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# Presentation of data

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### Presentation of data

1. 1. Presentation of Data Presented by: Deepak kumar 11410 11th – D ( 2nd shift )
2. 2. 1) Presentation of Data 1.1) Tabular presentation 1.1.a) Components of table 1.1.b) Features of a good table 1.1.c) Kind of tables 1.1.d) Classification of data and Tabular Presentation
3. 3. 1.2) Textual presentation 1.3) Diagrammatic presentation 1.3.a) Bar diagrams 1.3.a.i) Types of Bar diagrams 1.3.a.i.A) Simple Bar diagrams 1.3.a.i.B) Multiple Bar diagrams 1.3.a.i.C) Sub-divided Bar diagrams 1.3.a.i.D) Percentage Bar diagram
4. 4. 1.3.b) Pie diagram 1.3.c) Frequency Diagrams 1.3.c.i) Histogram 1.3.c.i.A) Unequal 1.3.c.i.B) Equal 1.3.c.ii) Polygon 1.3.c.iii) Frequency curve polygon 1.3.c.iv) Ogive or Cumulative Frequency Curve
5. 5. 1.3.c.iv.A) Less than Ogive 1.3.c.iv.B) More than Ogive 2.) Some Questions 2.1) Very Short Answer Type Questions 2.2) Short Answer Type Questions 2.3) Long Answer Type Questions 2.4) Numerical Questions
6. 6. Presentation of Data The presentation of data means exhibition of the data in such a clear and attractive manner that these are easily understood and analysed. There are many forms of presentation of data.
7. 7. Presentation of Data Presentation of data Textual presentation Graphical presentation Tabular presentation
8. 8. 1.1 Tabular Presentation In the process of Tabular presentation is Data is organized in rows and columns, this process is known as tabular presentation. The method used is known as Tabulation( presenting data in the form of rows and columns in a table ).
9. 9. Components of a table Following are the principal components of a table:- Table number first of all the table is to be numbered. These numbers must be in the same order as the tables. Numbers facilitates the location of the tables. For ex; table no. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, ........
10. 10. Title a table must have a title. The title must be written in bold letters. The title must be simple, clear and short. A good title must reveal: i) The problem under consideration ii) The time period of the study iii)The place of study iv)The nature of classification of data “A GOOD TITLE IS SHORT BUT COMPLETE IN ALL RESPECT”
11. 11. Head note If the title of the table does not give complete information, it is supplemented with head note. Head note completes the information in the title of the table. The unit of data is preferably expressed in lakhs, crores, tonnes etc. and expressed in brackets as head note.
12. 12. Stubs stubs are the title of rows of a table. These titles indicate information contained in the rows of the table. Caption Caption is the title given to the coloumns of a table. A caption indicates information contained in the coloumns of the table. A caption may have sub-heads when the information in the columns is divided in more than one class.
13. 13. Body body of a table means sum total of the items in the table. Thus, body is the most important part of the table. It indicates values of the various items in the table. Each item in the body is called “Cell”
14. 14. Footnote Footnotes are given for the clarification of the reader. These are generally given with information in the table need to be supplemented. Source when table are based on secondary data, source of the data is to be given. Source of the data is specified below the footnote.
15. 15. Format of a table
16. 16. Features of a good table Construction of a table depends upon the objective of study. It also depends on the wisdom of satisfaction. There are no hard and fast rules for the construction of a table. However, some important guidelines should be kept in mind . These are as under:-
17. 17. 1.) Title as compatible with objectives of the study Title of a table must be provided at the top centre of the table and it must be compatible with the objectives of study. 2.) Comparison Items which are to be compared with each other should be placed in rows and columns close to each other. This facilitates comparison
18. 18. 3.) Special Emphasis items in a table which needs special emphesis should be placed in head rows( top above ) or head columns ( extreme left ). Such items should be presented in Bold figures. 4.) Ideal size Table must be of an ideal size, to determine an ideal size. To determine an ideal size of a table, a rough draft or sketch must be drawn.
19. 19. 5.) Stubs If the rows are long, stubs may be given at right hand side of the table. 6.)Use of Zero Zero should only be used to indicate the quantity of the variable. It should not be used to indicate the non-availability of data. If the data are not available then it should be indicated by „n.a.‟ or ( - ) minus sign.
20. 20. 7.) Headings Heading should generally be written in the singular form. For ex., in the columns indicating goods, the word “good” should be used. 8.) Abbreviations Use of abbreviations should be avoided in the heading or sub- headings of a table.
21. 21. 9.) Footnote Footnote should be given only if needed. 10.) Units Units may be specified above the columns. 11.) Total In the table, sub-totals of the items must be given at the end of each row. Grand total of the items must also be noted.
22. 22. 12.) Percentage and Ratio Percentage figures should be provided in the table, if possible. This makes the data more informative. 13.) Extent of Approximation If some approximate figures have been used in the table, the extent of approximation must be noted.
23. 23. 14.) Sources of Data Sources of data must be noted at the foot of the table. It is generally noted next to the footnote. 15.) Size of columns Size of columns must be uniform and symmetrical. 16.) Ruling of columns Columns must be divided into different sections according to similarities of the data.
24. 24. 17.) Simple, Economical and Attractive a table must be simple attractive and economical in space.
25. 25. Kinds of Tables
26. 26. kinds of tables A.) According to purpose 1) General these tables are just for general purposes . These tables are generally attached to some official reports, like Census Reports of India. These are also called Reference tables. 2) Specific Specific purpose table is that table which is prepared with some specific purpose in the mind. In this table the data is presented in the form of result of the analysis. That is why these tables are also called Summary tables.
27. 27. B.) According to Originality 1) Original An original table is that in which data are presented in the same form of the result of the analysis. 2) Derived An derived table is that is that in which data are not presented in the form or manner in which these are collected. Instead the data are presented after converting data into ratios and percentages.
28. 28. C) Tables according to Construction 1) Simple or one-way A simple table is that which shows only one characteristics of the data. E.X., CLASS No. of students 11th 200 B.A. ( I ) 100 B.A.( II ) 80 B.A.( III ) 60 TOTAL 440
29. 29. 2) Complex Table A complex table is one which shows more than characteristic of the data. On the basis of the characteristics shown, these tables may be further classified as:- 2.1) Double or two-way table 2.2) Treble table 2.3) Manifold table
30. 30. 2.1) Double or two-way table A two way table is hat which shows two characteristics of the data. e.x., Class No. of students total boys girls 11th 160 40 200 B.A. ( I ) 40 60 100 B.A. ( II ) 60 20 80 B.A. ( III ) 50 10 60 tOTAL 310 130 440
31. 31. 2.2) Treble method A table which shows three characteristics of data. E.x., CLAS S BOYS GIRLS TOTAL rura l urb an tota l rura l urba n tota l rura l urba n tota l 11th 50 110 160 10 30 40 60 140 200 B.A. ( I ) 10 30 40 15 45 60 25 75 100 B.A. ( II ) 15 45 60 5 15 20 20 60 80 B.A. (III ) 10 40 50 5 5 10 15 45 60 Tota l 85 225 310 35 95 130 120 320 440
32. 32. 2.3) Manifold table The manifold Table is he one that shows more than three characteristics. E.x., clas s boys girls tota lrural urban rural urban mAR RIED uNM ARRI ED mAR RIED uNM ARRI ED mAR RIED uNM ARRI ED mAR RIED uNM ARRI ED 11th 5 55 10 90 2 8 5 25 200 B.A. ( I ) 5 15 15 35 4 4 4 18 100 B.A. ( II ) 5 10 15 30 2 3 5 10 80 B.A. (III ) 5 5 20 20 3 2 2 3 60 TOTA L 20 85 60 175 11 17 16 56 440
33. 33. Classification of data and tabular presentation i) Qualitative classification Qualitative data occours when the data are classified on the basis of qualitative characteristics for a phenomenon. E.x., Unemployement in punjab by sex and location location sex rural Urban Male 20 10 Female 30 20 Total 50 30
34. 34. ii) Quantitative classification In temporal classification data is classified on the basis of quantitative characteristics of a phenomenon. E.x., Marks obtained by students of class 11th marks No. of students 0-10 3 10-20 7 20-30 12 30-40 22 40-50 32
35. 35. A graph that uses rectangles (bars) to show numbers or measurements. GLE 0406.5.1 SPI 0406.5.1 0406.5.2
36. 36. Parts of a bar graph. Bar graphs are an excellent way to show results that happen one time. It is an easy comparison tool for surveys, inventories, and this type of data. The bar graph is marked off with a series of lines called grid lines. Bar graphs can be horizontal or vertical. Both kinds will have two axes. One axis gives the frequency information and the other axis gives the group data. Bar graphs must also have a title and labels on the axes.
37. 37. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr East West North Frequency of the data, numbered in 10’s. This axis gives the group data.
38. 38. Histograms Histograms are bar graphs in which • The bars have the same width and always touch (the edges of the bars are on class boundaries which are described below). • The width of a bar represents a quantitative variable x, such as age rather than a category. • The height of each bar indicates frequency.
39. 39. Before making a histogram, organize the data into a frequency table which shows the distribution of data into classes (intervals). The classes are constructed so that each data values falls into exactly one class, and the class frequency is the number of data in the class.
40. 40. To find the class width, First compute: Largest value - smallest Value Desired number of classes Increase the value computed to the next highest whole, number even if the first value was a whole number. This will ensure the classes cover the data. The lower class limit of a class is the lowest data that can fit into the class, the upper class limit is the highest data value that can fit into the class. The class width is the difference between lower class limits of adjacent classes.
41. 41. Constructing Frequency Polygons • Make a frequency table that includes class midpoints and frequencies. • For each class place dots above class midpoint at the height of the class frequency. • Put dots on horizontal axis one class width to left of first class midpoint, and one class width to right of of last midpoint. • Connect dots with straight lines.
42. 42. Cumulative Frequencies & Ogives • The cumulative frequency of a class is the frequency of the class plus the frequencies for all previous classes. • An ogive is a cumulative frequency polygon.
43. 43. Constructing Ogives • Make a frequency table showing class boundaries and cumulative frequencies. • For each class, put a dot over the upper class boundary at the height of the cumulative class frequency. • Place dot on horizontal axis at the lower class boundary of the first class. • Connect the dots.
44. 44. Distribution Shapes • Symmetrical • Uniform (it has a rectangular histogram) • Skewed left – the longer tail is on the left side. • Skewed right – the longer tail is on the right side. • Bimodal (the two classes with the largest frequencies are separated by at least one class)