The MAO Model: Research for Behavior Change.
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The MAO Model: Research for Behavior Change.

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Presentation given at Interaction'12, February 3, 2012, Dublin, Ireland. Interest in persuasive design for behavior change has been growing rapidly in interaction design in the past years. In part ...

Presentation given at Interaction'12, February 3, 2012, Dublin, Ireland. Interest in persuasive design for behavior change has been growing rapidly in interaction design in the past years. In part thanks to that, we as designers now have ample tools and pattern libraries to inspire us. What we are lacking, however, are focus and guidance in applying them. Usually, we get those from user research. But current research methods and deliverables arguably do not provide ready springboards.

This presentation demonstrates how to use the Motivation Ability Opportunity (MAO) model as a tool to structure user research around a single behavior to be changed, and to guide subsequent design in prioritizing issues to tackle and ideating ways to tackle them.

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    The MAO Model: Research for Behavior Change. The MAO Model: Research for Behavior Change. Presentation Transcript

    • The Mao Modelresearch forbehavior changeSebastian Deterding (@dingstweets)Interaction’12February 3, 2012, Dublincb
    • http://j.mp/yesqNM
    • Swelter more steel to acceleratethe establishment of socialism! http://j.mp/yesqNM
    • Persuasive Design The MAO Model Coda 1 3 5 2 4 The Problem The Method
    • Persuasive Design 1 The MAO Model Coda 3 5 2 4 The Problem The Method
    • From Usability to Motivation
    • Persuasive DesignDesign to change attitudesand behaviors
    • »Behavior is ourmedium.« Robert Fabricant interaction’09 (2009)
    • Why care?
    • Reason #1Business haschanged.
    • the great beyond utility usabilityNew differentiators
    • self- health eco/greenimprovementNew markets
    • Retweet! Bookmark! Tag! Comment! Like! Design! Curate!Upload! Mark as Spam! Buy! Forward! Invite! Subscribe! Add friend! Share! Digg! Answer! Vote! New business models & goals
    • Reason #2Our idea of thehuman conditionhas changed.
    • +Then: The Rational Actor
    • (It shaped our work as well)
    • Now: e Social Animal
    • Rational Actor Social AnimalIndividualist, detached Social, embodied Many (also intrinsic, social) Material self-interest motivations Biases, emotions, habits, Cool calculating ratio social & material environmentConscious information- Unconscious processes processing
    • A g d workin model http://www.flickr.com/photos/grumbler/5631948705/sizes/o/in/photostream/
    • e Rider Conscious, deliberate reasoningNeeds goals and plans to get somewhere Quickly tired from heavy steering Often not alert http://www.flickr.com/photos/grumbler/5631948705/sizes/o/in/photostream/
    • e ElephantEmotions, habits, automatic processesHas a mind of its own (really in charge) Lives in the here and now Training takes time http://www.flickr.com/photos/grumbler/5631948705/sizes/o/in/photostream/
    • e JungleSocial and material environment Arouses the elephant (mice!)Makes things harder/easier to reach Can be cultivated by rider Where the herd lives http://www.flickr.com/photos/grumbler/5631948705/sizes/o/in/photostream/
    • al on r ti o a tR c A Ignorin the elephant and the r m
    • Persuasive Design The MAO Model Coda 1 3 5 4 2 The Method The Problem
    • We have t l sets ...
    • … but no real constru ion plan.
    • what we warn all clients of:»A solution in searchof a problem«
    • Not»This might also persuade users.«But»What drives and stops Peter todo X at point Y?«
    • motivation trigger trigger threshold ability e Fog Behavior Model? http://behaviormodel.org/
    • „Pleasure/pain, hope/fear, acceptance/rejection“ is a private theory out of sync with motivation research; ignores attitudes and affectsmotivation trigger trigger threshold ability e Fog Behavior Model? http://behaviormodel.org/
    • Ignores self-efficacy, learning, understanding. Quote: „Most people resist learning new things. That’s just how we are as humans: lazy“ (which is untrue)motivation trigger trigger threshold ability e Fog Behavior Model? http://behaviormodel.org/
    • Ignores intention, goal- setting, mindfulnessmotivation trigger trigger threshold ability e Fog Behavior Model? http://behaviormodel.org/
    • o ggF In ort: We‘re mi in a rider here! http://www.flickr.com/photos/aftab/3992830809
    • A ion is me , emergent, situated http://www.flickr.com/photos/grumbler/5631948705/sizes/o/in/photostream/
    • http://www.flickr.com/photos/automat/623260075
    • http://www.flickr.com/photos/melissagray/4379697339
    • and we‘d still like to know:What are the relevantmotivators, enablers,triggers for Peter to doX in situation Y?
    • Persuasive The Mao Model Design 3 Coda 1 5 2 4 The Problem The Method
    • http://www.springerlink.com/content/m7128613815u7225/
    • MotivationPushing actionforward (or back)
    • AbilityAffording andconstraining action
    • opportunityFinding the right/critical moments “Stopwatch” symbol is by The Noun Project from thenounproject.com collection.
    • wa erbe ad re Re http://www.flickr.com/photos/velouria/4997235332
    • MotivationPushing actionforward (or back)
    • http://j.mp/xcHfVe
    • Love manual labor! http://j.mp/xcHfVe
    • »Put hot triggers in thepath of motivated people.« BJ Fogg the new rules of persuasion (2009) http://www.slideshare.net/bjfogg/bj-fogg-the-new-rules-of-persuasion-brussels-2009
    • »I‘m not convinced.« http://www.flickr.com/photos/prescottfoland/5259812928
    • epSt 1 #Make people aware
    • epSt 2 #Help people understand http://www.thefamilyinternational.org/en/work/africa/projects/education/143/photo/471/
    • http://j.mp/xGk85S
    • <Insert influence here>
    • Social Proof,Authority Liking Social Proof Facts
    • epSt 3 #Make people care
    • Appeal to motivational needs
    • Create need-satisfying experiences
    • Rel ing ated ong nes Bel Au s ton ition om co gn y Re psycholo social gical nce Powe pe te rCom physical Hu x Se ng Thirst er
    • Rel ing ated ong nes Bel Au s ton ition om co gn y Re psycholo social gical nce Powe pe te rCom physical Hu x Se ng Thirst er
    • That tricky beast, autonomy http://www.flickr.com/photos/prescottfoland/5259812928
    • Lynde Kintner, Smart Sex. http://www.ac4d.com/home/philosophy/student-work/smart-sex-the-man-shield/
    • Acknowledge and defuse FUDs http://misteringo.deviantart.com/art/Bunnies-Scream-Again-79745974
    • Use (or remove) social norms http://www.flickr.com/photos/matthileo/4482198229
    • Motivation, in summary knowledge Build awareness, form mental modelsattitudes, emotions Connect to emotions & values motivations Appeal to & satisfy needs fears Acknowledge & defuse fears social norms Use or shift contexts
    • AbilityAffording andconstrainingactions
    • http://j.mp/wdUCRx
    • Train strictly and be well-preparedfor the battle against invaders! http://j.mp/wdUCRx
    • Support visioning http://www.flickr.com/photos/ronsombilongallery/3240944872
    • Support visioning http://www.flickr.com/photos/ronsombilongallery/3240944872
    • Guide goal and implementation planning
    • Guide goal and implementation planning
    • Oh, there‘s craving. Interesting.Mindfulness http://www.flickr.com/photos/johnworthington/3241165758
    • “MUST - RESIST - CRAVING !!!“Willpower
    • Willpower http://www.flickr.com/photos/foshydog/3699371501 http://www.flickr.com/photos/pnjunction/2509578641
    • »With an aesthetic of convenience,you will never instill change.What you need, rather, is anaesthetic of friction.« Marc Hassenzahl towards an aesthetic of friction (2011) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ehWdLEXSoh8
    • Cultivate mindfulness and willpowerKehr, F., Hassenzahl, M., Laschke, M., & Diefenbach, S. (2012). A transformational product to improve self-controlstrength: the Chocolate Machine. Proc. of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems.
    • Strengthen self-efficacy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learned_helplessness http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-efficacy
    • Model the behavior
    • Provide fast experiences of success
    • Defuse guilt & frustration
    • Build knowledge and skills
    • Make it easy (or hard ^_^)
    • Ensure necessary resources
    • Shape new habits http://tinyhabits.com
    • Routines support habituation
    • Defaults support habituation
    • Train ready-to-hand alternative actions
    • »Free choice means having atleast one other way.« Moshé Feldenkrais the elusive obvious (1981) http://www.ucl.ac.uk/news/news-articles/0908/09080401
    • Provide social support
    • Ability, in summary goal-setting Support visioning, goals, planning mindfulness, will Train the rider‘s strength self-efficacy Model, afford successes, forgive failures ability Train, improve usability & resources habit Repetition until ready-to-hand/automatic social support Providing social support
    • opportunityFinding the right/critical moments “Stopwatch” symbol is by The Noun Project from thenounproject.com collection.
    • obey commands at any time!
    • καιρός
    • The Opportune MomentProviding a catalyst whenpeople are motivated, able, andhave the opportunity to act.
    • Opportunities over timemacro biography Breakdowns, periods service lifecycle Steps (one-time/repeat) routines Month, week, day, ... service episode User flow, interfacemicro
    • Biographic turning points
    • Service lifecycle
    • Routines: Workday http://www.flickr.com/photos/mindcaster-ezzolicious/3050043143
    • Routines: Craving cycle
    • Service episode: Restaurant
    • Service episode: Interface
    • Always Be Closing
    • No time?
    • Defer
    • Make a future appointment
    • Allow completion in chunks
    • Don‘t disturb current goals
    • Opportunities in space
    • The Opportune MomentProviding a catalyst whenpeople are motivated, able, andhave the opportunity to act.
    • What did I want? http://www.flickr.com/photos/philandpam/1485578432
    • »After surveying the experimental findings,one begins to wonder how people manageto get on in their daily lives at all. ... Peopleare able to get on because they “offload” anenormous amount of practical reasoningonto their environment.« Joseph Heath and Joel Anderson procrastination and the extended will (2010)
    • Create wanted cues http://www.flickr.com/photos/robandstephanielevy/4668030838
    • Created wanted cues
    • http://designinghappiness.wordpress.com/
    • Remove unwanted external cues http://www.flickr.com/photos/a-culinary-photo-journal/3134396770
    • Remove unwanted external cues
    • Create Re-Minders https://www.readyforzero.com/
    • Opportunity, in summary time Find rhythms & timings space Find spaces for action cues Create wanted, remove unwanted re-minders Give the rider a chance
    • Persuasive Design The MAO Model Coda 1 3 5 2 The Problem 4 The Method
    • First, a nagging problem http://people.virginia.edu/~tdw/nisbett&wilson.pdf
    • »Nisbett and Wilson are not skepticsabout introspective report of consciousexperiences. They are skeptics aboutintrospective knowledge of the causes ofthose experiences.« Eric Schwitzgebel the nisbett-wilson myth (2006) http://schwitzsplinters.blogspot.com/2006/10/nisbett-wilson-myth.html
    • The limits of self-reportWe can report recent experiences,general beliefs, attitudes, valuesStick to actual, current/recent experiencesWe fail at detailed memory, future action,irrelevant things, unconscious processesAsk for connected attitudes, values, needs,but don‘t jump to conclusions
    • epSt 1 # Define & ma ange goals Be specific: »Become a better person« doesn‘t work Map out chain of behaviors & actors to structure and/or focus research If you replace an old behavior, you need to study & address both old and new
    • Behavior chain: Eating healthy eat healthy food
    • Behavior chain: Eating healthy eat healthy food avoid mindless snacking
    • Behavior chain: Eating healthy cook eat healthy healthy food food avoid mindless snacking
    • Behavior chain: Eating healthy shop cook eat healthy healthy healthy food food food avoid mindless snacking
    • Behavior chain: Eating healthy shop cook eatplan healthy healthy healthy healthy meals food food food avoid mindless snacking
    • Behavior chain: Eating healthy shop cook eatplan healthy healthy healthy healthy meals food food food actor a avoid mindless snacking actor b
    • epSt 2 # Recruit participants People using your service/performing your activity (or broaden to comparable cases) Look for people who just did it and ... … failed/aborted (what kept them?) … succeeded (what enabled them?)
    • epSt 3 # Gather data http://j.mp/yCqngC http://myexperience.sourceforge.net/ http://www.kaushik.net/avinash/the-three-greatest-survey-questions-ever/ http://www.uxmatters.com/mt/archives/2011/05/capturing-meaningful-and-significant-user-experience-metrics.php
    • epSt 3 # Gather data Stick to actual experiences with ... Experience Sampling True Intent/Voice of Customer Shadowing/Contextual Inquiry Interviews with participants that recently engaged in the activity in question
    • Why? Why? Why? Why? Why? Use laddering Ladderinghttp://madpow.com/Insights/WhitePapers/Laddering--A-Research-Interview-Technique.aspx
    • Find the template online at http://j.mp/ maomodel
    • epSt 4 # Analyse the data Analyse, aggregate and identify key issues, looking for ... … aligning drivers and obstacles … things mentioned repeatedly … things that separate successful and unsuccessful cases … things that are interdependent or »root causes«
    • epSt 5 # Ideate How might we address ... Put Put key obstacle/ opportunity (, using pattern/card/lens ) here here to achieve Put desired change here ?
    • epSt 5 # Ideate How might we address ... Put Put key obstacle/ opportunity (, using pattern/card/lens ) here here to achieve Put desired change here ?
    • epSt 5 # Ideate How might we address ... Put Put key obstacle/ opportunity (, using pattern/card/lens ) here here to achieve Put desired change here ?
    • epSt 6 # Make a detail analysis choose send see whom to write invite invite invite invite sign explore accept open up service invite invite
    • epSt 6 # Make a detail analysis Ability choose Motivation whom to invite Opportunity
    • epSt 6 # Make a detail analysis Take your customer journey/behavior chain/screen flow/…, ask at each step: What is the relevant action? Is this the right moment? Are there unmet preconditions, better moments? What is de/motivating, en/disabling, cueing? Ideate for each step if necessary
    • epSt 7 # Map a journey over time
    • http://www.flickr.com/photos/grumbler/5631948705/sizes/o/in/photostream/
    • e PathDesigning change over time, step by step Maintenance http://www.flickr.com/photos/grumbler/5631948705/sizes/o/in/photostream/
    • »It takes an average 66 daysto form a new habit.« Phillippa Lally et al. how are habits formed (2009) http://www.ucl.ac.uk/news/news-articles/0908/09080401
    • CodaPersuasive Design The MAO Model 5 1 3 2 4 The Problem The Method
    • #1 way keaTa A ion is me , emergent, situated http://www.flickr.com/photos/grumbler/5631948705/sizes/o/in/photostream/
    • ange starts with understandin the problem Designed by Sebastian Deterding/coding conduct p. 1 Key drivers Behavior Key obstacles Licensed under cb Ability Ability Ability Self-e cacy Mindfulness/grit Obstacles Knowlegde/skill/usability Drivers Habits Resources Social support Motivation Motivation Motivation Motivation Ability Opportunity Analysis Awareness Attitudes/emotions Obstacles Goals Drivers Motivations Fears Social norms Opportune Moments Biography Service lifecycle Routines Service episode#2 way ea k Ta
    • »These are two types of change: one thatoccurs within a given system which itselfremains unchanged, and one whoseoccurrence changes the system itself. ...Second-order change is thus change ofchange.« Paul Watzlawick et al. change (1974: 10-11)
    • #2 tion esqu Dou you build crutches …
    • … if you could build ladders?
    • http://www.flickr.com/photos/seemoredomore/4727291896
    • »The ethical imperative:Act always so as to increasethe number of choices.« Heinz von Foerster on constructing a reality (1973) http://books.google.com/books?id=mAkIVn9d-9kC&lpg=PA211&ots=gpV1PJFU2k&lr&pg=PA214#v=onepage&q&f=false
    • #2 tion esqu Do you seek the right change? http://www.guardian.co.uk/sustainable- business/small-painless-behaviour-change
    • When discipline is reinforced,revolution cannot fail!
    • »(A) person having a nightmare can do manythings in his dream – run, hide, fight, scream,jump off a cliff, etc. – but no change from anyone of these behaviours to another wouldever terminate that nightmare. ... The onlyway out of a dream involves a change fromdreaming to waking.« Paul Watzlawick et al. change (1974: 10-11)
    • Thank You. @dingstweets sebastian@codingconduct.cc codingconduct.cc
    • If you liked this, you will enjoy ... don‘t play games with me! Promises and Pitfalls of Gameful Design
    • If you liked this, you will enjoy ... persuasive design or: The Fine Art of Separating People from their Bad Behaviours
    • If you liked this, you will enjoy ... meaningful play Getting »Gamification« Right
    • Some ReferencesAriely, D. (2010). Predictably Irrational: The Hidden Forces that Shape Our Decisions. NewYork: Harper Perennial. j.mp/yy6kX9Benkler, Y. (2011). The Penguin and the Leviathan: How Cooperation Trumps Over Self-Interest. London: Penguin. j.mp/zzGQH7Brooks, D. (2012). The Social Animal: The Hidden Sources of Love, Character, andAchievement. New York: Random House. j.mp/zpcc8OChristakis, N.A. & Fowler, J.H. (2009). Connected: The Suprising Power of Our SocialNetworks and How They Change Our Lives. New York: Litle, Brown and Company. j.mp/wcgnW2Damasio, A. (2005). Descarte‘s Error. Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain. London:Penguin. j.mp/y9GTQ1Fogg, B.J. (2009). A behavior model for persuasive design. Proceedings of the 4th InternationalConference on Persuasive Technology. j.mp/yRQB7RGrist, M. (2010). STEER: Mastering Our Behaviour Through Instinct, Environment and Reason.London: The RSA. j.mp/wjKcV1Heath, C. & Heath, D. (2010). Switch: How to Change When Change is Hard. New York:Broadway Books. j.mp/zPVnde
    • More ReferencesKahnemann, D. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux. j.mp/ymB3rcMichie, S., van Starlen, M.M. & West, R. (2011). The behaviour change wheel: A new methodfor characterising and designing behaviour change interventions. Implementation Science6,42. j.mp/zkHz5pÖlander, F. & Thogersen, J. (1995). Understanding of consumer behaviour as a prerequisitefor environmental protection. Journal of Consumer Policy 18,4, 345-385.Pink, D. (2009). Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us. London: Penguin.j.mp/AimHXSRowson, J. (2011). Transforming Behaviour Change: Beyond Nudge and Neuromania.London: The RSA. j.mp/x8Sjl1Thaler, R.H. & Sunstein, C. (2008). Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, andHappiness. London: Penguin. j.mp/ytZGZlWatzlawick, P., Weakland, J. & Fish, M.D. (1974). Change. Principles of Problem Formationand Problem Resolution. W.W. Norton: New York. j.mp/zQMCIP
    • Even More ReferencesThe Chocolate Machine: Kehr, F., Hassenzahl, M., Laschke, M., & Diefenbach, S. (2012). Atransformational product to improve self-control strength: the Chocolate Machine. Proc. of theSIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems.Motivation and Emotion: Reeve, J. (2009). Understanding Motivation and Emotion, 5th. Ed.Hoboken; John Wiley. j.mp/xa11spImplementation Intentions: Gollwitzer,P. M. (1999). Implementation Intentions: Strong Effectsof Simple Plans. American Psychologist 54,7. j.mp/ysqlDbWillpower is depleted and trainable: Baumeister, R.; J. Tierny (2011). Willpower: Rediscoveringthe Greatest Human Strength. New York: Penguin. j.mp/yTXL97.Mindfulness and smoking cessation: Brewer, J.A. et. al. (2011). Mindfulness training forsmoking cessation: results from a randomized controlled trial. Drug and Alcohol Dependence119,1-2. http://j.mp/y81CRXEveryday willpower: Hofmann, W., Baumeister, R. F., Förster, G. & Vohs, K. D. (2012). Everydaytemptations: An experience sampling study of desire, conflict, and self-control. Journal ofPersonality and Social Psychology, online first. j.mp/wRA74g
    • Image creditsMost images are cc-licensed images taken from flickr. In those cases, attribution and link tothe original photo are given on the respective slide.All Mao posters are from the excellent maopost.com.»Daddy, drink two glasses of water first« image of Android app is © Rajat Paharia and usedwith kind permission.»Increasing motivation, removing friction« illustration is taken from Stephen Anderson‘spresentation The Art and Science of Seductive Interactions and used with kind permission.
    • Find the template online at http://j.mp/ maomodel