Development Psych

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Development Psych

  1. 1. Moral Development • Lawrence Kohlberg (1927-1987) presented moral dilemmas and analyzed responses • Preconventional – Behavior guided by punishments and rewards • Conventional – Standards learned from parents and society • Postconventional – Standards of society and abstract principles (personal moral code)
  2. 2. Moral Development Evaluating Kohlberg: Moral Reasoning ≠ Moral Behavior What we say and do are not always consistent
  3. 3. Parenting Styles
  4. 4. Parenting Styles
  5. 5. Parenting Styles • Authoritarian – Parents are controlling and punitive – Correlated with lack of initiative, poor communication skills, social incompetence • Authoritative – Parents encourage independence with limits – Correlated with social competence, social responsibility, and self- control • Neglectful – Parents are generally uninvolved – Correlated with less social incompetence and poor self-control • Indulgent – Parents are involved, but place few limits – Correlated with poor social competence, lack of respect for others, poor self-control
  6. 6. ADOLESCENCE, ADULTHOOD, AND AGING
  7. 7. Adolescence • Transition from childhood to adulthood • Balance positive and negative aspects • Marked by the search for identity • Roughly 75% are happy, enjoy life, believe they can cope effectively with stress, and value school and work
  8. 8. Adolescence (Cognitive) • Piaget’s Formal Operational Stage – Abstract, idealistic, and logical thought – Hypothetical-deductive reasoning • Adolescent Egocentrism – The belief that others are as preoccupied with the adolescent as he or she is – Sense of uniqueness – Sense of invincibility  risky behaviors
  9. 9. Socioemotional Development • Erikson: Psychosocial Development – Stage 5: Identity versus identity confusion • James Marcia’s Four Identity Statuses Exploration and Commitment – Identity diffusion • (no exploration; no commitment) – Identity foreclosure • (commitment without exploration) – Identity moratorium • (exploration but no commitment) – Identity achievement • (exploration and commitment)
  10. 10. Socioemotional Development
  11. 11. Adulthood (physical) • Early Adulthood – Most reach the peak of physical development • Middle Adulthood – Most lose height, many gain weight – Menopause for women (late 40s or early 50s)
  12. 12. Adulthood (Cognitive) • Early adulthood – Marked by relative and reflective thinking – Considerable variation influenced by education • Middle adulthood – Crystallized intelligence increases • Our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills – Fluid intelligence begins to decline • Our ability to reason abstractly
  13. 13. Adulthood (Cognitive)
  14. 14. Adulthood (Socioemotional) Erikson’s Theory: Last 4 Stages 5. Identity versus role confusion (adolescence) 6. Intimacy versus isolation 7. Generativity versus stagnation 8. Integrity versus despair
  15. 15. Adulthood (Socioemotional) • Midlife Crisis or Midlife Consciousness? • Research reveals that midlife – Is not particularly tumultuous, mostly positive – Is relatively low in experienced anxiety – Adults show resilience and good coping skills – Brings few illnesses, but poor physical fitness • Awareness of gap between young and old
  16. 16. Adulthood (Socioemotional) • Activity  Satisfaction and Good Health • Value Emotional Satisfaction – Spend time with family and friends • Narrow Social Interactions – Restrict contact with less familiar individuals

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