Week 2 STUDY OF DEVELOPMENT AND LEARNINGEDS-220 EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Dr. Evrim Baran
Chapter 2 • Please respond to the following prompts on an index card: • Ideas you took from the readings that help you answer the guiding question related to those readings. • 2 intriguing quotes from the reading (Chapter 1) • Concern/criticism related to the readings.
Good teachers Think about your favorite teacher. What characteristics did good teachers have? Why do you think these characteristics made them good teachers? Talk with your peer and find at least 5 characteristics.
Not so good teachers Think about not so good teacher. What characteristics did these teachers have in common? Talk with your peer and find at least 5 characteristics.
Good teacher characteristics Knowledge of subject matter Knowledge of students (learner characteristics) Knowledge of educational theories and research Teaching skills and strategies Interpersonal skills
Knowledge of subject matter Knowing your discipline ◦ Examples, demonstrations, case studies, metaphors, simulations, models
Classroom Management Monitoring rules and procedures Organizing groups Delivering meaningful lessons Reacting to misbehavior
Knowledge of learners andlearning Knowledge of learners Knowledge of learning
Why do these teachers behavethat way? ◦ A teacher is trying to teach an abstract concept to fourth grade students ◦ Screaming at an adolescent in front of their peers ◦ Making fun of one’s moral values ◦ Demoralizing a student because of his/her failure to understand a basic concept ◦ Panelizing students with coursework resulting a negative attitude toward that subject
What is research? The process of systematically gathering information for the purpose of answering one or more questions. Example ◦ Research examining students’ writing indicates that students who practice writing with computers compose better quality essays than those who don’t, but only if they have well-developed word processing skills.
What type of research? Descriptive studies Correlational studies Experimental studies
Wait time and its effects How long should you wait when you ask a question to students? «Teachers often do not allow enough wait time when teaching» (Tobin, 1986).
Descriptive research Uses surveys, interviews, observations to describe opinions, attitudes, or events. What are schools’ biggest problems? ◦ Surveys of parents and teachers to determine their attitudes toward public school. ◦ Findings: Teachers: Lack of parental support, Parents: Classroom management and student discipline Describe teachers’ and parents’
Descriptive research Observations ◦ Jean Piaget, pioneer in the study of students’ cognitive development ◦ How to learners’ thinking develop? Observations of his own children
Correlational research Is there any relationship between ◦ Students’ study time and their grades in school? ◦ Students’ hair colors and their grade in schools? ◦ Students’ absences and their grades in school? Correlation: a relationship between two or more variables ◦ Positive correlation: The more time stduents spend studying, the higher their grades will be. ◦ There is no correlation between the hair color of the students and their grade in schools. ◦ Negative correlation: The more classes
Correlational research The amount of time teachers spend questioning and interacting Students’ achievements Time teachers’ spend in noninstructional activities, such as taking roll, passing out papers, and explaining procedures Students’ achievement
Experimental researchSystematicly manipulatesvariables in attempts todetermine cause and effect.Treatment groups, controlgroups
Common sense or research?Students who are not successful at acertain grade should stay at the samegrade level? Students who are retained at the same grade level because of failure in grade level courses suffer even more and have more difficult time in recovering from failure. They feel inferior to their peers, and this becomes a serious impediment on their improvement in school.
Common sense or research? What method should teacher use in selecting students to participate in a primary-grade reading class? Research by Ogden, Brophy, and Evertson (1977) indicates that the answer to this question is not so simple. In first-grade reading classes, for example, going around the circle in order and giving each child a chance to read let to better overall achievement than calling on students randomly. The system does let students figure out when their turn is coming, which gives them the opportunity to practice their own lines.
Common sense or research? What should a teacher do when students are repeatedly out of their seats without permission? Madsen, Becker’ Thomas, Koser, and Plager (1968) found that the more a teacher told students to sit down when they were out of their seats, the more often the students got out of their seats without permission. When the teacher ignored students who were out of their seats and praised students who were sitting down, the rate out-of-seat behavior dropped greatly.
Common sense or research? Should a school encourage exceptionally bright students to skip grades or to enter college early? According to Kirk and Gallagher (1983), “From early admissions to school…to early admissions to college…the research studies invariably report that those children who were accelerated made adjustments as good or better than did the comparison children of similar ability” (p. 105). Whether acceleration is the best solution for a student on many specific individual characteristics, including the intelligence and maturity of the student, and on the other available options. For some students skipping grade is a good idea.
Research and Teacher DecisionMaking TEACHERS NEED TO THINK CRITICALLY, PRACTICALLY, AND ARTISTICALLY
REFLECTIVE TEACHING Did I have a clear goal for the lesson? What was the specific goal? Was the goal important? How do I know? Was my learning activity consistent with the goal? What examples or representations would have made the lesson clearer for students? How do I know whether students understand what I taught? What would be a better wat of finding out? Overall, what will I do differently to improve the lesson the next time I teach?
Assignment Interview 5 people (your peers who are not in the faculty of education) and 5 people in the faculty of education, ask them about theır favorite teachers «WHAT MAKES THEM GOOD TEACHERS?». Write down the characteristics and compare the findings between groups. Is there any difference? Any similarities? What are the common characteristics?