors and to decrease undesirable behaviors by using the principles of the behavioral approach. 1. Specify the behavior to be changed 2. Plan a specific intervention 3. Track the results and modify the plan if necessary
Methods to Encourage Positive Behavior• Reinforcing with teacher attention
Methods to Encourage Positive Behavior• Premack principle: Select desirable behaviors and use them as reinforces for other desirable behaviors. – Grandma’s rule: First eat your meal, and then you can have desert.
Methods to Encourage Positive Behavior• Token reinforcement: Provide reinforcement in small pieces (e.g. stickers, points, minuses, plusses).
Methods to Encourage Positive Behavior• Shaping: Reinforcing progress in successive approximations (e.g. divide skills into subskills and reinforce each of them).
Methods to Encourage Positive Behavior• Positive practice: When students make academic errors, have them practice correct responses. – E.g. When a student writes on his/her desk…
Coping with undesirable behavior• Satiation: Require student to continue inappropriate behavior until they are tired of it.
Coping with undesirable behavior• Reprimand: Criticism for student misbehavior
Coping with undesirable behavior• Response Cost: Loss of reinforcer after certain time. – E.g. Assess students with a point for each misbehavior. An accumulation of these points may cost them the loss of certain privilages. – E.g. Offending traffic rules and losing points from the driver’s license.
Coping with undesirable behavior• Social Isolation/Time out: Removal of reinforcement resulting from being in a social group. – E.g. sit separate from their friends distance from classmates. – E.g. Jail time
AssignmentforNextWeek• Bring a picture that illustrates a behavioristic teacher, classroomor an educationalsetting.• Comment on whythispictureillustrates a behavioralapproachtolearning.