Educational system in singapore final revision


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  • 1960 – Universal education for children of all races and background started to shape, and more children started to attend schools.There were three reasons given by the government for establishing junior colleges such as NJC. First, to maximise the use of teachers and facilities by centralising pre-university education in such colleges. Second, to improve the quality of pre-university education. Third, to groom well-rounded and patriotic students for future leadership roles
  • The Ministry is headed by the Minister, assisted by the senior minister of state and two senior parliamentary secretaries. Under the MOE are 3 deputy-general of education, deputy-secretary of policy and deputy secretary for services:      
  • The Ministry of Education aims to help students to discover their own talents, to make the best of these talents and realize their full potential, and to develop a passion for learning that lasts through life. To achieve this aim, the task of schools and tertiary institution is to: AIMS OF THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Give students the chance to develop the skills, character and values that will enable them to continue to do well and to take Singapore toward the future To provide an education system that is more flexible and diverse with greater choice to meet their varied interest and ways of learning and being able to choose what and how they learn will encourage them to take greater ownership of their learning To provide a more broad-based education to ensure all-round or holistic development, in and out of the classroom.To be committed to improving society To be proactive in surmounting our constraints To have compassion towards others To be able to inspire, motivate and draw out the best from others To be able to chart our destiny and lead To be able to forge breakthroughs in a knowledge-based economy To be creative and imaginative To have the tenacity to fight against the odds and not quit What we expect of our young who aim to be national, community, business or professional leaders:
  • The wealth of a nation lies in its people - their commitment to country and community, their willingness to strive and persevere, their ability to think, achieve and excel. Our future depends on our continually renewing and regenerating our leadership and citizenry, building upon the experience of the past, learning from the circumstances of the present, and preparing for the challenges of the future. How we bring up our young at home and teach them in school will shape Singapore in the next generation.
  • Holistic development: Head, heart, Hand (Cognitive, psychomotor, affective)Study Bilingual policy (english, tamil, mandarin, malay)Among the key strengths of the Singapore education system are our bilingual policy, emphasis on broad-based and holistic learning, focus on teacher quality and integration of information and communication technologies (ICT) into learning. We also believe that our schools should work closely with the parents and the community.
  • Broad-based curriculum (more courses – special, express, normal, technical) Singapore’s national curriculum aims to nurture each child to his full potential, to discover his talents and to develop in him a passion for life-long learning. Students go through a broad range of experiences to develop the skills and values that they will need for life. The broad-based curriculum imparts literacy, numeracy, bilingualism, the sciences, humanities, aesthetics, physical education, civics and moral education and National Education.  Over the years, the curriculum has been reviewed to address the need for a common set of values, knowledge and competencies and at the same time, allow differentiation to meet the needs of students with different talents and abilities. To enable students to achieve the learning outcomes of each specific subject and the DOE, three broad areas are considered, namely, the curriculum, teaching strategies and assessment (Figure 1) The content states the aims and objectives, the content, the skills and competencies required for the syllabi and the values and attitudes that the syllabi hope to impart to the students. Appropriate teaching strategies are designed for successful classroom delivery of the syllabi, using effective teaching and learning materials. To evaluate if students have learned what has been taught, students are tested through formative and summative assessments.  
  • TSLN was first announced by Prime Minister GohChok Tong in 1997.This vision describes a nation of thinking and committed citizens capable of meeting the challenges of the future, and an education system geared to the needs of the 21st century.Thinking schools will be learning organisations in every sense, constantly challenging assumptions, and seeking better ways of doing things through participation, creativity and innovation. Thinking Schools will be the cradle of thinking students as well as thinking adults and this spirit of learning should accompany our students even after they leave school.A Learning Nation envisions a national culture and social environment that promotes lifelong learning in our people. The capacity of Singaporeans to continually learn, both for professional development and for personal enrichment, will determine our collective tolerance for change.
  • Every child in Singapore has the opportunity to undergo at least ten years of basic education. This comprises 6 years of compulsory primary education and 4 years of secondary education. Students have to sit for major national examinations at the end of their primary and secondary education. Beyond secondary education, students move on to post-secondary institutions based on their eligibility and choicePre-Vocational course enables trainees to have an earlier start in vocational training, and delivers a customised, hands-on curriculum that prepares them for subsequent training at a technical or vocational institution like the ITE.Alternative Qualifications refer to qualifications not traditionally offered by the majority of mainstream schools in Singapore.Continuing Education and Training (CET) is designed for adult learners or companies looking to upgrade the skills and knowledge of their employees.
  • Overview of curriculum Singapore Education System
  • Ask if how can I transfer the table from my research to my powerpoint.
  • Example only,
  • Look for thank you in Singapore (chinese, malay or tamil mother tongue language) and not merci..Chinese mandarin – xiexie, taochieTamil – Na-in Re, ungalukkunanriMalay-terimakasih
  • Educational system in singapore final revision

    1. 1. *
    2. 2. History of Education in Singapore Organizational Structure Outstanding Practices Aims of educational system Mission and Vision Curriculum Framework Special Education Mathematics Education Science Education *
    3. 3. * “vocational and gifted education programme” “National Junior college” “english is official medium of instruction” Splitting of normal stream (academic and technical) MOE Educational System “bilingualism policy” 10years programme of Education policy “survival driven education” Colony of Singapore Malay, Chinese/ Tamil, English 3 Main Type of schools Raffles Institution 1823 Later Backlog of education While English schools charged Chinese and Tamil schools Malay Schools provide free school fees the taught mother english Rise for all students by British main chinese nationalism. . of medium of instruction WW2 1947 1950 1960 1969 1980 1997present
    4. 4. * MINISTRY Political Heads Minister Senior Minister of State Mr. Heng Swee Keat Ms. Indranee Rajah Senior Management Two senior Parliamentary secretary Mr. Hawazi Daipi Ms. Sim Ann Permanent Secretary (MOE)
    5. 5. * By Education By deputies Deputy General Education Deputy Secretary of Policy Deputy Secretary of Services Director Educational Technology Director Educational Services Deputy Director – Curriculum Curriculum Planning and Development Permanent Secretary (MOE) Deputy Director – Schools Deputy Director – Prof. Development Student Development Curriculum Curriculum Policy Office Academy of Singapore Teachers Asst. Director – Internal Audit
    6. 6. * By Education By deputies Director Corporate Communications Permanent Secretary Deputy General Education Deputy Secretary of Policy Deputy Secretary of Services Asst. Director – Internal Audit Director – Higher Education DirectorOrganizational Development Director Planning Director Strategic Communications and Engagement
    7. 7. * By Education Deputy General Education Permanent Secretary Deputy Secretary of Policy Deputy Secretary of Services Director – Finance and Development Asst. Director – Internal Audit Group Director - HR Director – Legal Service Director – School Planning and Placement
    8. 8. *High standards of teaching with a distinctive record of 11 Basic Education Cycle and 12/14 Pre-University Educ. topping among 49 Quality 2nd Ranked inMathematicsof in the TIMSS – third Global the countries Education System in International and Science Study Competitiveness (2011-2012 report) *Bilingual policy (english, tamil, mandarin, malay) One of the World’s best performing school system *Broad-based curriculum (more courses – special, (Mckinsey report, published November 2010) express, normal, technical) Singapore Students ranked among the top in Reading, *High qualityand Science (PISA 2007) system and rigorous education Mathematics *Strong belief in investing in education, science Singapore Students ranked among the top in laboratories and technology facilities Mathematics and Science ( TIMMS 2009) *Universities fall in among the topin Asia’s best good rankings Singapore Ranked in Literacy (PIRLS universities 2006) *
    9. 9. * According to critics including parents, education system is very specialized, too rigid and elitist * Excessive educational streaming at a young age *
    10. 10. *While streaming still exists, various refinements have been made *There is not greater flexibility for students to cross different streams *Government now experimenting with abilitybanding in other ways such as subject-based rather than overall academic performance * continuous improvement is valued *Principle of
    11. 11. The Ministry of Education aims to help students to discover their own talents, to make the best of these talents and realize their full potential, and to develop a passion for learning that lasts through life. To achieve this aim, the task of schools and tertiary institution is to: Give students the chance to develop the skills, character and values that will enable them to continue to do well and to take Singapore toward the future To provide an education system that is more flexible and diverse with greater choice to meet their varied interest and ways of learning and being able to choose what and how they learn will encourage them to take greater ownership of their learning To provide a more broad-based education to ensure all-round or holistic development, in and out of the classroom *
    12. 12. What we expect of our young who aim to be national, community, business or professional leaders: To be committed to improving society To be proactive in surmounting our constraints To have compassion towards others To be able to inspire, motivate and draw out the best from others To be able to chart our destiny and lead To be able to forge breakthroughs in a knowledge-based economy To be creative and imaginative To have the tenacity to fight against the odds and not quit
    13. 13. The mission of the Education Service is to mold the future of the nation, by molding the people who will determine the future of the nation. The Education Service will provide students with a balanced and well-rounded education, develop them to their full potential and nurture them into good citizens, conscious of their responsibilities to family, society and country Broad-based, holistic education Our schools are striving to provide students with a holistic education, focused on both academic and non-academic areas. We want to give our students a broad range of experiences and help them make the most of their years together in school where they will interact with one another and form strong friendships for life. As they grow up, we want to provide them with the full opportunity to develop the skills and values that they will need for life. Besides judging our students’ performance through examinations, we are also looking at other and broader measures of how well they do in education. *
    14. 14. Character Developm ent Knowledg e Applicati on Skills Thinking Skills and Creativity Self Managem ent Skills 8 CORE SKILLS & VALUES Social and Cooperati ve Skills Literacy and Numeracy Informati on Skills Communi cation Skills *
    15. 15. *
    16. 16. Classroom management, pedagogy, teaching & learning resources Aims & objectives, content, skills & competencies, values & attitudes * Formative and summative Students ’ Learning Experiences
    17. 17. Ministry of Education’s vision of “Thinking Schools, Learning Nations” (TLSN was frist announced by Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong in 1997. This vision describes a nation of thinking and committed citizens capable of meeting the challenges of the future. Thinking schools will be learning organizations in every sense, constantly challenging assumptions, and seeking better ways of doing things through participation, creativity and innovation. Thinking schools will be the cradle of thinking students as well as thinking adults and this spirit of learning should accompany our students even after they leave school *
    18. 18. * Framework
    19. 19. START *
    20. 20. *
    21. 21. * 1947 – Trafalgar Home conducted by volunteers for children physically disabled with leprosy. 1949 – British Red Cross Society set up home for children who were crippled. In 1950s and 60s, the children with disabilities were mostly treated at the Singapore General Hospital. The Singapore Children’s Society conducted an enquiry into the needs of children who appeared unable to benefit from regular schooling. Hence, Schools Social Work and School Psychological Services within the Ministry of Education was set up. 1951 – British Red Cross Society started provisions for deaf education. - Singapore Association for the Blind was founded 1952 – The Singapore Children’s Society provided services for children with a multitude of social problems. 1956 – Singapore Association for the Blind raised enough funds to set up a school. 1957 – Spastic Children’s Association attended children with cerebral palsy 1960 – Inclusion International was established
    22. 22. 1962 – Singapore Association of Retarded Children was established for children with intellectual disabilities. 1964 – International Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectual Disabilities was formed. 1968 – Woodbridge Hospital initiated a service for child guidance. - special school built on the land leased out by the Singapore government at 844 Margaret Drive 1970 – the 1st Child Guidance Clinic to help children with emotional disturbance and their families was established under the aid of the Ministry of Health - the Asian Women’s Welfare Association provided playgroup for children with severe handicaps. 1987 – Margaret Drive Special School was established for children with multiple handicaps 1988 – Structured Teaching for Exceptional Students (STEP) programme for language delayed children, especially those with Autism was added to MDSS. 1995 – Balestier Special School was set up to accommodate a long waiting list for admission 2001 – Metta School for children with mild intellectual disability and mild autism ages between 6 to 18 years were run by Metta Welfare Association.
    23. 23. Education for children (of typical school- going ages) with disabilities is managed by the voluntary welfare organisations (VWOs). The National Council for Social Services (NCSS) is the primary oversee with its Programme Evaluation System, while the Ministry of Education provides support. Singapore takes the “many helping hands” approach, with families, communities and the government all playing role. AIMS: Developing the potential of pupils and helping them to be independent, self-supporting and contributing members of society. Mission: The mission of SPED schools is to provide the best possible education and training to children with special needs so as to enable them to function optimally and integrate well into society.
    24. 24. Special Needs Schools As of January 2009, there are 20 Special Education (SPED) schools run by Voluntary Welfare Organisations (VWOs) receiving government funding, with a total of 4,619 students and 737 teaching staff. Of these schools, three cater to those with sensory impairment (e.g. visual, aural) and offer curriculum similar to those of mainstream primary schools. Students take the Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE) at the end of their education and proceed to secondary schools. Five schools cater to those with autism, and one of which has curriculum similar to mainstream schools, thus offering a pathway for students to take the PSLE and the GCE N/O Levels. The remaining 14 schools cater to those intellectually disabled or with multiple disabilities. In addition, there are four privately run SPED schools and a Foreign System School offering special education.
    25. 25. INCREASED SUPPORT SINCE 2004 The Ministry of Education took a more active and leading role in special education, working with special schools to develop targets for learning outcomes and VWOs to appoint school management staff. There was also better integration between special and mainstream education, with more opportunities for students with and without disabilities to interact and partnerships between mainstream schools and special schools. Special Needs Officers (SNOs) were introduced into mainstream schools in 2005 to support students with learning needs such as mild to moderate dyslexia or high functioning autism. To support this scheme from 2005 to 2010, S$15 million has been set aside. To help mainstream teachers learn to teach students with disabilities, training schemes in special education were created, with a target of 10 percent of all mainstream teachers by 2010, through a part-time 108-hour Certificate in Special Needs Support that is offered by the NIE. Also, since 2005, all preservice teachers have been introduced to the issue of disability through a 12hour segment within a core course on student differences.
    26. 26. GOVERNMENT SUPPORT Politically, the 1950s were turbulent times in Singapore. Apart from the efforts of VWOs, treatment and help for children with disability were usually found in hospitals. In 1958, the Singapore Council of Social Services (now NCSS) was set up to coordinate the efforts of VWOs. 1988 was a turning point as MOE became an equal partner with NCSS in special education. This was based on the initiative of the Advisory Council for the Disabled (established by Dr Tony Tan, then Minister for Education). MOE would provide land for schools and financial support at twice the amount for a primary school student. The Community Chest would match the financial contribution. As a result, the maximum per capita cost per child was S$4,700 from MOE and S$4,000 from the Community Chest. The total is four times the amount spent on educating a primary school student. In 1996, the government extended the Edusave Scheme to children in the SPED schools, three years after the scheme started in 1993.
    27. 27. Teacher Training Local teacher training specific to special education began in 1984 when the Institute of Education, presently known as the National Institute of Education (NIE), launched a 3-year programme leading to the Certificate in Special Education. In 1991, when it was re-organised as NIE, it launched a 2-year Diploma in Special Education. In 2003, a Masters in Special Education programme was established. This portended further degree and post-graduate programmes in Special Education.
    28. 28. Educational Pathways for Children with Sensory Impairment Children with sensory-impairment who are able to access mainstream curriculum, sit for the Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE). If successful, they leave SPED schools to continue their education in mainstream secondary schools. These students attend regular classes in mainstream secondary schools and follow the mainstream curriculum. Currently there are 8 designated secondary schools for sensory impaired students who need specialised support. The designated schools have additional support including resource teachers to help the hearing-impaired and visuallyimpaired pupils to cope with the curriculum. MOE provides assistive devices, e.g. FM equipment, Braille Notebook Computers and talking calculators for these pupils.
    29. 29. Educational Pathways for Pupils with Intellectual Disability Pupils with intellectual disability, who meet the eligibility criteria, will undergo a vocational education programme resulting in national vocational certification such as ITE Skills Certificate (ISC) and WDA Workforce Skills Qualifications (WSQ). Delta Senior School is certified as an Approved Training Organisation (ATO) while Metta School is certified as an Approved Training Centre (ATC). Pupils who are unable to go to mainstream secondary or postsecondary education, or find open employment upon leaving school, will proceed to one of the training centres or workshops run by Volunteer Welfare Organisations (VWOs). Such training equips them with the necessary skills for employment. Those who are able are placed in open employment while those who require more supervision attend production sheltered workshops or work activity centres.
    30. 30. Assistive Technology for Visual and Physical Impairment Assistive technology is also provided to students with visual impairment and physical impairment to enhance their learning in the classrooms. Examples include closed circuit televisions, adapted keyboards, or specialised software. FAQs for Assistive Technology Do the schools or the students with visual impairment need to pay for the assistive technology? The school and the child need not pay for the assistive technology. MOE will bear the maintenance cost if there is a need, due to wear and tear and/or prolonged use.
    31. 31. Who owns the assistive technology? The student or the school? The assistive technology will be considered the property of the school. The school will make the necessary arrangements for the child to use the assistive technology in school. Students are not encouraged to bring the assistive technology home as well as to ensure the safekeeping of the assistive technology in school. What happens if repair/replacement is needed? Who bears the cost? If repair/replacement is needed due to wear & tear and/or prolonged use, MOE will bear the cost. Schools will have to inform PSB (for FM devices and assistive technology for visual and physical impairment) and provide evidence for approval before proceeding with the repair/replacement. If repair/replacement is needed due to negligence on the school’s part, schools will bear the cost. What happens to the assistive technology when the student transfers to another school? Does the school or student needs to reapply for the assistive technology? If the student transfers to another school, the FM equipment should be transferred to the child's receiving school so that his/her learning will not be disrupted. For example, if a student is posted to a secondary school after PSLE, the assistive technology should be transferred to the student's secondary school.
    32. 32. Edusave for SPED students Students in MOE-funded special education schools who are Singapore Citizens will benefit from Edusave in three ways: •Edusave Pupils Fund •Edusave Grants •School-based Achievement Awards for Special Education Schools Edusave Pupils Fund Each SPED student who is a Singapore citizen will be given an Edusave account and receive a yearly contribution from the Government’s Edusave Pupils Fund. The Government contributes $200 to the Edusave account of each eligible SPED student. For SPED students pursuing mainstream secondary education and vocational certification programmes, the Government contributes $240 to the Edusave account of each eligible student.
    33. 33. Edusave Grants SPED schools also receive annual Edusave grants. Schools use the grants to organise enrichment programmes or purchase additional resources which benefit students School-based Achievement Awards for Special Education Schools (SAASPED) SAASPED is awarded to eligible SPED students according to criteria set up by individual SPED schools, and serves to recognise the achievements and progress of SPED students. SAASPED is funded from the Edusave Endowment Fund.
    34. 34. *
    35. 35. The MOE–SNEF Work Experience Programme is a collaboration between the Ministry of Education (MOE) and the Singapore National Employers Federation (SNEF) to provide a structured educational experience for students from special education (SPED) schools, which enables them to work in an actual work setting. Why Should Employers Offer Work Experiences? •CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY (CSR) •POTENTIAL SOURCE OF EMPLOYEES •BUILDING STAFF CAPABILITY AND CAPACITY What Can Employers Expect from the MOE-SNEF Work Experience Programme? •TRAINED STUDENTS •REGULAR EMPLOYER BRIEFINGS •SUPPORT FROM SCHOOLS
    36. 36. How is Work Experience Set Up? ASSESS School will assess students to ensure they possess the required hard and soft skills for the available work opportunities ANALYZE Job coaches from schools conduct a job site analysis to facilitate a smooth transition from school to the work place GUIDE Job coaches from school provide direct guidance and coaching to enable students to complete their assigned duties
    37. 37. How Does Open Door Fund (ODF) Benefit Employers? Employers who are interested in hiring persons with disabilities can tap on the benefits offered by the OPEN DOOR Fund (ODF) administered by SNEF. Each company may receive funding of up to $100,000 as an incentive for Redesign of Job Scope/Process, Workplace Modifications, Integration Programmes, and Apprenticeship Programmes. How Can Employers Participate in the MOE-SNEF Work Experience Programme? Employers who wish to offer Work Experience opportunities can indicate their preferences by filling in the response form and submitting it to SNEF. Information required includes job descriptions, number of vacancies, duration, and time of year for Work Experience. Employers can negotiate with schools on the provision of a nominal allowance and other benefits to students during the Work Experience.
    38. 38. Mathematics and Science Education in Singapore
    39. 39. Singapore’s participation in TIMSS and PISA • Singapore participates in international studies such as Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) to benchmark the outcomes of schooling and it also does so to learn from educational systems that are excelling, to update school curriculum and keep abreast of global advances and to contribute towards the development of excellence in education internationally. To date Singapore has participated in Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) in 1995, 1999, 2003 and 2007. Table 1. Singapore students’ achievement in TIMSS
    40. 40. Table 2 shows Singapore students’ achievement in mathematics and science for PISA 2009. For the first time Singapore participated in the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD study- Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) in 2009. Table 2:
    41. 41. The Curriculum Several significant developments have shaped the school curriculum from 1956 till the present. A. In 1959 when the Peoples Action Party (PAP) came to power it acted upon the White Paper of 1956 and put in place a Five-Year Plan in education (Yip, Eng & Yap, 1990). The main features of this Plan were: • Equal treatment for the four language streams of education: Malay, Chinese, Tamil and English; •The establishment of Malay as a national language of the new state; • Emphasis on the study of Mathematics, Science and Technical Subjects. B.The Goh‟s report (Ministry of Education, 1979) led to the new education system (NES) which was implemented in 1981. The main feature of the NES was streaming as it was deemed to provide an opportunity for less capable students to develop at a slower pace and it would also enable a child to go as far as he can. Students who are not academically inclined could still acquire basic literacy and numeracy required for skills training. This was in line with the ,simple objectiv of education in Singapore,
    42. 42. ……to educate a child to bring out his greatest potential so that he will grow into a good man and a useful citizen. C. In 1997, three significant initiatives were launched in Singapore‟s education system. They were National Education, Information Technology (IT), and Critical and Creative Thinking. With the infusion of these initiatives in all curriculum subjects at schools, the teaching of mathematics and science underwent significant changes compared to the time prior to 1997. In tandem with the above three initiatives the Thinking Schools, Learning Nation (TSLN) vision was adopted by the MOE in 1997.
    43. 43. Figure 1 shows the framework of the school mathematics curriculum
    44. 44. In Singapore the study of mathematics is compulsory both in the primary and secondary schools. The curriculum is encapsulated as mathematics for all but more mathematics for some (see Kaur, 2003). The school mathematics curriculum has mathematical problem solving as its primary goal. The learning of concepts, acquisition of mathematical skills, use of thinking skills and problem solving heuristics are emphasized.
    46. 46. School Science Curriculum In Singapore the study of science is compulsory both in the primary and secondary schools. However, the breadth and depth of science taught to students varies according to their ability. The science curriculum emphasizes a balance between acquisition of science knowledge, skills and attitudes. Student as an inquirer and teacher as the leader of inquiry are key to learning science in Singapore schools. Review and Revision of Mathematics & Science Curricula The mathematics and science syllabuses in Singapore, for schools, are issued by the Ministry of Education in collaboration with University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate. Every six years or so, the syllabuses undergo a periodic review to ensure that they remain relevant so as to prepare pupils for global challenges and opportunities of the future and also to be in line with the national objectives. The changes are often refinements as the core of the syllabuses are stable from cycle to cycle of revision.
    47. 47. The Teacher The National Institute of Education (NIE) is the sole teacher education institution in Singapore where all the pre-service primary, secondary and junior college teachers for the Singapore Education Service are trained. The NIE represents the nation’s hopes that its teachers will be well educated, committed, caring and dedicated to the task of moulding the future of Singapore (The National Institute of Education, 2002). The Ministry of Education in Singapore recruits suitable candidates for teaching positions in primary schools, secondary schools and junior colleges all year round. Successful candidates without teaching qualifications are appointed into the Singapore Education Service as trainee teachers on the General Education Officer 1 (GEO 1) or General Education Officer 2 (GEO 2) salary scales depending on their entry qualifications.
    48. 48. Teachers are the key to the success of the mission and hence their on-going professional development (PD) is critical. From the year, 1998 onwards all teachers are entitled to 100 hours of funded training and core-upgrading courses each year to keep abreast with the current knowledge and skills. Schools have People Developers who take charge of the PD needs of their teachers. Yet another development that has accorded teachers the responsibility of their own professional development is the Enhanced Performance Management System (EPMS) (Ministry of Education, undated) put in place by the Ministry of Education (MOE) in 2005. The EPMS is an appraisal system that contains rubrics pertaining to fields of excellence in the education system be it teaching, leadership or senior specialist. The EPMS clearly articulates the expectations of teachers in their chosen fields of excellence. For the field, excellence in teaching teachers must slowly but surely develop themselves in the core competency (nurturing the whole child) which comprises of 4 main areas: cultivating knowledge (subject mastery, analytical thinking, initiative and teaching creatively), winning hearts and minds (understanding the environment, developing others), working with others (partnering parents, working in teams) and knowing self and others (turning into self, personal integrity, understanding others and respecting others).
    49. 49. The levels in the teaching field are characterized as follows: • Beginning Teacher • General Education Officer (GEO) 1 / 2 • General Education Officer (GEO) 1A1 / 2A1 • General Education Officer (GEO) 1A2 / 2A2 • Senior Teacher • Master Teacher
    50. 50. The Learner No child is deprived of educational opportunities. Adequate funding is available for all to school comfortably. Both the rich and poor are equal in the system as rewards are based on merits. The lower socio economic status students are assisted in multiple ways to bridge their needs in terms of support for school meals, textbooks, uniforms, subsidies for educational trips, etc. Parents of students are key stakeholders of the school and they are engaged through multiple avenues, for example Parent Support Groups, Parent-Teacher meetings, etc. Teachers have high expectations of their students, and make special effort to track the progress of their charges through the academic year. Parents too, generally, have high expectations of the children and are often in communication with teachers about the development of their child in school.
    51. 51. The Learning Environment In 1959 the government embarked on an accelerated school building programme with the objective of providing a place in school for every child of school-going age in Singapore. Today, state of the art technology pervades all schools, resources for learning both virtual and real are available. Schools have sporting facilities that meet high standards and a rigorous curriculum in sports is a must for all students in school. School cafeterias provide students with balanced meals at affordable prices. The school is a very safe environment. Strangers are not allowed into the premises of the school. In the primary schools, a teacher is on duty each day to see that every child has left the school premises by a certain hour after school dismissal, before he or she takes leave to go home. In secondary schools and junior colleges, the school security guards do the same.