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Kohlberg’s theory of moral development


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Kohlberg’s theory of moral development

  1. 1. BY ASMA JABEEN 12/13/2014 1
  2. 2.  Moral psychology  Moral development  Lawrence Kohlberg (1927-1987)  Heinz dilemma  Moral development theory(1958)  Criticism  References 12/13/2014 2
  3. 3.  Moral psychology is the study of the development of the moral sense  This is the capacity of forming judgments about what is morally right or wrong, good or bad. 12/13/2014 3
  4. 4.  Moral development is the process through which children develop proper attitudes and behaviors toward other people in society, based on social and cultural norms, rules, and laws. 12/13/2014 4
  5. 5.  Lawrence Kohlberg was an American Psychologist and is known for theory of moral development.  He agreed with Piaget's (1932) theory of moral development in principle but wanted to develop his ideas further.  He was particularly well-known for his theory of moral development which he popularized through research studies 12/13/2014 5
  6. 6.  A dilemma that psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg used in his original research was the druggist's dilemma: Heinz Steals the Drug In Europe.  A woman was near death from a special kind of cancer There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to produce. He paid $200 for the radium and charged $2,000 for a small dose of the drug. 12/13/2014 6
  7. 7.  The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together about $1,000 which is half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said: "No, I discovered the drug and I'm going to make money from it." So Heinz got desperate and broke into the man's store to steal the drug for his wife. 12/13/2014 7
  8. 8.  Kohlberg asked the question from people Should Heinz have broken into the laboratory to steal the drug for his wife? Why or why not? 12/13/2014 8
  9. 9.  Kohlberg outlined three broad levels and six more specific stages of moral development in his theory Levels Pre conventional Conventional Post conventional 12/13/2014 9
  10. 10.  Stage 1. Obedience and Punishment orientation (How can I avoid punishment?)  Stage 2. Self-interest orientation (What's in it for me?) Incentive for good grades or doing a chore. (Paying for a benefit) 12/13/2014 10
  11. 11.  Stage 3. Interpersonal accord and conformity (Social norms) (The good boy/girl attitude)  Stage 4. Authority and social-order maintaining orientation (Law and order morality) dictation of morality ) 12/13/2014 11
  12. 12.  5. Social contract orientation (Awareness of laws and rules)  6. Universal ethical principles (Principled conscience) 12/13/2014 12
  13. 13.  At the pre-conventional level (most nine-year- olds and younger, some over nine), we don’t have a personal code of morality  Moral code is shaped by the standards of adults and the consequences of following or breaking their rules 12/13/2014 13
  14. 14.  The child/individual is good in order to avoid being punished. If a person is punished they must have done wrong. 12/13/2014 14
  15. 15.  At this stage children recognize that there is not just one right view that is handed down by the authorities. Different individuals have different viewpoints. 12/13/2014 15
  16. 16.  At the conventional level (most adolescents and adults), we begin to internalize the moral standards of valued adult role models.  Authority is internalized but not questioned and reasoning is based on the norms of the group to which the person belongs. 12/13/2014 16
  17. 17.  The child/individual is good in order to be seen as being a good person by others. Therefore, answers are related to the approval of others. 12/13/2014 17
  18. 18.  The child/individual becomes aware of the wider rules of society so judgments concern obeying rules in order to uphold the law and to avoid guilt. 12/13/2014 18
  19. 19.  Individual judgment is based on self-chosen principles, and moral reasoning is based on individual rights and justice (10–15% of adults, not before mid-30s). 12/13/2014 19
  20. 20.  The child/individual becomes aware that while rules/laws might exist for the good of the greatest number, there are times when they will work against the interest of particular individuals. The issues are not always clear cut. For example, in Heinz’s dilemma the protection of life is more important than breaking the law against stealing. 12/13/2014 20
  21. 21.  People at this stage have developed their own set of moral guidelines which may or may not fit the law. The principles apply to everyone. E.g. human rights, justice and equality. The person will be prepared to act to defend these principles even if it means going against the rest of society in the process and having to pay the consequences of disapproval and or imprisonment. Kohlberg doubted few people reached this stage. 12/13/2014 21
  22. 22.  Stage one (obedience): Heinz should not steal the medicine, because he will consequently be put in prison.  Stage two (self-interest): Heinz should steal the medicine, because he will be much happier if he saves his wife, even if he will have to serve a prison sentence.  Stage three (conformity): Heinz should steal the medicine, because his wife expects it; he wants to be a good husband.  Stage four (law-and-order): Heinz should not steal the medicine, because the law prohibits stealing making it illegal. 12/13/2014 22
  23. 23.  Stage five (human rights): Heinz should steal the medicine, because everyone has a right to choose life, regardless of the law. Or: Heinz should not steal the medicine, because the scientist has a right to fair compensation.  Stage six (universal human ethics): Heinz should steal the medicine, because saving a human life is a more fundamental value than the property rights of another person. Or: Heinz should not steal the medicine, because others may need the medicine just as badly, and their lives are equally significant. 12/13/2014 23
  24. 24.  The dilemmas are artificial (i.e. they lack ecological validity)  The sample is biased  The dilemmas are hypothetical (i.e. they are not real)  Poor research design was used 12/13/2014 24
  25. 25.  Barger, R.N. (2000). A summary of Kohlberg's summary of Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development. Retrievedfrom abermas/kohlberg01bk.htm  Cherry, K.( 2013). Kohlberg’s theory of moral development. Retrieved from entalpsychology/a/kohlberg.htm  George, C.B. (2003). Moral development. retrieved from cgboer/genpsymoraldev.html 12/13/2014 25
  26. 26.  Heinz delimma.(n.d) Retrieved from  Editors of Encyclopedia (2013). Moral psychology. Retrieved from topic/1383350/moral-psychology 12/13/2014 26