0
The Mao Modelresearch forbehavior changeSebastian Deterding (@dingstweets)Interaction’12February 3, 2012, Dublincb
http://j.mp/yesqNM
Swelter more steel to acceleratethe establishment of socialism!                                   http://j.mp/yesqNM
Persuasive Design               The MAO Model                Coda    1                      3                        5    ...
Persuasive Design    1                 The MAO Model                Coda                           3                      ...
From Usability to Motivation
Persuasive DesignDesign to change attitudesand behaviors
»Behavior is ourmedium.«  Robert Fabricant  interaction’09 (2009)
Why care?
Reason #1Business haschanged.
the great beyond              utility             usabilityNew differentiators
self-              health   eco/greenimprovementNew markets
Retweet!     Bookmark!              Tag!                         Comment!  Like!    Design!                             Cu...
Reason #2Our idea of thehuman conditionhas changed.
+Then: The Rational Actor
(It shaped our work as well)
Now:   e Social Animal
Rational Actor               Social AnimalIndividualist, detached        Social, embodied                          Many (a...
A g d workin model                     http://www.flickr.com/photos/grumbler/5631948705/sizes/o/in/photostream/
e Rider  Conscious, deliberate reasoningNeeds goals and plans to get somewhere   Quickly tired from heavy steering        ...
e ElephantEmotions, habits, automatic processesHas a mind of its own (really in charge)      Lives in the here and now    ...
e JungleSocial and material environment  Arouses the elephant (mice!)Makes things harder/easier to reach    Can be cultiva...
al    on r  ti o a tR c   A   Ignorin the elephant and the r m
Persuasive Design           The MAO Model                Coda    1                   3                       5            ...
We have t l sets ...
… but no real constru ion plan.
what we warn all clients of:»A solution in searchof a problem«
Not»This might also persuade users.«But»What drives and stops Peter todo X at point Y?«
motivation                           trigger                                     trigger threshold                        ...
„Pleasure/pain, hope/fear, acceptance/rejection“               is a private theory out of sync with motivation            ...
Ignores self-efficacy, learning,                                     understanding. Quote: „Most people                   ...
Ignores intention, goal-                                     setting, mindfulnessmotivation                           trig...
o ggF In     ort: We‘re mi in a rider here!                                 http://www.flickr.com/photos/aftab/3992830809
A ion is me   , emergent, situated                        http://www.flickr.com/photos/grumbler/5631948705/sizes/o/in/photo...
http://www.flickr.com/photos/automat/623260075
http://www.flickr.com/photos/melissagray/4379697339
and we‘d still like to know:What are the relevantmotivators, enablers,triggers for Peter to doX in situation Y?
Persuasive                      The Mao Model Design                           3                       Coda    1          ...
http://www.springerlink.com/content/m7128613815u7225/
MotivationPushing actionforward (or back)
AbilityAffording andconstraining action
opportunityFinding the right/critical moments           “Stopwatch” symbol is by The Noun Project from thenounproject.com ...
wa erbe ad     re   Re          http://www.flickr.com/photos/velouria/4997235332
MotivationPushing actionforward (or back)
http://j.mp/xcHfVe
Love manual labor!                     http://j.mp/xcHfVe
»Put hot triggers in thepath of motivated people.«   BJ Fogg   the new rules of persuasion (2009)                         ...
»I‘m not convinced.«                       http://www.flickr.com/photos/prescottfoland/5259812928
epSt 1   #Make people aware
epSt 2   #Help people understand                         http://www.thefamilyinternational.org/en/work/africa/projects/edu...
http://j.mp/xGk85S
<Insert influence here>
Social Proof,Authority                            Liking  Social Proof                 Facts
epSt 3   #Make people care
Appeal to motivational needs
Create need-satisfying experiences
Rel                                            ing                  ated                                         ong      ...
Rel                                            ing                  ated                                         ong      ...
That tricky beast, autonomy                              http://www.flickr.com/photos/prescottfoland/5259812928
Lynde Kintner, Smart Sex. http://www.ac4d.com/home/philosophy/student-work/smart-sex-the-man-shield/
Acknowledge and defuse FUDs                              http://misteringo.deviantart.com/art/Bunnies-Scream-Again-79745974
Use (or remove) social norms                               http://www.flickr.com/photos/matthileo/4482198229
Motivation, in summary    knowledge         Build awareness, form mental modelsattitudes, emotions Connect to emotions & v...
AbilityAffording andconstrainingactions
http://j.mp/wdUCRx
Train strictly and be well-preparedfor the battle against invaders!                                      http://j.mp/wdUCRx
Support visioning                    http://www.flickr.com/photos/ronsombilongallery/3240944872
Support visioning                    http://www.flickr.com/photos/ronsombilongallery/3240944872
Guide goal and implementation planning
Guide goal and implementation planning
Oh, there‘s                      craving.                    Interesting.Mindfulness              http://www.flickr.com/pho...
“MUST - RESIST -             CRAVING !!!“Willpower
Willpower            http://www.flickr.com/photos/foshydog/3699371501            http://www.flickr.com/photos/pnjunction/250...
»With an aesthetic of convenience,you will never instill change.What you need, rather, is anaesthetic of friction.«    Mar...
Cultivate mindfulness and willpowerKehr, F., Hassenzahl, M., Laschke, M., & Diefenbach, S. (2012). A transformational prod...
Strengthen self-efficacy                           http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learned_helplessness                      ...
Model the behavior
Provide fast experiences of success
Defuse guilt & frustration
Build knowledge and skills
Make it easy (or hard ^_^)
Ensure necessary resources
Shape new habits                   http://tinyhabits.com
Routines support habituation
Defaults support habituation
Train ready-to-hand alternative actions
»Free choice means having atleast one other way.«   Moshé Feldenkrais   the elusive obvious (1981)                        ...
Provide social support
Ability, in summary   goal-setting      Support visioning, goals, planning mindfulness, will   Train the rider‘s strength ...
opportunityFinding the right/critical moments           “Stopwatch” symbol is by The Noun Project from thenounproject.com ...
obey commands at any time!
καιρός
The Opportune MomentProviding a catalyst whenpeople are motivated, able, andhave the opportunity to act.
Opportunities over timemacro           biography        Breakdowns, periods        service lifecycle   Steps (one-time/rep...
Biographic turning points
Service lifecycle
Routines: Workday                    http://www.flickr.com/photos/mindcaster-ezzolicious/3050043143
Routines: Craving cycle
Service episode: Restaurant
Service episode: Interface
Always Be Closing
No time?
Defer
Make a future appointment
Allow completion in chunks
Don‘t disturb current goals
Opportunities in space
The Opportune MomentProviding a catalyst whenpeople are motivated, able, andhave the opportunity to act.
What did I want?                   http://www.flickr.com/photos/philandpam/1485578432
»After surveying the experimental findings,one begins to wonder how people manageto get on in their daily lives at all. .....
Create wanted cues                     http://www.flickr.com/photos/robandstephanielevy/4668030838
Created wanted cues
http://designinghappiness.wordpress.com/
Remove unwanted external cues                        http://www.flickr.com/photos/a-culinary-photo-journal/3134396770
Remove unwanted external cues
Create Re-Minders                    https://www.readyforzero.com/
Opportunity, in summary      time      Find rhythms & timings     space      Find spaces for action     cues       Create ...
Persuasive Design               The MAO Model                Coda    1                      3                        5    ...
First, a nagging problem                           http://people.virginia.edu/~tdw/nisbett&wilson.pdf
»Nisbett and Wilson are not skepticsabout introspective report of consciousexperiences. They are skeptics aboutintrospecti...
The limits of self-reportWe can report recent experiences,general beliefs, attitudes, valuesStick to actual, current/recen...
epSt 1   #       Define & ma           ange goals  Be specific: »Become a better person«  doesn‘t work  Map out chain of be...
Behavior chain: Eating healthy                           eat                         healthy                          food
Behavior chain: Eating healthy                           eat                         healthy                          food...
Behavior chain: Eating healthy                  cook       eat                 healthy   healthy                  food    ...
Behavior chain: Eating healthy          shop      cook       eat         healthy   healthy   healthy          food      fo...
Behavior chain: Eating healthy                shop      cook       eatplan healthy               healthy   healthy   healt...
Behavior chain: Eating healthy                shop      cook       eatplan healthy               healthy   healthy   healt...
epSt 2   #       Recruit participants  People using your service/performing  your activity (or broaden to comparable  case...
epSt 3   #  Gather data                                                                                                   ...
epSt 3   #       Gather data  Stick to actual experiences with ...  Experience Sampling  True Intent/Voice of Customer  Sh...
Why?                                                                                  Why?                                ...
Find the template     online at   http://j.mp/    maomodel
epSt 4   #       Analyse the data  Analyse, aggregate and identify key  issues, looking for ...  … aligning drivers and ob...
epSt 5   #       Ideate How might we address ...            Put                                            Put       key o...
epSt 5   #       Ideate How might we address ...            Put                                            Put       key o...
epSt 5   #       Ideate How might we address ...            Put                                            Put       key o...
epSt 6   #         Make a detail analysis        choose                                  send      see       whom to    wr...
epSt 6   #       Make a detail analysis                        Ability                                     choose         ...
epSt 6   #       Make a detail analysis  Take your customer journey/behavior  chain/screen flow/…, ask at each step:  What...
epSt 7   #  Map a journey over time
http://www.flickr.com/photos/grumbler/5631948705/sizes/o/in/photostream/
e PathDesigning change over time,       step by step       Maintenance        http://www.flickr.com/photos/grumbler/5631948...
»It takes an average 66 daysto form a new habit.«   Phillippa Lally et al.   how are habits formed (2009)                 ...
CodaPersuasive Design               The MAO Model                 5    1                      3             2             ...
#1 way   keaTa       A ion is me   , emergent, situated                                      http://www.flickr.com/photos/g...
ange starts with understandin the problem  Designed by Sebastian Deterding/coding conduct                                   ...
»These are two types of change: one thatoccurs within a given system which itselfremains unchanged, and one whoseoccurrenc...
#2 tion esqu      Dou you build crutches …
… if you could build ladders?
http://www.flickr.com/photos/seemoredomore/4727291896
»The ethical imperative:Act always so as to increasethe number of choices.«    Heinz von Foerster    on constructing a rea...
#2 tion esqu      Do you seek the right change?                                        http://www.guardian.co.uk/sustainab...
When discipline is reinforced,revolution cannot fail!
»(A) person having a nightmare can do manythings in his dream – run, hide, fight, scream,jump off a cliff, etc. – but no c...
Thank You. @dingstweets sebastian@codingconduct.cc codingconduct.cc
If you liked this, you will enjoy ...       don‘t play games with me!       Promises and Pitfalls of Gameful Design
If you liked this, you will enjoy ...       persuasive design       or: The Fine Art of Separating People from their Bad  ...
If you liked this, you will enjoy ...       meaningful play       Getting »Gamification« Right
Some ReferencesAriely, D. (2010). Predictably Irrational: The Hidden Forces that Shape Our Decisions. NewYork: Harper Pere...
More ReferencesKahnemann, D. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux. j.mp/ymB3rcMichie, S., va...
Even More ReferencesThe Chocolate Machine: Kehr, F., Hassenzahl, M., Laschke, M., & Diefenbach, S. (2012). Atransformation...
Image creditsMost images are cc-licensed images taken from flickr. In those cases, attribution and link tothe original pho...
Find the template     online at   http://j.mp/    maomodel
The MAO Model: Research for Behavior Change.
The MAO Model: Research for Behavior Change.
The MAO Model: Research for Behavior Change.
The MAO Model: Research for Behavior Change.
The MAO Model: Research for Behavior Change.
The MAO Model: Research for Behavior Change.
The MAO Model: Research for Behavior Change.
The MAO Model: Research for Behavior Change.
The MAO Model: Research for Behavior Change.
The MAO Model: Research for Behavior Change.
The MAO Model: Research for Behavior Change.
The MAO Model: Research for Behavior Change.
The MAO Model: Research for Behavior Change.
The MAO Model: Research for Behavior Change.
The MAO Model: Research for Behavior Change.
The MAO Model: Research for Behavior Change.
The MAO Model: Research for Behavior Change.
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The MAO Model: Research for Behavior Change.

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Presentation given at Interaction'12, February 3, 2012, Dublin, Ireland. Interest in persuasive design for behavior change has been growing rapidly in interaction design in the past years. In part thanks to that, we as designers now have ample tools and pattern libraries to inspire us. What we are lacking, however, are focus and guidance in applying them. Usually, we get those from user research. But current research methods and deliverables arguably do not provide ready springboards.

This presentation demonstrates how to use the Motivation Ability Opportunity (MAO) model as a tool to structure user research around a single behavior to be changed, and to guide subsequent design in prioritizing issues to tackle and ideating ways to tackle them.

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Transcript of "The MAO Model: Research for Behavior Change."

  1. 1. The Mao Modelresearch forbehavior changeSebastian Deterding (@dingstweets)Interaction’12February 3, 2012, Dublincb
  2. 2. http://j.mp/yesqNM
  3. 3. Swelter more steel to acceleratethe establishment of socialism! http://j.mp/yesqNM
  4. 4. Persuasive Design The MAO Model Coda 1 3 5 2 4 The Problem The Method
  5. 5. Persuasive Design 1 The MAO Model Coda 3 5 2 4 The Problem The Method
  6. 6. From Usability to Motivation
  7. 7. Persuasive DesignDesign to change attitudesand behaviors
  8. 8. »Behavior is ourmedium.« Robert Fabricant interaction’09 (2009)
  9. 9. Why care?
  10. 10. Reason #1Business haschanged.
  11. 11. the great beyond utility usabilityNew differentiators
  12. 12. self- health eco/greenimprovementNew markets
  13. 13. Retweet! Bookmark! Tag! Comment! Like! Design! Curate!Upload! Mark as Spam! Buy! Forward! Invite! Subscribe! Add friend! Share! Digg! Answer! Vote! New business models & goals
  14. 14. Reason #2Our idea of thehuman conditionhas changed.
  15. 15. +Then: The Rational Actor
  16. 16. (It shaped our work as well)
  17. 17. Now: e Social Animal
  18. 18. Rational Actor Social AnimalIndividualist, detached Social, embodied Many (also intrinsic, social) Material self-interest motivations Biases, emotions, habits, Cool calculating ratio social & material environmentConscious information- Unconscious processes processing
  19. 19. A g d workin model http://www.flickr.com/photos/grumbler/5631948705/sizes/o/in/photostream/
  20. 20. e Rider Conscious, deliberate reasoningNeeds goals and plans to get somewhere Quickly tired from heavy steering Often not alert http://www.flickr.com/photos/grumbler/5631948705/sizes/o/in/photostream/
  21. 21. e ElephantEmotions, habits, automatic processesHas a mind of its own (really in charge) Lives in the here and now Training takes time http://www.flickr.com/photos/grumbler/5631948705/sizes/o/in/photostream/
  22. 22. e JungleSocial and material environment Arouses the elephant (mice!)Makes things harder/easier to reach Can be cultivated by rider Where the herd lives http://www.flickr.com/photos/grumbler/5631948705/sizes/o/in/photostream/
  23. 23. al on r ti o a tR c A Ignorin the elephant and the r m
  24. 24. Persuasive Design The MAO Model Coda 1 3 5 4 2 The Method The Problem
  25. 25. We have t l sets ...
  26. 26. … but no real constru ion plan.
  27. 27. what we warn all clients of:»A solution in searchof a problem«
  28. 28. Not»This might also persuade users.«But»What drives and stops Peter todo X at point Y?«
  29. 29. motivation trigger trigger threshold ability e Fog Behavior Model? http://behaviormodel.org/
  30. 30. „Pleasure/pain, hope/fear, acceptance/rejection“ is a private theory out of sync with motivation research; ignores attitudes and affectsmotivation trigger trigger threshold ability e Fog Behavior Model? http://behaviormodel.org/
  31. 31. Ignores self-efficacy, learning, understanding. Quote: „Most people resist learning new things. That’s just how we are as humans: lazy“ (which is untrue)motivation trigger trigger threshold ability e Fog Behavior Model? http://behaviormodel.org/
  32. 32. Ignores intention, goal- setting, mindfulnessmotivation trigger trigger threshold ability e Fog Behavior Model? http://behaviormodel.org/
  33. 33. o ggF In ort: We‘re mi in a rider here! http://www.flickr.com/photos/aftab/3992830809
  34. 34. A ion is me , emergent, situated http://www.flickr.com/photos/grumbler/5631948705/sizes/o/in/photostream/
  35. 35. http://www.flickr.com/photos/automat/623260075
  36. 36. http://www.flickr.com/photos/melissagray/4379697339
  37. 37. and we‘d still like to know:What are the relevantmotivators, enablers,triggers for Peter to doX in situation Y?
  38. 38. Persuasive The Mao Model Design 3 Coda 1 5 2 4 The Problem The Method
  39. 39. http://www.springerlink.com/content/m7128613815u7225/
  40. 40. MotivationPushing actionforward (or back)
  41. 41. AbilityAffording andconstraining action
  42. 42. opportunityFinding the right/critical moments “Stopwatch” symbol is by The Noun Project from thenounproject.com collection.
  43. 43. wa erbe ad re Re http://www.flickr.com/photos/velouria/4997235332
  44. 44. MotivationPushing actionforward (or back)
  45. 45. http://j.mp/xcHfVe
  46. 46. Love manual labor! http://j.mp/xcHfVe
  47. 47. »Put hot triggers in thepath of motivated people.« BJ Fogg the new rules of persuasion (2009) http://www.slideshare.net/bjfogg/bj-fogg-the-new-rules-of-persuasion-brussels-2009
  48. 48. »I‘m not convinced.« http://www.flickr.com/photos/prescottfoland/5259812928
  49. 49. epSt 1 #Make people aware
  50. 50. epSt 2 #Help people understand http://www.thefamilyinternational.org/en/work/africa/projects/education/143/photo/471/
  51. 51. http://j.mp/xGk85S
  52. 52. <Insert influence here>
  53. 53. Social Proof,Authority Liking Social Proof Facts
  54. 54. epSt 3 #Make people care
  55. 55. Appeal to motivational needs
  56. 56. Create need-satisfying experiences
  57. 57. Rel ing ated ong nes Bel Au s ton ition om co gn y Re psycholo social gical nce Powe pe te rCom physical Hu x Se ng Thirst er
  58. 58. Rel ing ated ong nes Bel Au s ton ition om co gn y Re psycholo social gical nce Powe pe te rCom physical Hu x Se ng Thirst er
  59. 59. That tricky beast, autonomy http://www.flickr.com/photos/prescottfoland/5259812928
  60. 60. Lynde Kintner, Smart Sex. http://www.ac4d.com/home/philosophy/student-work/smart-sex-the-man-shield/
  61. 61. Acknowledge and defuse FUDs http://misteringo.deviantart.com/art/Bunnies-Scream-Again-79745974
  62. 62. Use (or remove) social norms http://www.flickr.com/photos/matthileo/4482198229
  63. 63. Motivation, in summary knowledge Build awareness, form mental modelsattitudes, emotions Connect to emotions & values motivations Appeal to & satisfy needs fears Acknowledge & defuse fears social norms Use or shift contexts
  64. 64. AbilityAffording andconstrainingactions
  65. 65. http://j.mp/wdUCRx
  66. 66. Train strictly and be well-preparedfor the battle against invaders! http://j.mp/wdUCRx
  67. 67. Support visioning http://www.flickr.com/photos/ronsombilongallery/3240944872
  68. 68. Support visioning http://www.flickr.com/photos/ronsombilongallery/3240944872
  69. 69. Guide goal and implementation planning
  70. 70. Guide goal and implementation planning
  71. 71. Oh, there‘s craving. Interesting.Mindfulness http://www.flickr.com/photos/johnworthington/3241165758
  72. 72. “MUST - RESIST - CRAVING !!!“Willpower
  73. 73. Willpower http://www.flickr.com/photos/foshydog/3699371501 http://www.flickr.com/photos/pnjunction/2509578641
  74. 74. »With an aesthetic of convenience,you will never instill change.What you need, rather, is anaesthetic of friction.« Marc Hassenzahl towards an aesthetic of friction (2011) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ehWdLEXSoh8
  75. 75. Cultivate mindfulness and willpowerKehr, F., Hassenzahl, M., Laschke, M., & Diefenbach, S. (2012). A transformational product to improve self-controlstrength: the Chocolate Machine. Proc. of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems.
  76. 76. Strengthen self-efficacy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learned_helplessness http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-efficacy
  77. 77. Model the behavior
  78. 78. Provide fast experiences of success
  79. 79. Defuse guilt & frustration
  80. 80. Build knowledge and skills
  81. 81. Make it easy (or hard ^_^)
  82. 82. Ensure necessary resources
  83. 83. Shape new habits http://tinyhabits.com
  84. 84. Routines support habituation
  85. 85. Defaults support habituation
  86. 86. Train ready-to-hand alternative actions
  87. 87. »Free choice means having atleast one other way.« Moshé Feldenkrais the elusive obvious (1981) http://www.ucl.ac.uk/news/news-articles/0908/09080401
  88. 88. Provide social support
  89. 89. Ability, in summary goal-setting Support visioning, goals, planning mindfulness, will Train the rider‘s strength self-efficacy Model, afford successes, forgive failures ability Train, improve usability & resources habit Repetition until ready-to-hand/automatic social support Providing social support
  90. 90. opportunityFinding the right/critical moments “Stopwatch” symbol is by The Noun Project from thenounproject.com collection.
  91. 91. obey commands at any time!
  92. 92. καιρός
  93. 93. The Opportune MomentProviding a catalyst whenpeople are motivated, able, andhave the opportunity to act.
  94. 94. Opportunities over timemacro biography Breakdowns, periods service lifecycle Steps (one-time/repeat) routines Month, week, day, ... service episode User flow, interfacemicro
  95. 95. Biographic turning points
  96. 96. Service lifecycle
  97. 97. Routines: Workday http://www.flickr.com/photos/mindcaster-ezzolicious/3050043143
  98. 98. Routines: Craving cycle
  99. 99. Service episode: Restaurant
  100. 100. Service episode: Interface
  101. 101. Always Be Closing
  102. 102. No time?
  103. 103. Defer
  104. 104. Make a future appointment
  105. 105. Allow completion in chunks
  106. 106. Don‘t disturb current goals
  107. 107. Opportunities in space
  108. 108. The Opportune MomentProviding a catalyst whenpeople are motivated, able, andhave the opportunity to act.
  109. 109. What did I want? http://www.flickr.com/photos/philandpam/1485578432
  110. 110. »After surveying the experimental findings,one begins to wonder how people manageto get on in their daily lives at all. ... Peopleare able to get on because they “offload” anenormous amount of practical reasoningonto their environment.« Joseph Heath and Joel Anderson procrastination and the extended will (2010)
  111. 111. Create wanted cues http://www.flickr.com/photos/robandstephanielevy/4668030838
  112. 112. Created wanted cues
  113. 113. http://designinghappiness.wordpress.com/
  114. 114. Remove unwanted external cues http://www.flickr.com/photos/a-culinary-photo-journal/3134396770
  115. 115. Remove unwanted external cues
  116. 116. Create Re-Minders https://www.readyforzero.com/
  117. 117. Opportunity, in summary time Find rhythms & timings space Find spaces for action cues Create wanted, remove unwanted re-minders Give the rider a chance
  118. 118. Persuasive Design The MAO Model Coda 1 3 5 2 The Problem 4 The Method
  119. 119. First, a nagging problem http://people.virginia.edu/~tdw/nisbett&wilson.pdf
  120. 120. »Nisbett and Wilson are not skepticsabout introspective report of consciousexperiences. They are skeptics aboutintrospective knowledge of the causes ofthose experiences.« Eric Schwitzgebel the nisbett-wilson myth (2006) http://schwitzsplinters.blogspot.com/2006/10/nisbett-wilson-myth.html
  121. 121. The limits of self-reportWe can report recent experiences,general beliefs, attitudes, valuesStick to actual, current/recent experiencesWe fail at detailed memory, future action,irrelevant things, unconscious processesAsk for connected attitudes, values, needs,but don‘t jump to conclusions
  122. 122. epSt 1 # Define & ma ange goals Be specific: »Become a better person« doesn‘t work Map out chain of behaviors & actors to structure and/or focus research If you replace an old behavior, you need to study & address both old and new
  123. 123. Behavior chain: Eating healthy eat healthy food
  124. 124. Behavior chain: Eating healthy eat healthy food avoid mindless snacking
  125. 125. Behavior chain: Eating healthy cook eat healthy healthy food food avoid mindless snacking
  126. 126. Behavior chain: Eating healthy shop cook eat healthy healthy healthy food food food avoid mindless snacking
  127. 127. Behavior chain: Eating healthy shop cook eatplan healthy healthy healthy healthy meals food food food avoid mindless snacking
  128. 128. Behavior chain: Eating healthy shop cook eatplan healthy healthy healthy healthy meals food food food actor a avoid mindless snacking actor b
  129. 129. epSt 2 # Recruit participants People using your service/performing your activity (or broaden to comparable cases) Look for people who just did it and ... … failed/aborted (what kept them?) … succeeded (what enabled them?)
  130. 130. epSt 3 # Gather data http://j.mp/yCqngC http://myexperience.sourceforge.net/ http://www.kaushik.net/avinash/the-three-greatest-survey-questions-ever/ http://www.uxmatters.com/mt/archives/2011/05/capturing-meaningful-and-significant-user-experience-metrics.php
  131. 131. epSt 3 # Gather data Stick to actual experiences with ... Experience Sampling True Intent/Voice of Customer Shadowing/Contextual Inquiry Interviews with participants that recently engaged in the activity in question
  132. 132. Why? Why? Why? Why? Why? Use laddering Ladderinghttp://madpow.com/Insights/WhitePapers/Laddering--A-Research-Interview-Technique.aspx
  133. 133. Find the template online at http://j.mp/ maomodel
  134. 134. epSt 4 # Analyse the data Analyse, aggregate and identify key issues, looking for ... … aligning drivers and obstacles … things mentioned repeatedly … things that separate successful and unsuccessful cases … things that are interdependent or »root causes«
  135. 135. epSt 5 # Ideate How might we address ... Put Put key obstacle/ opportunity (, using pattern/card/lens ) here here to achieve Put desired change here ?
  136. 136. epSt 5 # Ideate How might we address ... Put Put key obstacle/ opportunity (, using pattern/card/lens ) here here to achieve Put desired change here ?
  137. 137. epSt 5 # Ideate How might we address ... Put Put key obstacle/ opportunity (, using pattern/card/lens ) here here to achieve Put desired change here ?
  138. 138. epSt 6 # Make a detail analysis choose send see whom to write invite invite invite invite sign explore accept open up service invite invite
  139. 139. epSt 6 # Make a detail analysis Ability choose Motivation whom to invite Opportunity
  140. 140. epSt 6 # Make a detail analysis Take your customer journey/behavior chain/screen flow/…, ask at each step: What is the relevant action? Is this the right moment? Are there unmet preconditions, better moments? What is de/motivating, en/disabling, cueing? Ideate for each step if necessary
  141. 141. epSt 7 # Map a journey over time
  142. 142. http://www.flickr.com/photos/grumbler/5631948705/sizes/o/in/photostream/
  143. 143. e PathDesigning change over time, step by step Maintenance http://www.flickr.com/photos/grumbler/5631948705/sizes/o/in/photostream/
  144. 144. »It takes an average 66 daysto form a new habit.« Phillippa Lally et al. how are habits formed (2009) http://www.ucl.ac.uk/news/news-articles/0908/09080401
  145. 145. CodaPersuasive Design The MAO Model 5 1 3 2 4 The Problem The Method
  146. 146. #1 way keaTa A ion is me , emergent, situated http://www.flickr.com/photos/grumbler/5631948705/sizes/o/in/photostream/
  147. 147. ange starts with understandin the problem Designed by Sebastian Deterding/coding conduct p. 1 Key drivers Behavior Key obstacles Licensed under cb Ability Ability Ability Self-e cacy Mindfulness/grit Obstacles Knowlegde/skill/usability Drivers Habits Resources Social support Motivation Motivation Motivation Motivation Ability Opportunity Analysis Awareness Attitudes/emotions Obstacles Goals Drivers Motivations Fears Social norms Opportune Moments Biography Service lifecycle Routines Service episode#2 way ea k Ta
  148. 148. »These are two types of change: one thatoccurs within a given system which itselfremains unchanged, and one whoseoccurrence changes the system itself. ...Second-order change is thus change ofchange.« Paul Watzlawick et al. change (1974: 10-11)
  149. 149. #2 tion esqu Dou you build crutches …
  150. 150. … if you could build ladders?
  151. 151. http://www.flickr.com/photos/seemoredomore/4727291896
  152. 152. »The ethical imperative:Act always so as to increasethe number of choices.« Heinz von Foerster on constructing a reality (1973) http://books.google.com/books?id=mAkIVn9d-9kC&lpg=PA211&ots=gpV1PJFU2k&lr&pg=PA214#v=onepage&q&f=false
  153. 153. #2 tion esqu Do you seek the right change? http://www.guardian.co.uk/sustainable- business/small-painless-behaviour-change
  154. 154. When discipline is reinforced,revolution cannot fail!
  155. 155. »(A) person having a nightmare can do manythings in his dream – run, hide, fight, scream,jump off a cliff, etc. – but no change from anyone of these behaviours to another wouldever terminate that nightmare. ... The onlyway out of a dream involves a change fromdreaming to waking.« Paul Watzlawick et al. change (1974: 10-11)
  156. 156. Thank You. @dingstweets sebastian@codingconduct.cc codingconduct.cc
  157. 157. If you liked this, you will enjoy ... don‘t play games with me! Promises and Pitfalls of Gameful Design
  158. 158. If you liked this, you will enjoy ... persuasive design or: The Fine Art of Separating People from their Bad Behaviours
  159. 159. If you liked this, you will enjoy ... meaningful play Getting »Gamification« Right
  160. 160. Some ReferencesAriely, D. (2010). Predictably Irrational: The Hidden Forces that Shape Our Decisions. NewYork: Harper Perennial. j.mp/yy6kX9Benkler, Y. (2011). The Penguin and the Leviathan: How Cooperation Trumps Over Self-Interest. London: Penguin. j.mp/zzGQH7Brooks, D. (2012). The Social Animal: The Hidden Sources of Love, Character, andAchievement. New York: Random House. j.mp/zpcc8OChristakis, N.A. & Fowler, J.H. (2009). Connected: The Suprising Power of Our SocialNetworks and How They Change Our Lives. New York: Litle, Brown and Company. j.mp/wcgnW2Damasio, A. (2005). Descarte‘s Error. Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain. London:Penguin. j.mp/y9GTQ1Fogg, B.J. (2009). A behavior model for persuasive design. Proceedings of the 4th InternationalConference on Persuasive Technology. j.mp/yRQB7RGrist, M. (2010). STEER: Mastering Our Behaviour Through Instinct, Environment and Reason.London: The RSA. j.mp/wjKcV1Heath, C. & Heath, D. (2010). Switch: How to Change When Change is Hard. New York:Broadway Books. j.mp/zPVnde
  161. 161. More ReferencesKahnemann, D. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux. j.mp/ymB3rcMichie, S., van Starlen, M.M. & West, R. (2011). The behaviour change wheel: A new methodfor characterising and designing behaviour change interventions. Implementation Science6,42. j.mp/zkHz5pÖlander, F. & Thogersen, J. (1995). Understanding of consumer behaviour as a prerequisitefor environmental protection. Journal of Consumer Policy 18,4, 345-385.Pink, D. (2009). Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us. London: Penguin.j.mp/AimHXSRowson, J. (2011). Transforming Behaviour Change: Beyond Nudge and Neuromania.London: The RSA. j.mp/x8Sjl1Thaler, R.H. & Sunstein, C. (2008). Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, andHappiness. London: Penguin. j.mp/ytZGZlWatzlawick, P., Weakland, J. & Fish, M.D. (1974). Change. Principles of Problem Formationand Problem Resolution. W.W. Norton: New York. j.mp/zQMCIP
  162. 162. Even More ReferencesThe Chocolate Machine: Kehr, F., Hassenzahl, M., Laschke, M., & Diefenbach, S. (2012). Atransformational product to improve self-control strength: the Chocolate Machine. Proc. of theSIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems.Motivation and Emotion: Reeve, J. (2009). Understanding Motivation and Emotion, 5th. Ed.Hoboken; John Wiley. j.mp/xa11spImplementation Intentions: Gollwitzer,P. M. (1999). Implementation Intentions: Strong Effectsof Simple Plans. American Psychologist 54,7. j.mp/ysqlDbWillpower is depleted and trainable: Baumeister, R.; J. Tierny (2011). Willpower: Rediscoveringthe Greatest Human Strength. New York: Penguin. j.mp/yTXL97.Mindfulness and smoking cessation: Brewer, J.A. et. al. (2011). Mindfulness training forsmoking cessation: results from a randomized controlled trial. Drug and Alcohol Dependence119,1-2. http://j.mp/y81CRXEveryday willpower: Hofmann, W., Baumeister, R. F., Förster, G. & Vohs, K. D. (2012). Everydaytemptations: An experience sampling study of desire, conflict, and self-control. Journal ofPersonality and Social Psychology, online first. j.mp/wRA74g
  163. 163. Image creditsMost images are cc-licensed images taken from flickr. In those cases, attribution and link tothe original photo are given on the respective slide.All Mao posters are from the excellent maopost.com.»Daddy, drink two glasses of water first« image of Android app is © Rajat Paharia and usedwith kind permission.»Increasing motivation, removing friction« illustration is taken from Stephen Anderson‘spresentation The Art and Science of Seductive Interactions and used with kind permission.
  164. 164. Find the template online at http://j.mp/ maomodel
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