Week 9 EDS 220Social Learning Views of EDS-220 Learning Week Dr. EvrimEvrim Baran Dr. Baran
Assignment from last week• Bring a picture that illustrates a behavioristic teacher, classroom or an educational setting.• Comment on why this picture illustrates a behavioral approach to learning.
Which behaviors have you learned byobserving other people doing first? Can you think of academic skills you’ve learned by watching or listening to someone else? What social skills you learned by observing others? What motor skills have you learned by observing others?
We learn a wide variety of behaviorsobserving the people in our lives and in the media. Social Learning Theory: Understanding what and how people learn by observing others and how, in the process, people begin to assume control over their own behavior.
Basic assumptions of Social Cognitive Theory• Albert Bandura, Stanford University – Social cognitive theory examines the process involved as people learn from observing others and gradually acquire control over their behavior. – Behavior, environment, and personal factors all influence each other.
Basic assumptions of Social Cognitive TheoryCognitive theorists/Cognitive Psychology Define learning as an internal mental process that may or may not be reflected in the learner’s behavior.
Basic assumptions of Social Cognitive Theory• People learn by observing others• Learning is an internal process that may or may not lead to a behavior change• People and their environment mutually influence each other• Behavior is directed toward particular goals• Behavior becomes increasingly self-regulated.
Basic assumptions of Social Cognitive TheoryRECIPROCAL CAUSATION/ A students’ low score on his/her math testDETERMINISIM: Constant (environmental factor) influenced his/her interplay among belief (personal factor) about his/her environment, behavior ability to do math. His/her belief, in and personal variables. turn, influenced his/her behavior, such as changing study habits. When someone do something, and as a VICARIOUS result, that behavior is reinforced or LEARNING weakened, observing this process can teach others about that behavior and its consequences.
What is a model?MODEL: Person who demonstrates abehavior for someone else
Processes of Observational Learning: The degree to whichpeople observe and imitate a model’s behavior.• Attention• Retention• Production• Motivation
Processes of Observational Learning: Attention• Pay attention to the model – Critical aspects of the behavior
Processes of Observational Learning: Retention• Remember what the model doed.• Encoding – Why, how and when something is done – Forms of mental pictures (visual or verbal)• Observer should engage in overt and mental rehearsal.
Processes of Observational Learning: Production• Converting verbal and visual representations into appropriate actions. – Practice, feedback, coaching• Self-efficacy: Belief about personal competence in a particular situation
Processes of Observational Learning: Motivation• Motivated to demonstrate a modeled behavior• Reinforcement mainly serves as an antecedent rather than as a consequent influence. – Anticipation of reinforcement can influence what is observed. – Anticipated benefits can strengthen the retention of what has been learned observationally by motivating people to code and rehearse modeled behavior.
Types of Reinforcement Direct reinforcementSelf reinforcement Vicarious reinforcement
Effects of Observational Learning• Helps the acquisition of new skills and the performance• Encourages and facilitates the use of already learned behaviors.• Increases or decreases the rate of performance of the behavior that have been acquired and performed under inhibitation.• Arouses emotions.
Inhibitation: Self-imposed restriction on one’sbehavior.Disinhibitatory effect: Behaviors exhibited by the model thatare followed by positive consequences are likely to producean increase in the performance of the behaviors.Inhibitatory effect: Behaviors exhibited by the model that arefollowed by negative consequences are likely to produce adecrease in the performance of the behaviors by theobserver. Less likely to cheat in exam if observed others cheatingcaught and punished.
Self regulation: Learners use their own thoughts abdactions to achieve academic learning goals.• Goal setting: Establish purposes, actions. Challenging but realistic goals. – I will complete the weekly assignments every week before the class.• Self-observation: Monitoring own progress to achieve goals (keeping charts, recording activities, checking the chart against predetermined goals) – I record my own learning progress in this course through a checklist.• Self-assessment: Making judgment about the quality of the learner’s own behavior. – How well I do in class? Midterm? – To what degree did I achieve my goals? – What changes should I make in my plans for studying for the ed psych course? – Do I need help to achieve my goals?• Self-reinforcement: Reinforcing or punishing oneself. – I am not going to watch the weekly tv show for some time because of my lower score in the midterm. – I am going to buy that t-shirt because I am above the average in the midterm.
Self-regulation• Should we impose goals on students or let them choose their own goals? – Level of difficulty? – How to deal with overly ambitious students or perfectionist ones?
Self-regulation• Unfortunately, few students develop a high level of self-regulated learning. Why?
Self-regulated Learning• Goal setting• Planning• Self-motivation• Attention control• Flexible use of learning strategies• Self-monitoring• Appropriate help seeking• Self evaluation
Self-reflection about self- regulation• With regard to my final course grades, I am trying very hard to a. Earn all As b. Earn all As and Bs c. Keep my overall grade point average at or above the minimally acceptable level at my college. Goal setting
Self-reflection about self- regulation• As I am reading or studying textbook a. I often notice my attention is wandering, and I immediately get my mind back on my work b. I sometimes notice when my attention is wondering, but not always c. I often get so lost in daydreams that I waste a lot of time Self-observing
Self-reflection about self- regulation• Whenever I finish a study session a. I write down how much time I have spent on my schoolwork b. I make a mental note of how much time I have spent on my schoolwork c. I don’t really think much about the time I spent. Self-assessment
Self-reflection about self- regulation• When I do exceptionally well on an assignment – I feel good about my performance and might reward myself in some way – I feel good about my performance but don’t do anything special for myself – I don’t feel much different than I did before I received my grade. Self-reinforcement
Assignment• Conduct an interview with a friend (from another department) and ask about his/her study habits. Focus on specific self-regulatory strategies she/he uses and his/her awareness of what she does as she/he studies. Possible questions: – What are the different ways that you learn? – When you have an exam, how do you study for it and when? – What types of study skills do you practice on a regular basis? – If you have a lo of work for one subject and a few things in other subjects, in what kind of order do you attack the tasks? – At what time of day do you learn the best? – What do you need to change I your habits to study more efficiently?