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E114 Pnit5


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E114 Pnit5

  1. 1. EP114 Development in School-Aged Students<br />Unit 5 Seminar<br />Cognitive Development<br />Developmental Theories<br />(Piaget and Vygotsky)<br />
  2. 2. Questions about grades?<br />Please send me an email or meet me in a live chat session. If you would like a phone call please send me phone # in an email<br />
  3. 3. Getting to know you…<br />Did you make any New Year’s resolutions?<br />I never do, but I always work to love better, laugh more, and make a difference <br /> in another person’s life.<br />
  4. 4. Unit 5 Assignments<br />Complete Readings<br />Participate in the Discussion thread<br />Either attend Seminar OR complete Seminar Option 2<br />
  5. 5. Key Ideas in Piaget’s Theory<br />Children are active, motivated learners<br />Children naturally organize what they experience<br />schemes<br />operation<br />Children adapt to environment through assimilation& accommodation<br />Interaction with physical environment is critical<br />Interaction with others is critical<br />Equilibration leads to increasingly complex thought<br />equilibrium<br />disequilibrium<br />Children think in qualitatively different ways at different age levels <br />
  6. 6. Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development<br />
  7. 7. Sensorimotor Stage (birth – 2)<br />Begins with reflexes & sensorimotor schemes<br />Goal-directed behavior emerges<br />Object permanence emerges<br />Symbolic thought emerges <br />transition to new stage<br />
  8. 8. Preoperational Stage<br />Symbolic representation<br />Limited mental manipulation (operations)<br />egocentrism<br />failure to conserve<br />Age 2 to about age 6 or 7<br />
  9. 9. Concrete Operational Stage <br />Some mental manipulation & logical thought<br />can conserve<br />difficulty with abstract and counterfactual ideas<br />Age 6-7 years until 11-12 years<br />
  10. 10. Formal Operational Stage <br />Abstract & scientific reasoning<br />Hypothetical ideas<br />Contrary-to-fact ideas<br />Adolescents also become more idealistic<br />
  11. 11. Current Perspectives<br />Research supports sequence<br />Research does not support ages <br />infants show object permanence at 2 ½ months<br />preschoolers aren’t always egocentric and often demonstrate conservation and class inclusion<br />some elementary students exhibit abstract reasoning<br />some high-school students never develop abstract reasoning <br />Knowledge, experience, and culture affect reasoning abilities<br />conservation may be taught <br />children age 4 or 5 exhibit conservation after experiencing it<br />prior knowledge affects formal operations<br />education and culture affect cognitive development<br />Cognitive development may not be universally stage-like<br />
  12. 12. Applying the Ideas<br />Provide opportunities for children to experiment<br />Explore children’s reasoning, problem-solving with different activities & questions<br />Keep Piaget’s stages in mind, but don’t take them too literally <br />Present situations and ideas that children cannot easily explain using existing knowledge & beliefs <br />Use familiar content and tasks when asking children to reason in sophisticated ways<br />Plan group activities in which young people share their beliefs and perspectives<br />
  13. 13. Key Ideas in Vygotsky’s Theory<br />Some cognitive processes are seen in many species; others are unique to humans <br />lower vs. higher functions<br />Adults convey cultural interpretations through informal interactions & formal schooling<br />mediation<br />Every culture passes along physical and cognitive tools <br />Thought & language become interdependent <br />self-talk becomes inner speech<br />Complex mental processes begin as social activities & evolve into mental activities <br />internalization<br />
  14. 14. Key Ideas in Vygotsky’s Theory<br />Children acquire cultural tools in their own idiosyncratic manner<br />appropriation<br />Children can perform more challenging tasks when assisted<br />Challenging tasks promote cognitive growth <br />zone of proximal development<br />Play allows children to stretch themselves cognitively<br />
  15. 15. Zone of Proximal Development<br />
  16. 16. Current Perspectives on Vygotsky’s Theory<br />Social construction of meaning<br />mediated learning experience<br />Scaffolding <br />Participation in adult activities<br />guided participation<br />cognitive apprenticeship<br />Acquisition of teaching skills<br />
  17. 17. Applying the Ideas<br />Help children acquire cognitive tools<br />Use group learning activities to help children internalize cognitive strategies<br />reciprocal teaching<br />Present challenging tasks & provide sufficient scaffolding <br />help children develop strategies to scaffold themselves<br />Assess children’s abilities under a variety of work conditions<br />Provide opportunities to engage in authentic activities <br />Let children play<br />
  18. 18. Let’s hear your thoughts…<br /> Discuss your thoughts of the theories of <br />Jean Piaget's and Lev Vygotksy.<br />What similarities do you see in the two theories?<br />What differences do you see?<br />
  19. 19. Comparing Perspectives<br />
  20. 20. Comparing Perspectives<br />
  21. 21. Theoretical Differences<br />Piaget<br />Cognitive development is independent of language<br />Developmental schemes are independent, requiring little guidance<br />Interaction with peers is more valuable<br />Culture is not important in determining thinking styles<br />Vygotsky<br />Language is essential for cognitive development<br />Activities are facilitated & interpreted by more competent individual<br />Interaction with advanced individuals is more valuable<br />Culture is critical in determining thinking styles<br />
  22. 22. Take-Home Message<br />Piaget<br />children are active, motivated learners who construct understanding based on experience<br />probably underestimated capabilities of children <br />probably overestimated the capabilities of adolescents <br />Vygotsky<br />humans differ from other species in their acquisition of complex mental processes, which are largely the legacy of cultural heritage <br />Similarities<br />constructive processes, readiness, challenge, social interaction <br />Differences<br />role of language; relative value of free exploration versus structured, guided activities; relative importance of interactions with peers versus adults; influence of culture<br />
  23. 23. Piaget<br />Vygotsky<br /><ul><li>Zone of Proximal Development
  24. 24. Scaffolding
  25. 25. Language is critical to cognitive development
  26. 26. Guided exploration and instruction
  27. 27. Greater emphasis on adults and those more advanced than the child
  28. 28. Assimilation
  29. 29. Accommodation
  30. 30. Language comes after cognitive development
  31. 31. Self exploration
  32. 32. Greater emphasis peer interaction than adult
  33. 33. Constructivist process
  34. 34. Readiness
  35. 35. Challenge
  36. 36. Social interaction</li></ul>Unit 5 Project<br />Venn Diagram<br />
  37. 37. Questions?<br />Questions are <br />always welcome!<br />
  38. 38. References<br />McDevitt, T. M., & Ormrod, J. E. (2010). Child Development and Education. Saddle River: Pearson Education, Inc.<br />