Kolhberg

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Kolhberg

  1. 1. Moral Development A) 5 people are on a railway track. There is a trolley speeding toward them and they will surely be killed. You are near a lever that can divert the trolley onto another track, but there is one person on it, who will die if you pull the lever. Inaction will result in 5 deaths. What do you do? Do you sacrifice 1 to save 5? Ponder a moment then try the next one. B) 5 people are on a railway track. There is a trolley speeding toward them and they will surely be killed. You are standing on a bridge above the track, and next to you is a person who is heavy enough to stop the trolley. Do you push them onto the track, sacrificing 1 to save 5? Inaction will result in 5 deaths.
  2. 2. Focus is on Kohlberg’s theory built on Piaget’s theory and research, theory describes moral developmental stages Moral Development
  3. 3. Lawrence Kohlberg (1927-1987) was a well- known theorist in the field of moral development. He posed moral dilemmas (e.g., Heinz Dilemma) to his subjects then asked questions to probe their reasons for recommending a specific course of action.
  4. 4. Social Learning and morals Clarification Moral behavior = the framework within which judgments are made morals - used as an assessment of behavior along the dimensions of what is considered “good” or “bad” Attitudes – a response to an opinion Interests – an opinion that may change easily Beliefs – “true or false”, “correct or incorrect Sheetz, 2001, p. 198
  5. 5. The Acquisition of morals: morals are acquired gradually through the learning process: Achievement Independence Cleanliness morals may be a matter of perception… Sheetz, 2001, p.199
  6. 6. Assumptions About the Nature of Human morals 1. The total number of morals that a person possesses is relatively small 2. All men everywhere possess the same morals to different degrees 3. morals are organized into moral systems 4. The antecedents of human morals can be traced to culture, society, and its institutions and personality 5. The consequences of human morals will be manifested in virtually all phenomena that social scientists might consider worth investigating and understanding Sheetz, 2001, p. 200
  7. 7. Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Reasoning An extension of Piaget’s Stages: Kohlberg theorized that individuals progress through 3 levels to develop the ability to reason morally. Level 1: Preconventional Level – rules are set down by others Level 2: Conventional Level – Individuals adopts rules, sometimes subordinate own needs to those of the group Level 3: Postconventional Level – People define own morals in terms of ethical principles they have chosen to follow
  8. 8. Kohlberg’s Stages Kohlberg studied responses of subjects presented with ethical dilemmas to see how a person reasons determine stage of moral development I. Preconventional: Middle Childhood these first 2 stages of moral thinking relate to preoperational thought, in being egocentric emphasis on getting rewards and avoiding punishment
  9. 9. Level 1: Preconventional Level Stage 1: Punishment and Obedience Orientation. Physical consequences of action determine its goodness and badness. Stage 2: Instrumental Relativist Orientation. What’s right is whatever satisfies one’s own needs and occasionally the needs of others. Moral realism Behaviors that comply with adult commands are good, those that do not, are bad The consequences of the act are moral more than the intention behind the act Children evaluate their behavior in conforming exactly to established rules
  10. 10. STAGE 1 (PRE-CONVENTIONAL REASONING) I do that which brings reward or pleasure. I avoid that which brings punishment or pain. Pleasing POWERFUL OTHERS is the basis of morality. Actions are judged by their consequences, not by intent.
  11. 11. STAGE 2 (PRE-CONVENTIONAL REASONING) I still feel that what is moral is what is good for me, but now I have the cognitive ability to understand that others have motivations. Because I am egocentric I assume that others have the same selfish motivation as I do. Therefore, I try to manipulate others in order to get my way. (You give me what I want, and I’ll give you what you want.) No ability to take the perspective of another. What’s moral is what’s good for me.
  12. 12. STAGE 2 (PRE-CONVENTIONAL REASONING cont.) I'll scratch your back; you scratch mine. Market Exchange Morality
  13. 13. II. Conventional: End of Middle Childhood, Beginning of Adolescence - these 2 stages relate to concrete operational thought, in referencing observable practices in community • emphasis on social rules Kohlberg’s Stages, cont.
  14. 14. Level 2 Conventional Level Stage 3: “Good-Boy Nice Girl” Orientation. Good behaviors is whatever pleases or helps others and is approved of by them. One earns approval by being “nice” Stage 4: “Law and Order” Orientation. Right is doing one’s duty, showing respect for authority, and maintaining the given social order for its own sake. Sheets, 2001, p. 187
  15. 15. STAGE 3 (CONVENTIONAL REASONING) Morality consists of following the rules and norms of the group. Those who do not follow them or who cannot meet group standards are considered to be evil or bad and not worthy of respect.
  16. 16. STAGE 3 (CONVENTIONAL REASONING, cont.) Disagreements are settled by attacking or shunning the non- conformer and by inter-group conflict. Often a powerful leader may determine what is considered to be moral. Stereotyping
  17. 17. STAGE 4 (CONVENTIONAL REASONING) Morality consists of following the law and abiding by legal agreements. An understanding of contractual obligations develops. Disagreements are settled by going to court. Following proper legal procedures is a fundamental part of morality.
  18. 18. CONVENTIONAL REASONING The person develops an ability to understand both interpersonal reciprocity and rules and norms that apply to all. What is moral is what is normative (3) and legal (4). Rules and laws are now more important than individual desires.
  19. 19. III. Postconventional : Adolescence and Adulthood these 2 stages similar to formal or postformal thought, which includes ideas and ideals emphasis on moral principles Kohlberg’s Stages, cont.
  20. 20. Level 3: Postconventional Level Stage 5: Social Contract Orientation. What’s right is defined in terms of general individual rights and in terms of standards that have been agreed upon by the whole society. Laws are not “frozen” – they can be changed for the good of society Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principle Orientation. What’s right is defined by decision of conscience according to self- chosen ethical principles. (“the golden rule”) Sheetz, 2001, p.187
  21. 21. Society is viewed as a social contract among individuals. This contract is entered into in order to protect each person’s rights. Laws that deny a person or groups equal rights are immoral. SOCIAL CONTRACT MORALITY STAGE 5 (POST-CONVENTIONAL REASONING) Conflicts among rights are resolved by employing the utilitarian principle
  22. 22. STAGE 6 (POST-CONVENTIONAL REASONING) Reasoning is based upon a UNIVERSAL principle of morality. Morality is no longer tied to a particular political system (social contract).
  23. 23. STAGE 6 (POST-CONVENTIONAL REASONING) GOLDEN RULE LOVE THY NEIGHBOR AS THYSELF! We make moral judgments as though we do not know which person we are in any given moral situation. An individual does not distinguish him/herself from her/his neighbor when making moral judgments.
  24. 24. STAGE 6 (POST-CONVENTIONAL REASONING) • Moral judgments are based on this universal principle (golden rule). • Rights are still paramount. • Moral judgments are no longer bound to any particular moral code or social contract!
  25. 25. KOHLBERG CLAIMS TO HAVE IDENTIFIED A UNIVERSAL PRINCIPLE OF MORALITY. In all societies, using the golden rule principle will result in arriving at the just solution to moral problems and dilemmas.
  26. 26. Piaget’s Stages PRE-OPERATIONAL--egocentric thinking; world viewed from the individual’s perspective; no ability to take the perspective of the other CONCRETE OPERATIONAL--logical thinking about the concrete world; ability to understand rules of physical reality. FORMAL OPERATIONAL--ability to understand hypothetical abstractions; understand that physical reality reality represents only one of many hypothetical possibilities (POST-CONVENTIONAL REASONING) (CONVENTIONAL REASONING) (PRE-CONVENTIONAL REASONING)
  27. 27. UTILITARIAN PRINCIPLE (The right to life takes precedence over all other rights.) When one individual’s rights are in conflict with those of another, we choose the action that brings the greatest good to the greatest number. (Winners win more than the losers lose.)
  28. 28. HEINZ DILEMMA Scenario 1 A woman was near death from a unique kind of cancer. There is a drug that might save her. The drug cost $4,000 per dosage. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money and tried every legal means, but he could only get together about $2,000. He asked the doctor/scientist who discovered the drug for a discount or to let him pay later. But the doctor/scientist refused. Should Heinz break into the laboratory to steal the drug for his wife? Why or why
  29. 29. TABLE 10.3 Responses to One of Kohlberg’s Moral Dilemmas by People at Six Levels of Moral Reasoning The dilemma: Heinz’s wife was near death from cancer. A druggist had recently discovered a drug that might be able to save her. The druggist was charging $2000 for the drug, which cost him $200 to make. Heinz could not afford to pay for it, and he could borrow only $1000 from friends. He offered to pay the rest later. The druggist refused to sell the drug for less than the full price paid in advance: “I discovered the drug, and I’m going to make money from it.” Late that night, Heinz broke into the store to steal the drug for his wife. Did Heinz do the right thing
  30. 30. TABLE 10.3 (cont.) Responses to One of Kohlberg’s Moral Dilemmas by People at Six Levels of Moral Reasoning The dilemma: Heinz’s wife was near death from cancer. A druggist had recently discovered a drug that might be able to save her. The druggist was charging $2000 for the drug, which cost him $200 to make. Heinz could not afford to pay for it, and he could borrow only $1000 from friends. He offered to pay the rest later. The druggist refused to sell the drug for less than the full price paid in advance: “I discovered the drug, and I’m going to make money from it.” Late that night, Heinz broke into the store to steal the drug for his wife. Did Heinz do the right thing
  31. 31. Figure 10.19 Learning to distinguish right from wrong is the development of moral reasoning. Most younger adolescents give answers corresponding to Kohlberg’s earlier moral stages. By age 16 most are at Kohlberg’s fourth and fifth stages. (Based on Kohlberg, 1969)
  32. 32. Kolhberg’s Critics Kohlberg’s basic scheme has been replicated, but his ideas have been widely criticized Three Major Criticisms flawed research methods hierarchy biased in favor of Western elite moral development of women ignored
  33. 33. Criticisms of Kohlberg’s Theory  May be biased against women  Young children’s reasoning about moral situations is often higher than stage theory suggests.  Focus on moral reasoning over moral behavior
  34. 34. All human societies present people with the same moral challenges. All people are born with the same innate genetic abilities to assimilate and accommodate. ????
  35. 35. Heinz dilemma Pre-conventional Isn’t it natural for a husband to care so much for his wife that he’d steal? Conventional Whether a community’s laws are going to be upheld. Post-conventional What values are going to be the basis for governing how people act toward each other.
  36. 36. Scenario 2 Heinz broke into the laboratory and stole the drug. The next day, the newspapers reported the break- in and theft. Brown, a police officer and a friend of Heinz, remembered seeing Heinz last evening, behaving suspiciously near the laboratory. Later that night he saw Heinz running away from the laboratory. Should Brown report what he saw? Why or why not? Scenario 3 Officer Brown reported what he saw. Heinz was arrested and brought to court. Heinz was found guilty. Should the judge sentence Heinz to prison? Why or why not?
  37. 37. Kohlberg’s Critics, cont. Criticism 1: Methodology: To avoid Kohlberg’s cumbersome methodology, James Rest devised Defining Issues Test (DTI)— a questionnaire that measures moral thinking by asking people to read various dilemmas and then rank 12 statements as possible resolutions for each statement - DIT confirms validity of Kohlberg’s three levels  Limitations of Kohlberg’s Views  How Does Moral Reasoning Relate to Actual Behavior?  Knowing what is right and doing it are not the same things.  Kohlberg has been criticized for overestimating people’s moral behavior.  Kohlberg has been criticized for underestimating people’s moral behavior.
  38. 38.  Criticism 2: Cultural Differences - research suggests that in non- Western cultures, preeminent morals are different from western ones, making it harder for non-Westerners to score at Kolberg’s preconventional level - research suggests that Kohlberg’s hierarchy may underestimate reasoning capacity of some school-age children in some cultures Kohlberg’s Critics, cont.  Limitations of Kohlberg’s Views  People may describe how they would engage in higher-level moral behavior, but actually behave in the manner that is characteristic of a lower level, where there is a more tangible benefit for them.  Children may say that the reason not to do something is because they’d get caught, but when ask if they’d do it if there was no chance of getting caught, say they wouldn’t anyway.  Kohlberg’s theory does not generalize well across cultures.
  39. 39. Kohlberg’s Critics, cont. Criticism 3: Gender Issues Carol Gilligan (1982) females develop more of a morality of care—a reluctance to judge right and wrong in absolute terms because they are socialized to be nurturant, compassionate, nonjudgmental males develop more of a morality of justice—a tendency to emphasize justice over compassion, judging right and wrong in absolute terms
  40. 40. Table 10.4 Carol Gilligan’s Stages of Moral Development
  41. 41. Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s theories in relation to moral development both recognize ages 7 to 11 are time for moral growth children eager to develop moral morals in stages (Kohlberg, inspired by Piaget) or in response to cultural norms (Vygotsky and Gilligan) Information Processing
  42. 42. James Fowler’s Religious Development Stage 1. Intuitive-projective faith (early childhood) invent images of good & evil Stage 2. Mythical-literal faith (middle and late childhood) reason in more Stage 3. Synthetic-conventional faith (between childhood & adolescence) coherent belief system Stage 4. Individuating-reflexive faith (between adolescence & adulthood) responsibility for their religious beliefs Stage 5. Conjunctive faith (middle adulthood). few to this stage: being more open to paradox & opposing viewpoints Stage 6. Universalizing faith (middle or late adulthood) transcending specific belief systems to achieve sense of oneness with all being

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