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Teachers: A STUDY ON RECRUITMENT,                   DEVELOPMENT AND SALARIES                       OF TEACHERS IN ARMENIA ...
A STUDY ON RECRUITMENT, DEVELOPMENT AND     SALARIES OF TEACHERS IN ARMENIA      International Education Policy Studies   ...
ContentsList of Acronyms................................................................................................5L...
Part 4: Country-specific issues related to teacher quality.............554.1 TEACHER SURPLUS.................................
List of AcronymsAMD		      Armenian Dram (currency)ASPU		     Armenian State Pedagogical UniversityCEE/CIS	   Central and ...
List of Tables and FiguresTable 1.1 Number of university students studying to be teachers in state and          private in...
© ????????                                                                     © ????????                                 ...
Part 1                          1                                                         Part 1: Background              ...
Part 1at the school level and gathering statistical information at the district and central level, the research teams     ...
Part 1                          1                                                                                     Shir...
Part 1Table 1.2 Teachers by age group and location                                                                        ...
Part 1                          1                                                                                    Teach...
Part 1 French language                                                                    347          0.8                ...
Part 1                          1                                                                                    Teach...
Part 1riculum change, are implemented at a significantly faster rate than reforms in the higher education arena.          ...
Part 1                          1                                                                                    Natio...
Part 1regional and intra- and interschool levels, and limited professional development opportunities available            ...
Part 1                                                                                    sion of good quality education a...
Part 1research that inform the larger educational context. A number of these reports include information on the           ...
Part 1                          1                                                                                    Liter...
© ????????                              Research design and methods                                                       ...
Part 2                          1                                                         Part 2: Research design and meth...
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
Unicef teachers final_eng_mh
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Teacher shortage in Armenia, case study. Commissioned by UNICEF Armenia. Major issues: recruitment into teaching, low salaries, transition from student to work, ageing, feminization of teaching profession, teacher development.

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  1. 1. Teachers: A STUDY ON RECRUITMENT, DEVELOPMENT AND SALARIES OF TEACHERS IN ARMENIA International Education Policy Studiesunite forchildren
  2. 2. A STUDY ON RECRUITMENT, DEVELOPMENT AND SALARIES OF TEACHERS IN ARMENIA International Education Policy Studies Raisa Belyavina and Ann Wiley Teachers College, Columbia University, New York Tigran Tovmasyan Yerevan State Linguistic University, Armenia Ruben Petrosyan Yerevan State University, Armenia Alvard Poghosyan and Armine Ter-Ghevondyan UNICEF Armenia
  3. 3. ContentsList of Acronyms................................................................................................5List of Tables and Figures..................................................................................6Part 1: Background..........................................................................71.1 THE UNICEF SIX-COUNTRY STUDY...........................................................81.2 THE COMPOSITION AND QUALIFICATIONS OF THE TEACHING FORCE IN ARMENIA.................................................................................91.3 THE TEACHER EDUCATION SYSTEM & RECRUITMENT INTO TEACHING IN ARMENIA..........................................................................131.4 TEACHER RECRUITMENT INTO THE PROFESSION................................151.5 LITERATURE REVIEW ON EXISTING TEACHER RESEARCH STUDIES IN ARMENIA AND THE CEE/CIS..............................................18Part 2: Research design and methods...........................................212.1 SAMPLING DESIGN AND PROCEDURE...................................................222.2 SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS....................................................................222.3 SUMMARY OF COLLECTED DATA...........................................................252.4 DATA COLLECTION TOOLS AND DATA ANALYSIS..................................262.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY...................................................................27Part 3: Cross-national comparative analysis..................................313.1 TEN-PLUS-ONE INDICATORS FOR TEACHER SHORTAGE IN ARMENIA.............................................................................................343.2 THE MAIN INDICATORS FOR MEASURING TEACHER QUALITY IN ARMENIA.............................................................................383.3 THE ACTUAL WORKLOAD OF TEACHERS IN ARMENIA..........................48
  4. 4. Part 4: Country-specific issues related to teacher quality.............554.1 TEACHER SURPLUS..................................................................................564.2 UNQUALIFIED TEACHERS AND TEACHING PROFESSIONALS...............584.3 TEACHER TRAINING AND THE CLASSROOM..........................................58Part 5: Teacher recruitment, development and retention policies in Armenia ...........................................................615.1 CURRENT CHALLENGES AND POLICIES IN ARMENIA: AN OVERVIEW..........................................................................................625.2 POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS.................................................................63Appendix A: The Republic of Armenia Law on General Education................68Appendix B: Countrywide vacancies by subject in 2009...............................75Appendix C: Summary data on teacher vacancies by marz............................77References........................................................................................................78
  5. 5. List of AcronymsAMD Armenian Dram (currency)ASPU Armenian State Pedagogical UniversityCEE/CIS Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent StatesEFA Education for AllEQR World Bank Armenia Education Quality and Relevance ProjectHEI Higher Education InstitutionMoES Ministry of Education and ScienceMoF Ministry of Finance and EconomyNCET National Centre of Education TechnologiesNIE National Institute of EducationOECD Organization for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentRA Republic of ArmeniaSOSAP Staff Optimization and Social Assistance ProgrammeUNDP United Nations Development ProgrammeWB World BankYSU Yerevan State University
  6. 6. List of Tables and FiguresTable 1.1 Number of university students studying to be teachers in state and private institutions, 2008/2009 ...............................................................................................9Figure 1.1 Teacher distribution by age group.......................................................................................... 11Table 1.2 Teachers by age group and location....................................................................................... 10Figure 1.2 Teacher distribution by subjects, 2008/2009..........................................................................12Table 1.3 Teacher distribution by subjects, 2008/2009 .........................................................................12Table 2.1 Number of teacher vacancies and teaching hours by marz..................................................23Table 2.2 Sample characteristics of the 10 selected schools.................................................................24Table 2.3 List of interviewees and sample size......................................................................................25Table 2.4 Summary of interviews and collected data............................................................................26Table 2.5 Teacher shortage rates: Empirical and official teacher shortage rates ................................28Table 2.6 Teacher shortages by subject: Gegharkunik and Lori marzes ...............................................29Table 3.1 Armenia-specific indicators.....................................................................................................34Table 3.2 Ten-plus-one indicators for teacher shortage in the Republic of Armenia..................................................................................................................36Table 3.3 Professionals without pedagogical degrees working as teachers........................................38Table 3.4 Examples of subjects taught by non-specialist teachers......................................................40Table 3.5 Qualifications and educational background of teachers.......................................................42Table 3.6 Ageing teacher population in the sample schools.................................................................43Table 3.7 Breakdown of teaching load by school ..................................................................................45Table 3.8 Highest and lowest stavka loads in ten schools ....................................................................49Table 3.9 Salary compensation scheme for Armenia............................................................................52Table 4.1 Number of state general education institutions: Student numbers, 2008/2009…….......................................................................................... 57
  7. 7. © ???????? © ???????? Part 1 BACKGROUND7 5 4 3 2 1 TEACHERS: A STUDY ON RECRUITMENT, DEVELOPMENT AND SALARIES OF TEACHERS IN ARMENIA
  8. 8. Part 1 1 Part 1: Background 1.1 THE UNICEF SIX-COUNTRY STUDY 2 In 2009, UNICEF Kyrgyzstan commissioned a study on teacher quality and teacher shortage that greatly resonated in the education policy community in Kyrgyzstan. The study was also presented at the Central Asian Forum on Education, organized by UNICEF in September 2009. The study identified 11 indicators 3 for measuring real teacher shortage, including number of teachers, teachers with excessive number of teaching hours that significantly surpass the normal teaching load, and substitute teachers who teach in schools in Kyrgyzstan. UNICEF’s Regional Office for Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth 4 of Independent States (CEE/CIS) encouraged the national UNICEF offices in the region to conduct similar studies on teacher quality and, where applicable, on teacher shortage in their own countries. 5 Six UNICEF country offices expressed interest in participating in a comparative study on teacher quality/ shortage in general education: • Armenia • Bosnia and Herzegovina • Kyrgyz Republic (with a focus on early childhood education) • Republic of Moldova • The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia • UzbekistanTEACHERS: A STUDY ON RECRUITMENT, DEVELOPMENT AND SALARIES OF TEACHERS IN ARMENIA These UNICEF offices of the CEE/CIS region have partnered with Teachers College, Columbia University in New York to conduct this six-country study. Gita Steiner-Khamsi, professor of comparative and interna- tional education, has supervised the research project and provided advice throughout the various stages of this collaborative research project. Erin Weeks-Earp, graduate research and teaching assistant at Columbia University, assisted her. The researchers of this study are from the six participating countries – mostly UNICEF education officers, university lecturers and government representatives – as well as from Columbia University. The data was collaboratively collected in March 2010 and subsequently analysed and interpreted by the country-specific research teams composed of researchers based in the region as well as in New York. The New York-based researchers (masters or doctoral students from Columbia University) took the lead in writing up the techni- cal report. The research team in Armenia consisted of the following individuals: • Ruben Petrosyan, Yerevan State University, Armenia • Alvard Poghosyan and Armine Ter-Ghevondyan, UNICEF Armenia • Tigran Tovmasyan, Yerevan State Linguistic University, Armenia • Raisa Belyavina and Ann Wiley, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, USA The situation regarding teacher quality/shortage varies considerably across the CEE/CIS region. In some countries of the region, teacher shortage only exists in rural areas and/or for specific subjects or grade levels. In a few countries, there is an oversupply of teachers for some subjects and in some districts of the country. In other counties, however, teacher shortage is ubiquitous, yet masked because of creative cop- ing strategies at the school level. Many of these coping mechanisms or survival strategies of schools – for example, redistributing vacant hours to other teachers at a school – have a negative impact on student learning. This six-country study attempts to identify regional, as well as country-specific, issues with regard to teach- 8 er supply, teacher quality and recruitment into teaching (graduates from pedagogical degree programmes who enter the teaching profession). In addition to collecting data on teacher shortage and teacher quality BACKGRO U N D
  9. 9. Part 1at the school level and gathering statistical information at the district and central level, the research teams 1also analysed relevant policies and ‘best practices, not only in the participating countries in the region, butalso in other parts of the world that attempt to enhance teacher attractiveness, development and retention. 21.2 THE COMPOSITION AND QUALIFICATIONS OF THE TEACHING FORCE IN ARMENIAEducation in Armenia has traditionally been highly valued. The current education system was set up dur- 3ing the first Republic of Armenia (1918–1920) and was further developed during the years of the SovietRegime (1920–1990). The professional teacher training system, which consisted of higher and secondarypre-service teacher training institutions, was established in 1920. Today, education remains a national pri- 4ority and the Government of Armenia strives to ensure that the education system meets the demands ofthe new democratic society established in 1991 and is compatible with international standards. After inde-pendence, the education system was restored and strengthened with assistance from international donor 5agencies through a series of reforms that were initiated by the government. A number of laws and decreeswere issued right after independence to reinforce the sustainability of reform initiatives. In addition, indi-viduals and organizations introduced private provisions of educational services. As a result, many privateschools and teacher training institutions were founded. Currently, there are six state and number of privatepre-service teacher training institutions in the country. In addition, 27 colleges prepare graduates with thequalification of pedagogue (MoES, 2010, 14).Composition of the teacher workforce TEACHERS: A STUDY ON RECRUITMENT, DEVELOPMENT AND SALARIES OF TEACHERS IN ARMENIAThere are 42,601 teachers working in 1,475 public schools in Armenia; 84.6 per cent are women and 15.4per cent are men. In Yerevan in particular, the number of female teachers is significantly higher than thenumber of male teachers (90.1 per cent) (NaCET 2009). A decade ago, the government recognized thefeminization of the teacher workforce as one of the challenges in the public education system in Armenia.According to a government report, “The teacher gender misbalance has several manifestations…[includ-ing] a school feminization process (85 per cent of teachers are female) in the public education sphere,which is not guaranteeing a comprehensive preparation of a citizen. However, in the past 10 years, there ”has been no government plan to attract more male teachers into the pedagogical cadre.Table 1.1 Number of university students studying to be teachers in stateand private institutions, 2008/2009 Region Male Female Total Male, % Female, % Yerevan 1,063 9,728 10,791 9.9 90.1 Aragatsotn 676 2,324 3000 22.5 77.5 Ararat 459 2,790 3249 14.1 85.9 Armavir 578 3,208 3786 15.3 84.7 Gegharkunik 794 3,022 3816 20.8 79.2 Lori 610 3,495 4105 14.9 85.1 Kotayk 551 3,269 3820 14.4 85.6 9BACKGROUND
  10. 10. Part 1 1 Shirak 698 3,657 4355 16.0 84.0 Syunik 486 2,026 2512 19.4 80.7 2 Vayotc Dzor 259 789 1048 24.7 75.3 3 Tavush 394 1,725 2119 18.6 81.4 Total 6,568 36,033 42,601 15.4 84.6 4 Source: NaCET, 2009, p. 35 The teacher population by age 5 In 2004, the National Center for Education Technologies (NaCET) was established as the national agency in charge of the Education Management Information System (EMIS). Its role is to provide Internet connec- tions, computer networks and equipment to public schools; create an information communication technol- ogy (ICT) environment in schools; and enhance teacher knowledge and skills on utilization of information technology (I.T.). NaCET is also responsible for collecting, analysing and publishing statistical data on schools. This agency produces the Education in Armenia statistical bulletin, which includes data on teach- ers, classified by qualification, place of residence and age. Figure 1.1 shows, with data from NaCET, how teachers are classified into one of four age categories: young (34 years old or less), middle age (35–49 years of age), senior (50–64 years of age), and pension age (65TEACHERS: A STUDY ON RECRUITMENT, DEVELOPMENT AND SALARIES OF TEACHERS IN ARMENIA years or older). The graph illustrates that most teachers are in the middle age or senior group. Figure 1.1 Teacher distribution by age group PERCENTAGE OF TEACHERS BY AGE GROUPS d. Pension age group a. Young 2% teachers 23% c. Senior teachers 34% b. Middle age group 41% Source: NaCET, 2009 Table 1.2 presents a breakdown of teachers by age group with specific information on age distribution by marzes (provinces). This data also demonstrates that on the level of marzes, middle- and senior-age teach- ers make up the bulk of the teaching workforce. It also shows that the number of young teachers entering10 the profession is smaller than the number of teachers in the middle-age and senior group who are nearing retirement. BACKGRO U N D
  11. 11. Part 1Table 1.2 Teachers by age group and location 1 Less than 25 years 65 and 25–29 30–34 35–39 40–44 45–49 50–54 55–59 60–64 more Total old Region 2 3 Yerevan 378 720 951 1249 1483 1654 1750 1456 832 318 10,791 Aragatsotn 146 209 367 418 491 476 446 275 138 34 3,000 Ararat 144 224 306 404 420 490 561 477 195 28 3,249 4 Armavir 186 287 403 494 500 542 580 549 221 24 3,786 Ghegark- 5 hunik 145 326 503 579 604 525 495 396 195 48 3,816 Lori 253 324 452 468 572 595 672 520 216 33 4,105 Kotayk 208 305 456 498 518 549 595 445 209 37 3,820 Shirak 230 430 507 555 604 585 639 522 255 28 4,355 Syunik 135 227 252 282 330 337 415 356 160 18 2,512 Vayotc Dzor 61 80 93 109 163 178 150 136 70 8 1,048 TEACHERS: A STUDY ON RECRUITMENT, DEVELOPMENT AND SALARIES OF TEACHERS IN ARMENIA Tavush 96 144 230 257 287 297 299 278 166 65 2,119 Total 1,982 3,276 4,520 5,313 5,972 6,228 6,602 5,410 2,657 641 42,601 4.7% 7.7% 10.6% 12.5% 14.0% 14.6% 15.5% 12.7% 6.2% 1.5%Source: NaCET, 2009The official retirement age in Armenia is 64.1 Teachers who are eligible for pensions start to receive theirfull retirement pay at this age even if they continue to work. In September 2009, there were 962 pension-age teachers in both public and private schools, or 2.2 per cent out of the total number of teachers. Ofthose pension-age teachers, 45.7 per cent worked in Yerevan. The number of teachers with two years to gobefore pension was 880, with 37.8 per cent of them working in Yerevan (NaCET 2009).Qualification of teaching force in Armenia: Teacher education backgroundIn Armenia, 82.1 per cent of 42,601 total teachers have higher education degrees, and 81.9 per cent (28,613)of those teachers have a pedagogical qualification degree. Teachers with incomplete higher educationcomprise 14.3 per cent of the total, and 72 per cent of those teachers have incomplete pedagogical educa-tion. The highest number of teachers with incomplete higher education is reported in Gegharkunik marzat 23 per cent, and the lowest is in Yerevan, at 8.8 per cent. Overall, 67.1 per cent of teachers working ingeneral education institutions have higher pedagogical education qualification (NaCET 2009, 40). It shouldbe noted that during the 2007/2008 school year, the reported number of teachers with incomplete highereducation was 893 (Center for Education Projects 2008). This suggests that there is a discrepancy in report-ing, since in 2008/2009, the same figure was 6,081. In 2010, the number of teachers with incomplete highereducation was reported to be 2,053. In the 2008/2009 school year, there were 1,205 (2.8 per cent) teacherswith vocational education degrees who worked in general education institutions. Of those teachers, 139graduated from non-licensed tertiary education institutions, and 220 had secondary education diplomasand no higher education (NaCET 2009, 40). 111 The official retirement age will be 65 starting in 2011, following an amendment to the law adopted in 2010.BACKGROUND
  12. 12. Part 1 1 Teachers by subject Table 1.3 and Figure 1.2 illustrate the number of teachers employed in Armenia by subjects taught. Primary school teachers constitute the biggest group (14.8 per cent). The smallest group consists of German and 2 French language teachers (0.8 per cent). There is missing data on social science teachers because history teachers mainly teach social science subjects. As of now, there are no higher education institutions (HEIs) in Armenia that provide social studies teachers with such qualifications, and government reported data 3 includes no information on the number of social science teachers. Figure 1.2 Teacher distribution by subjects, 2008/2009 4 6312 Armenian Language and Literature 5544 5 4794 Russian Language and Literature 3838 2670 Physics 2180 2142 Physical EducaƟon 2077 1977 Biology 1556 1540 Other 1491 1444 Preliminary Military PreparaƟon 1309TEACHERS: A STUDY ON RECRUITMENT, DEVELOPMENT AND SALARIES OF TEACHERS IN ARMENIA 902 Music 845 708 Educator/Tutor 584 347 German Language 341 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 Source: NCET, 2009. Table 1.3 Teacher distribution by subjects, 2008/2009 Subjects Number of teachers Per cent Armenian language and literature 5,544 13.0 Russian language and literature 3,838 9.0 Mathematics 4,794 11.3 Physics 2,180 5.1 Chemistry 1,540 3.6 Biology 1,556 3.7 History 2,670 6.3 Geography 1,444 3.4 Music 845 2.0 Physical education/training 2,077 4.9 Art 708 1.7 Preliminary military preparedness 1,309 3.112 English language 2,142 5.0 BACKGRO U N D
  13. 13. Part 1 French language 347 0.8 1 German language 341 0.8 Technology 1,977 4.6 2 Armenian church history 902 2.1 Primary school teacher 6,312 14.8 Educator 584 1.4 3 Other 1,491 3.5 Total 42,601 100.0 4Source: NaCET, 2009.According to the National Curriculum Framework, of the 8,376 annual teaching hours at the basic school 5level (grades 1–9), 53.4 per cent of time is dedicated to Armenian language and literature, foreign lan-guages and mathematics. Armenian language and literature teachers constitute 13 per cent of the teach-ing force, mathematics teachers account for 11.3 per cent of the teacher population and foreign languageteachers make up 15.6 per cent of all teachers (this count includes Russian language and literature teach-ers). ‘Secondary subjects’ are subjects that do not have government-standardized exams, including arts(5.4 per cent of the total academic hours) and technology/arts and crafts (3.9 per cent of the total academichours), among others, including social sciences (MoES 2004, 46). In the 10 schools examined in this study,administrators place greater emphasis on teacher employment in the ‘priority subjects,’ or core subjectsthat are state tested. This will be discussed further in section three. TEACHERS: A STUDY ON RECRUITMENT, DEVELOPMENT AND SALARIES OF TEACHERS IN ARMENIA1.3 THE TEACHER EDUCATION SYSTEM & RECRUITMENT INTO TEACHING IN ARMENIAIn 2005, Armenia joined the Bologna process and became a member of the European Higher EducationArea. Since then, HEIs, including pedagogical universities, are introducing a two-cycle degree systembased on a credit system (European Credit Transfer System). Currently, graduates of pedagogical universi-ties are obtaining bachelor’s degrees after four years of study, and can then apply for two-year master’sprogrammes. This shift to the master’s programme model did not require a drastic change from the priormodel of five-year pedagogical programmes, and new qualifications are not obtained by the graduates ofmaster’s programmes.University admittance examsThe current system of university admittance exams does not attach priority to selecting a specialization.Prospective university students can apply for up to six different specializations, and priority is given tothe applicant’s first preference. Students are accepted on a competitive basis into universities based ontheir exam scores and their indicated ranking of a given university. Students are not admitted based ontheir professional goals and preferences. As a result, many students entering pedagogical universities arethose who initially did not intend to become teachers.Another cause for concern is that the university admission exam scores required to enter pedagogicaluniversities are lower compared to other disciplines of study. For example, the minimum admission scorefor mathematics in Yerevan State University is 31 out of 60, and for Armenian language it is 48.3. ArmenianState Pedagogical University’s minimum admission scores for teachers of mathematics and Armenian lan-guage are 29 and 43 respectively2. This discrepancy is apparent for in other subjects as well (MoES 2010).Pedagogical education also does not attract students who graduated from schools with honours (UNDP2007). Applicants often have very limited information about specialization options, since universities havelimited informational orientation events for incoming students. 132 These numbers makes a real difference as the rate of competition is usually very highBACKGROUND
  14. 14. Part 1 1 Teacher training system Tertiary education institutions in Armenia offer pedagogical specializations and degrees. There are three types of pre-service teacher preparation structures: vocational pre-service teacher training, and higher 2 education with a two-cycle degree system: bachelor’s and master’s degrees. Students who want to become teachers can obtain pedagogical qualification from six state-run higher edu- 3 cation institutions, 27 vocational educational and training institutions (ranging from one- to four-year col- leges) and a number of private universities. Currently, 16,367 students are enrolled in pre-service teacher preparation programmes. Of those students, in the 2009/2010 school year, 3,280 were admitted into uni- 4 versities. There are 2,342 students enrolled in vocational education institutes pursuing vocational degrees in teaching. Also in 2009, over 4,200 (3,308 of them female) students graduated from universities and 972 (953 of them female) completed vocational institutions with a teacher qualification (National Statistical Service 2010, 224, 214). 5 A vocational pedagogical degree (9 years of secondary education plus 4 years of vocational education, or 11–12 years of secondary education plus 1–2 years of additional education) is offered in pedagogical col- leges for one to four years of study.3 The programme is four years for those students who have completed nine years of compulsory general education (9+4). It is two years for those students who completed 11 or 12 years of schooling. Graduates of pedagogical colleges either obtain the qualification of primary school teacher (grades 1–4) or preschool teacher. In the past 10 years, the number of students trained in pedagogical specializations has increased signifi- cantly. This is due to the fact that in addition to state-run public universities, a number of private universi-TEACHERS: A STUDY ON RECRUITMENT, DEVELOPMENT AND SALARIES OF TEACHERS IN ARMENIA ties now also offer teacher qualification programmes. However, the number of students in pedagogical training programmes is much higher than the number of teachers hired by schools in the same academic year. As Table 1.2 shows, the number of teachers under the age of 25 year is 1,982, but in 2009, public and private universities together graduated a total of 4,202 pedagogues/teachers. The supply of recently grad- uated students qualified to teach is more than double the amount of teachers of the same age range who are currently employed in public schools. In Armenia, the demand for new teachers is low and most vacant teaching positions are usually announced for schools in rural or mountainous areas. In such schools, the teacher shortage issue is addressed through so-called ‘state order’ (a budget student programme) or by a programme created by a government decree on Procedures for Assigning Pedagogical Staff to Work in Remote, Mountainous Communities, introduced in 2003. This decree appropriates some allowances (for example, to cover relocation costs, housing allowance, transportation and utility supplements) for teachers from other communities to work and live in remote or mountainous areas. In addition, since1996, another government programme permitted new graduates of pedagogical universities to teach in remote and rural area schools as an alternative to military service. Due to reported violations, this decree is no longer in effect. Pedagogical training institutions The Armenian State Pedagogical University (ASPU) is a key player in teacher education. An overwhelming majority of graduating teachers come from this institution. ASPU has been working to adjust its degrees and curricula to meet the requirements of the Bologna Declaration. However, traditional structures of sub- ject-based departments/faculties continue to be applied. Instructional methodologies and programmes are still far from contemporary educational and scientific developments. ASPU’s offered curriculum does not correspond to reform initiatives being implemented in the general education system by the Government of Armenia since 1997. General education reforms, including cur- 3 Colleges in Armenia are similar to the community college model in the United States.14 BACKGRO U N D
  15. 15. Part 1riculum change, are implemented at a significantly faster rate than reforms in the higher education arena. 1This creates a discrepancy in the training of teachers and the subjects they are expected to teach. Forexample, subjects such as social studies are not offered in the pedagogical preparation of teachers. Ad-ditionally, many facilities, laboratories, and libraries are outdated, and many are relics of the Soviet era. 2A big emphasis is placed on teaching the content of subjects rather than on the teaching process. For thisreason, approximately 40–60 per cent of the instructional hours in the pedagogical universities are allo-cated for subject-specific courses. About 14–25 per cent of hours are given to pedagogy and psychology 3courses and 12–13 per cent of instructional hours are allocated to courses in humanities and social sciencedisciplines. In the Department of Preschool and Primary School Pedagogy, pedagogy and psychologycourses make up about 90 per cent of the curriculum (ASPU, 2010). The hours allocated for the practical 4school experience are insufficient and do not allow students to develop and practice their teaching skills.As a result, the gap between pre-service training and actual teaching practices is vast. 5Graduates of Yerevan State University (YSU) also receive teacher certification. YSU has a bachelor’s de-gree programme with qualification of social pedagogue/social worker and a master’s degree programmein educational management and supervision. In addition, graduates from 17 subject-specific faculties canobtain teacher certification. However, few graduates of YSU enter the teaching profession after gradu-ation. Other major institutions graduating students with teaching qualifications include: Gyumri StatePedagogical Institute, Vanadzor State Pedagogical Institute, Gavar State University and Goris State Univer-sity. These higher education institutions are located in different marzes throughout Armenia and serve theneeds of students in those regions and the country at-large. Finally, Yerevan State Linguistic Universityprepares foreign language teachers in Russian, English, German, French, Spanish, Italian, Greek and other TEACHERS: A STUDY ON RECRUITMENT, DEVELOPMENT AND SALARIES OF TEACHERS IN ARMENIAlanguages.1.4 TEACHER RECRUITMENT INTO THE PROFESSIONAs of now, Armenia does not have legislation or policies on procedures for recruiting teachers into theworkforce. The state entrusts school principals with the responsibility of recruiting new teachers for theirschools. Marzpetaran (district education offices) collect information on teacher vacancies and occasion-ally do place teachers; however, the majority of teachers in Armenia are hired directly by schools. Beforethe 2009 Law on General Education, teacher vacancies were not announced through media, includingnewspapers. This led to widespread corruption, including bribes and payoffs during the teacher recruit-ment process. Many cases of these practices have been reported in the local media. As of now, the neweducation policy requires that once there is a position vacancy in a school, “it must be filled based on acompetition in accordance with the model procedure established by the authorized body of educationstate management and the by-laws of the educational institution, except for the cases in which there is acandidate who acquired on-demand professional education” (see Appendix A). Prior to this legislation,available teaching positions were publicly announced only by private schools.Teacher-related regulations and policies in ArmeniaSince independence in 1991, Armenia’s education system has undergone extensive reforms. Changeshave included the adoption of a number of laws and procedures, and the creation of several regulatorydocuments. The Ministry of Education and Science (MoES) leadership has changed more than 12 times inthe past 19 years, making steady and consistent progress in the system very difficult. The following narra-tive outlines five major policies, past and present, that most affect teachers in the current education systemand their role in the classroom. 15BACKGROUND
  16. 16. Part 1 1 National Curriculum for General Education, 20044 Policies pertaining to teacher quality are dispersed throughout numerous laws and regulatory documents created over the past 19 years. Most notably, the National Curriculum for General Education, adopted in 2 2004, stresses the importance of qualified teachers in the classroom for the successful introduction of re- forms in the general education system (MoES 2004b). 3 The Standards Framework document mentions efficient teacher preparation and trainings, regular self- education and continuous professional development programmes. The document (MoES 2004a) states: The state will create favourable conditions for the continuous professional development of teachers 4 through the provision of sustainable and long-term financial support in accordance with the needs of schools; the state will also introduce a reliable teacher assessment system…The state will allocate financial resources for the creation of social and physiological services in schools, which will provide professional 5 counselling and promote the establishment of a morally and physiologically supportive school environ- ment…The state will also assist in the creation of inter-school, intra-school, regional and national unions of educators. • The Standards Framework document also includes information on the skills and characteristics that teachers should possess after completing professional development programmes and self-preparation. It includes the following: 1. An ability to plan work, including: planning the teaching process efficiently, including planning individual courses and specific separate the-TEACHERS: A STUDY ON RECRUITMENT, DEVELOPMENT AND SALARIES OF TEACHERS IN ARMENIA matic units and lessons; b) creating learning and teaching materials independently or with colleagues. 2. The ability to perform the teaching process effectively, including: the organization and delivery of individual and small group teaching and learning; b) consideration of the student’s age, physiological and psychological characteristics as a part of both team and individual performance; c) the ability to introduce modern methods and approaches in order to ensure the improved understanding of required educational content; d) the creation of a social and psychological environment that is conducive for learning. 3. The use of assessment as a tool that will encourage the learner and ensure continuous development. 4. The use of professional and personal reflection, as a means to continuous improvement of the learning and teaching process, and the constant assessment of personal perfor- mance in order to revise and improve lesson plans and classroom delivery. 5. The professional development of skills, including: a) the design of professional, target-oriented surveys, and drawing conclusions in- dependently and with colleagues; b) planning and implementing personal profes- sional development. • The state will allocate financial resources for the creation of social and physiological services in schools, which will provide professional counselling and promote the establishment of a morally and physiologically supportive school environment. However, since 2004, these provisions have been only partially implemented. Our research reveals that there may be no active unions of educators, no social and psychological services on either the national or16 4 The term ‘general education’ is widely used by different stakeholders in Armenia, but the same system is called ‘public education’ in many other countries. For consistency, we use the team ‘general education’, which refers to grades 1–12. BACKGRO U N D
  17. 17. Part 1regional and intra- and interschool levels, and limited professional development opportunities available 1for only some teachers.Law on General Education, 2009 2The most recent legislation on general education, the Republic of Armenia Law on General Education, wasadopted in July 2009 and addresses a number of teacher-related issues. The following (see Appendix A, 3article 24, paragraph 3) is a provision on filling vacant teaching posts: • In case of a vacancy for the teacher’s position in an educational institution, it shall be filled based on a competition in accordance with the model procedure established by 4 the authorized body of education state management and the by-laws of the educational institution, except for the cases when there is a candidate who acquired on-demand professional education. 5Although the law calls for establishing a process whereby teacher vacancies are filled based on a competi-tive process, the legislation does not state a clear and uniform method to accomplish this. Instead, theprocess of hiring new teachers is left to the discretion of district office officials and school-level administra-tors. Our findings reveal that the practice of hiring new teachers is not uniform in the 10 schools in ourstudy. However, teacher hiring procedures and regulations are currently being developed by the ArmenianMinistry of Education and Science.The Law on General Education (Republic of Armenia, 2009) includes clauses specifically addressing teach-er recruitment, teacher professional development, and promotion and certification (Articles 24–27). To TEACHERS: A STUDY ON RECRUITMENT, DEVELOPMENT AND SALARIES OF TEACHERS IN ARMENIAensure the effective implementation of these requirements, MoES is currently in the process of revisingteacher recruitment regulations and professional development policies. According to Article 27 of the law,all teachers in Armenia should pass attestation through simple and/or compound procedures. Teacherswho complete simple attestation should receive a recommendation letter from the school at which theywork, a school survey results report, a teacher training certificate, and proof of participation in other pro-fessional development activities. The teacher training certificate is a document that a teacher will receiveafter attending and successfully completing a training that is organized by a MoES-approved institution.If a teacher chooses to go through attestation with compound procedures, he or she needs to successfullycomplete the additional component of teacher training.World Bank Relevancy Report: Phases one and twoTwo major reforms have affected teacher policy since 2003, and both have shaped the teaching professionin Armenia since that time. The World Bank Armenia Education Quality and Relevance (EQR) Project andthe Staff Optimization and Social Assistance Programme (SOSAP) were created to help offset the effects ofteacher unemployment. The first EQR Project resulted in the layoffs of 7,000 teachers beginning in 2003,with the goal of reducing the teacher workforce by 15,000 teachers in total. The restructuring plan was aneffort to more effectively manage resources at the ministry level by reducing educational costs. Primarily,this meant reducing the surplus of teachers that had proliferated due to the decreasing population andwaning economy. Various components of the plan included closing and/or combining schools, introduc-ing per capita financing, increasing class size and teacher workload, and a 12 per cent increase in teachersalaries each year (Kuddo, 2009). The programme was completed in 2007 when the teacher population hadbeen reduced by 7,000, instead of the planned 15,000.Phase one of the Education Quality and Relevance ProjectThe Government of Armenia has stated the importance of the teacher’s role in preparing students for effec-tively participating in society’s spiritual, moral, social, cultural and economic progress in the 21st century: 17“Recruiting and retaining good teachers who are appropriately educated and trained is vital to the provi-BACKGROUND
  18. 18. Part 1 sion of good quality education and for the development of human resources in the country” (Center for 1 Education Projects 2009). Phase one of EQR emphasized the role of educational development as a means for achieving growth and 2 competitiveness in the global markets. Hence, the government broadened and deepened the dimensions of the educational reforms by changing the focus from general education to all levels of education: public (preschool and secondary), vocational, higher and post-graduate education. In higher education, the main 3 beneficiaries of the reforms have been the pedagogical institutions. Curriculum reform has been the main focus for improvement and has been extensively expanded in the second phase of the Education Quality and Relevance Project. Currently, a partnership between the MoES and the World Bank creates a frame- 4 work and action plan for the reform of pedagogical education in the country. During the first phase of implementation, the Armenian Government identified two main social and policy- level issues related to teacher quality: the public’s changing views of the teaching profession, and teacher 5 professional development opportunities that are linked to career and life development. In the last decade, the responsibility of the latter issue – teacher training and professional development – was transferred largely to international educational institutions and governmental programmes. However, many of those programmes were not officially recognized by MoES as appropriate, and therefore did not lead to teacher certification. It was not until August 2009 that the new Law on Public Education created a legal basis for teacher professional development by allowing public, private and international entities to provide teacher certification for participation in professional development programmes. Phase two of the Education Quality and Relevance ProjectTEACHERS: A STUDY ON RECRUITMENT, DEVELOPMENT AND SALARIES OF TEACHERS IN ARMENIA Currently underway, phase two of EQR expands on teacher policies established during phase one. To ad- dress existing issues in teacher professional development, the government has plans to undertake the following activities: continue teacher education programmes and guidelines; train one fifth of all teachers each year in order to increase teacher preparedness and knowledge and to secure Ministry of Education and Science funding; provide diverse and effective in-service training for principals and teachers; create and utilize a market of professional development training programmes; develop a financing programme to enable teachers to participate in trainings; and create a school development network (Center for Education Projects, 2009b). Phase two and tertiary pedagogical education Future goals of EQR phase two are to support ASPU and other pedagogical HEIs. The preliminary technical assistance package consists of a partnership plan with a teacher education institution in Europe or Amer- ica. The goal of the partnership is to build institutional development capacity in structure and financing, curriculum development, staff training on teaching and learning methods, and to provide other practical training opportunities for teachers. The government is planning an extensive reform of pre-service teacher training systems as outlined by the EQR Project. While this project will focus on reforming pre-service teacher training in Armenia over- all, changes are planned to start first at ASPU. ASPU will be the pilot programme and model for all other pedagogical tertiary programmes. 1.5 LITERATURE REVIEW ON EXISTING TEACHER RESEARCH STUDIES IN ARMENIA AND THE CEE/CIS This literature review provides summaries of reports on the education sector in Armenia, with a focus on teacher quality. We have conducted an extensive search for documents, reports and other texts that detail teacher characteristics and present relevant indicators for teacher and school quality in Armenia.18 Our review of relevant texts includes country-specific reports on Armenia and regional and international BACKGRO U N D
  19. 19. Part 1research that inform the larger educational context. A number of these reports include information on the 1education policies in Armenia.Armenia-specific literature 2The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) report, Educational Transformations in Armenia (UNDP ,2006), outlines the transitional state of the education system. The report identifies a need for MoES to 3maintain a clear vision and foster transparent communication to support uniform change across the coun-try. The report notes the need for a ‘Strategic Plan for Education’ that must provide the framework for aquality education system and address various needs of the school, including facility and material renewal,increased teacher wages, student retention, and access and equity. 4One of the most recent Armenia-specific studies on general education conducted by UNICEF was a SchoolWastage Study Focusing on Student Absenteeism in Armenia (Hua, 2008). The study was conducted to in- 5vestigate the alarming statistics of drop-out rates in Armenia, which in some instances have increased ataverage annual rates of 250 per cent. This report provides a substantive and comprehensive overview ofthe major recent policy changes in Armenian education, including the extension of schooling from 10 to12 years and the introduction of per capita financing. Directly relevant to our study are the findings on thepresumed link between drop-out rates and teachers: the perception (by students and/or parents) that thequality of education has higher opportunity cost than the potential earnings from working. Poor teachingis ranked third as a reason for student absenteeism. The report calls for more thorough research on teacherquality, which makes our study of teacher quality and teacher shortage timely new research. TEACHERS: A STUDY ON RECRUITMENT, DEVELOPMENT AND SALARIES OF TEACHERS IN ARMENIASome of the most important reports relevant for our research are the documents published by the WorldBank (WB), which provide the framework of programme implementation of the first and second phases ofthe Education Quality and Relevance Project and the Staff Optimization and Social Assistance Programme.These reports detail the collaboration between MoES and the WB in implementing major policy reforms,including the policy to lay off 15,000 teachers between 2003 and 2007 in the first phase of the EQR project,and the ongoing measures being implemented to improve education quality and the updating of curricu-lum and pedagogy. In the WB report, Structural education reform: Evidence from a teacher’s displacementprogramme in Armenia (Kuddo, 2009), the effects of staff optimization are evaluated and the increase inteacher salaries as a result of optimization is tracked. This report also addresses some key teacher reten-tion and attraction issues, including salary increases, better working conditions and increased motivationfor teaching.The Education Quality and Relevance Project – Completion Report (Center for Education Projects 2009a) is akey policy evaluation document of phase one of the project. The document outlines the five major com-ponents of phase one of the EQR project that took place from 2003 to 2009. These components include:developing state standards and curricula that meet the needs of a knowledge-based economy; integratinginformation technology into teaching and learning strategies; engaging teachers and improving teacherdevelopment; improving efficacy and management of the general education system; establishing commit-tees and groups to assist MoES with management of the system. According to the report, all the statedgoals of phase one of EQR have been met or exceeded.The report on the second phase of the Education Quality and Relevance Project (Center for Education Proj-ects, 2009b) outlines the reforms that will be undertaken under this five-year project, which commencedin 2009. Phase two will build upon phase one and is based on three main components: to improve thequality of general education; the realignment of tertiary education to meet Bologna Agenda standards; toenhance project management, monitoring and evaluation. According to the report, achieving these goalsentails expanding the high school network system, focusing on early childhood education, and improvingpedagogical education with the goal of improving teacher quality and the education system. 19BACKGROUND
  20. 20. Part 1 1 Literature on CEE/CIS region There are also key cross-national studies that have aided our research. A study that has most informed our research was conducted by UNICEF and examines the progress towards meeting the Education for All 2 (EFA) Goals in the CEE/CIS region. In Education for some more than others: A regional study on education in Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent states (UNICEF 2007), there is a fo- , cus on the growing economic disparities and an upsurge in inequality in most countries in the region. The 3 study investigates how the ‘12 Steps’ to meet the EFA goals have been implemented in the region. Many countries featured in the report have faced ‘reform fatigue’ brought on by unstable economies. Increas- ingly inequitable economic conditions have exacerbated disparities between the rich and poor, urban and 4 rural populations and marginalized people. These issues are relevant in Armenia and the report provides the inter-regional framework for our research. A working paper published by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 5 ‘Teacher demand and supply: Improving teaching quality and addressing teacher shortages’ (Santiago 2002), states that there is a need for a greater understanding of what real teacher shortage is within a country-specific context. The paper includes a framework for teacher shortage indicators and outlines concerns about the current teacher shortage in OECD countries. A prominent indicator of teacher shortage is the ageing teaching cadre in a number of countries. Since this factor is also significant in Armenia and the CEE/CIS region, the report is particularly relevant to our study of teacher shortage. The working paper also underscores that current policies designed to address teacher shortage focus more on supply rather than demand factors. As will be discussed in the analysis of ten-plus-one indicators of teacher shortage, the oversupply and limited demand of teachers is the case in Armenia.TEACHERS: A STUDY ON RECRUITMENT, DEVELOPMENT AND SALARIES OF TEACHERS IN ARMENIA The regional overview document (UNESCO, 2007) of education and the major challenges in the educa- tion sector in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia provides a good overview of the region and includes comparable education indicators data that is relevant for a cross-national study of teachers. This report highlights regional achievements in the education sector and also addresses the major regional challenges faced today, namely early childhood education, education quality and equity issues. Teacher quality and teacher shortage is also highlighted in the report as a major concern for edu- cational development in the region. The fastest growing needs in the region include: a need for teacher training, solving the challenge of a shrinking pedagogical cadre and creating effective policies for teacher recruitment and retention. Lastly, our desk review of relevant literature also drew on an academic report by Akiba, et al. (2007), ‘Teach- er quality, opportunity gap, and national achievement in 46 countries.’ Although this paper is not focused exclusively on the CEE/CIS region, it provides a global perspective on the importance of teacher quality and its connection to student outcomes. The report compares performance on the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) exam across nations. It presents statistics that Armenia has 100 per cent fully certified teachers, which is contrary to other reports. Data is also included on country rank- ings: Armenia ranks 33rd out of 39 countries for overall teacher quality.20 BACKGRO U N D
  21. 21. © ???????? Research design and methods Part 221 5 4 3 2 2 1 TEACHERS: A STUDY ON RECRUITMENT, DEVELOPMENT AND SALARIES OF TEACHERS IN ARMENIA
  22. 22. Part 2 1 Part 2: Research design and methods 2.1 SAMPLING DESIGN AND PROCEDURE 2 Research background and setting This study draws heavily on the research and methodology of the original research on teacher quality 3 and teacher shortage conducted in Kyrgyzstan. It was the intention of this study to follow the research procedures and sampling design of the Kyrgyzstan study in order to collect comparable data that can be analysed in the six-country study. For this reason, the Kyrgyzstan study was used as a model for the school 4 selection procedure, the format of interviews conducted at 10 schools, the documents collected for data analysis, as well as the review of the ten-plus-one indicators as they apply to teacher quality and teacher shortages in Armenia. While the research methodology is based on the original study, this research fo- 5 cuses on the education issues specific to Armenia and the analysis of the ten-plus-one indicators is a com- prehensive assessment of the coping mechanisms for teacher shortages at the school level. This research draws on qualitative and quantitative data gathered in 10 schools in two marzes (provinces) in the Republic of Armenia. The study builds upon prior publications on Armenia, including the report by the UNDP (2007), Educational transformations in Armenia, and a UNICEF (2007) cross-national study, Edu- cation for some more than others: A regional study on education in Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. These studies examine the policy-level reforms in Armenia and in the region and call for more research on general education. This report on teacher quality and shortage complements these earlier studies in important ways by providing school-level data and analysis on theTEACHERS: A STUDY ON RECRUITMENT, DEVELOPMENT AND SALARIES OF TEACHERS IN ARMENIA effects of recent education policy changes. As discussed in the literature review, a number of other studies have provided background information for this research. The Education Quality and Relevance Project reports for phases one and two detail the ongoing educa- tion reforms that are enacted in collaboration between MoES and the WB. As part of the effort to improve education and teacher quality, a staff optimization process was completed, whereby unqualified teachers were dismissed. Optimization of the teaching workforce was possible because Armenia has few teacher vacancies at schools and a surplus of professionals with pedagogical degrees, both employed in schools and in other sectors. In phase one of the Education Quality and Relevance Project, 7,000 teachers who did not meet qualification standards were laid off. In 2006, one third of the marzes in Armenia reported no teacher vacancies, and the number of vacancies that are reported today is small. For this reason, our study of latent teacher shortages, actual teacher qualification and hiring and retention practices at the school level is particularly relevant for the case of Armenia. The data was collected over a period of two weeks in March 2010. The size of our research team enabled us to conduct interviews simultaneously in two marzes. We also conducted a number of school interviews simultaneously, with the researchers conducting separate interviews with school administrators, teachers, and students. To encourage maximum participation and openness of interview participants, teacher inter- views were conducted without administrators present, and student focus groups were facilitated without the presence of administrators or teachers. 2.2 SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS Selection of marzes We selected Gegharkunik and Lori marzes for our research because they represent average teacher va- cancy rates reported at the national level. Table 2.1 shows the number of national teacher vacancies as reported by each marz in Armenia. Gegharkunik and Lori rank third and fourth out of the seven marzes that reported vacancies and were selected for this reason.22 Research design and methods

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