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My section of the presentation covers audience trends. From the 2008 Mutual Concerns of Air and Space Museums.

My section of the presentation covers audience trends. From the 2008 Mutual Concerns of Air and Space Museums.

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The Museum Visitor of 2017: The Impact of the Internet Age on Labels, Exhibit Design and Digital Media Presentation Transcript

  • 1. The Museum Visitor of 2017: The Impact of the Internet Age on Labels, Exhibit Design and Digital Media Dana Allen-Greil New Media Project Manager Smithsonian National Museum of American History Cia Romano Founder and Senior Usability Researcher Interface Guru ® Dik Daso, PhD Curator of Modern Military Aircraft Smithsonian Air and Space Museum Session Chair: Victoria Portway Chair, Interactive Media and Electronic Outreach Smithsonian National Air and S pace M useum Prepared for Smithsonian’s Mutual Concerns of Air and Space Museums Washington, DC 2008
  • 2.
    • Dana Allen-Greil New Media Project Manager Smithsonian National Museum of American History
    • Cia Romano Senior Usability Researcher and Founder Interface Guru ® - Research for Web user experience
    • Dik Daso, PhD Curator of Modern Military Aircraft Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum
    • Victoria Portway Chair, Interactive Media and Electronic Outreach Smithsonian National Air and S pace M useum
    The museum visitor of 2017: The panel
  • 3.
    • Dana Allen-Greil: Audience trends and demographics
    • Cia Romano: Visitor expectations and post-Internet media usage
    • Dik Daso, PhD: IT, interactives, & the Web...every curator’s nightmare!
    • Discussion: How can you prepare for 2017?
    The museum visitor of 2017: Today’s topics
  • 4.
    • Dana Allen-Greil New Media Project Manager
      • Managing Web sites professionally since 2000
      • Currently researching and developing Smithsonian universal design guidelines for computer-based interactives
      • M.A. in Museum Studies from The George Washington University
      • Going to AAM this year? Come to my session: "Making Everyone a Winner: Universal Design of Multimedia" on Tuesday, April 29
      • [email_address]
    The museum visitor of 2017: About Smithsonian National Museum of American History
  • 5.
    • Cia Romano Chief Executive Officer and Founder
      • Senior Usability Researcher, developing Web sites since 1994
      • Evangelist for the end user
      • Developed the widely disseminated Usable Times 5 criteria for ranking computer screen effectiveness; developed the Digital Interactive Guidelines (2007) for touchscreen interactives in museums
      • Frequent presenter at national conferences
      • cia@interfaceguru.com
    The museum visitor of 2017: About Interface Guru
  • 6.
    • Dik Daso, PhD Curator of Modern Military Aircraft
      • USAF (retired), RF-4C Phantom, F-15 Eagle, T-38 Talon
      • Instructor of history at the USAF Academy
      • Author of four books on military history
      • [email_address]
    The museum visitor of 2017: About Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum
  • 7. Audience Trends: Dana Allen-Greil
  • 8. Is the museum visit being rendered obsolete by technology? Source: Michael Mouw and Daniel Spock, “Immersive Media: Creating Theatrical Storytelling Experiences,” in The Digital Museum: A Think Guide , 2007. Photo: National Museum of American History, America on the Move .
    • “ People continue to find value in traveling to the actual museum … When it comes to new media, museums will be most effective when they use electronic technology in ways that accentuate their unique role as three-dimensional, geographically located places that bring together real people and real things .”
  • 9. Museums as trusted sources in the Internet age Source: Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), InterConnections: A National Study of Users and Potential Users of Online Information . 2008.
    • Public libraries and museums are thriving in the Internet Age as trusted providers of information to people of all ages.
    • The Internet is not replacing in-person visits to libraries and museums and may actually increase them .
    • Museums, libraries, and the Internet serve to complement each other .
  • 10. Online collections Source: Paul F. Marty, "Museum Websites and Museum Visitors: Before and After the Museum Visit.“ 2007. Photo (Top): Curtiss JN-4D Jenny, Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum.
    • “ If visitors can access our digital collections using the Internet, will they still come to the museum in person ?”
    • “ If people can look at pictures of beaches online, will they still vacation in Florida ?”
  • 11. Physical and virtual visits complement each other Chart: The number of remote online visits is positively correlated with the number of in-person visits to museums and public libraries. (2007)
    • A 2005 study found that: 70% of museum visitors specifically look for online information prior to a museum visit
    • 57% say the information they found online increased their desire to visit the museum in person.
    • Online visitors use museum Web sites to:
      • plan visits to physical museums
      • learn more about museums after a visit
    Source: Paul F. Marty, "Museum Websites and Museum Visitors: Before and After the Museum Visit.“ 2007. Chart: Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), InterConnections: A National Study of Users and Potential Users of Online Information . 2008.
  • 12. U.S. generations in 2017 18-36 Generation Y/ Millennials , a cohort even larger than the Baby Boomers (80 million) 1981-2000 17 and under Generation Z 2000+ 72-97 Matures (~52 million) 1920-1945 In 2017 will be… Generation Born 1965-1980 1946-1964 37-52 Generation X , about half the size of the Baby Boomers (~46-50 million) 53-71 Baby Boomers (76 million, nearly 1/3 of adult population today)
  • 13. The U.S. population is aging…
    • The growth in the number and proportion of older adults is unprecedented in the history of the United States.
    Source: 2030 Vision: Anticipating the Needs and Expectations of Museum Visitors of the Future, Smithsonian Office of Policy and Analysis, 2007 Charts: Pew Research Center (left); Celent (right).
  • 14. …and living longer…
    • Life expectancy in this country has been rising steeply since 1990.
      • Born in 1900: 47 years
      • Born in 2001: 77 years
    Source: The State of Aging and Health in America 2007 . Charts: CDC/NCHS, National Vital Statistics System.
  • 15. …and working longer.
    • In 2011, Baby Boomers will begin to reach traditional retirement age (65). However, more people over 65 are working longer.
    • In 2006, nearly 30% of Americans ages 65 to 69 belonged to the workforce (up from 18% in 1985).
    Source: Craig Copeland, “Labor-Force Participation: The Population Age 55 or Older,” EBRI Notes, no. 6 (Employee Benefit Research Institute, June 2007): 1–8.
  • 16. Baby Boomer strategy: Museums as brain health experiences Sources: 2030 Vision: Anticipating the Needs and Expectations of Museum Visitors of the Future, Smithsonian Office of Policy and Analysis, 2007. and “Personal Trainer for the Brain,” March 14, 2008. Minneapolis-St. Paul Star Tribune.
    • “ The generation that started the fitness craze and popularized nutrition is now turning to brain-healthy foods and brain workouts to retain their cognitive edge and stave off memory loss or dementia.”
    • “ A brain healthy day at the museum could include a brain muscle workout from stimulating exhibitions and interactives …”
  • 17. Growth of disabled population
    • One out of every five adults (50 million), has a disability or impairment that causes limitations in activities. This is a large and diverse group of people.
    • Socioeconomic trends such as aging and other factors (e.g., rising obesity) have contributed to the growth of a disabled population in the U.S.
    • “ Museums can expect a higher percentage of older visitors who will have physical accessibility needs in getting through exhibits , reading information , and manually operating interactives .”
    Sources: 2030 Vision: Anticipating the Needs and Expectations of Museum Visitors of the Future, Smithsonian Office of Policy and Analysis, 2007. Photo: Administration on Aging; NHIS-D, 1994-95. CAM (California Association of Museums) News, January 2008. National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey. Source: “Change in Chronic Disability from 1982 to 2004/2005,” PNAS 103, no. 28 (2006).
  • 18. Technology and people with disabilities Source: "National Council on Disability Explores Emerging Technology Trends and Provides Strategies for Change," December 27, 2006.
    • Reported Disability Increases with Age
    • “ The more reliant society becomes on technology to perform fundamental aspects of every-day living, how we work, communicate, learn, shop, and interact with our environment, the more imperative it is that people with disabilities have access to that same technology , and the more costly will be the consequences of failure to ensure access.” -John R. Vaughn, National Council on Disabilities chairperson
  • 19. Goal: Universal design Source: United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Photo: Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
    • "Universal design" means the design of products, environments, programmes and services to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design.
    • "Universal design" shall not exclude assistive devices for particular groups of persons with disabilities where this is needed.
  • 20. Why universal design guidelines? Sources: (1 &2) Allen-Greil, Dana. Survey Report: “Guidelines for Designing Computer-Based Interactives in Museums,” 2007.(3) “Learning for Everyone: Creating Making Models Using Universal Design,” Christine Reich, Museum of Science.
    • “ [Guidelines do] put constraints on design, but universal usability is ultimately beneficial to all.”
    • “ Guidelines should aim to both set standards for accessibility, and inspire creativity in curators, developers, and media designers.”
    • “ Early implementation demonstrated that considering the needs of visitors with disabilities when designing an exhibition created a better experience for everyone .”
  • 21. State of guidelines in museums Source: Allen-Greil, Dana. Survey Report: “Guidelines for Designing Computer-Based Interactives in Museums,” 2007 Photo: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of American History, America on the Move exhibition..
    • In a 2007 survey, 90% of respondents reported computer-based interactives in 1 or more of their exhibitions.
    • Yet, only 10% of museum practitioners have implemented guidelines for computer-based interactives. A slightly more promising 17% of exhibition or multimedia designers that serve cultural institutions reported having adopted such guidelines.
  • 22. Concerns about implementing guidelines Source: Allen-Greil, Dana. Survey Report: “Guidelines for Designing Computer-Based Interactives in Museums,” 2007.
  • 23. Digital Challenge 1: Increasing complexity Source: "National Council on Disability Explores Emerging Technology Trends and Provides Strategies for Change," December 27, 2006. Photo: (left) Philips 1500 VCR; (right) Philips DVD Remote.
    • Devices will continue to get more complex to operate before they get simpler. This is already a problem for mainstream users, but even more of a problem for people with cognitive disabilities and people who have cognitive decline due to aging.
  • 24. Digital Challenge 2: Digital controls and disabilities Source: "National Council on Disability Explores Emerging Technology Trends and Provides Strategies for Change," December 27, 2006. Photos: (Top) Microsoft Surface; (Bottom) Apple iPhone
    • Increased use of digital controls (e.g., push buttons used in combination with displays, touch screens , etc.) is creating problems for people with blindness, cognitive, and other disabilities.
  • 25. Digital Challenge 3: Miniaturization Source: "National Council on Disability Explores Emerging Technology Trends and Provides Strategies for Change," December 27, 2006. Photo: (left) Dr. Martin Cooper, father of the mobile phone (fcc.gov); (right) “Zoolander” (2001).
    • The shrinking size of products is creating problems for people with physical and visual disabilities.
  • 26. Digital Challenge 4: Automation Source: "National Council on Disability Explores Emerging Technology Trends and Provides Strategies for Change," December 27, 2006. Photos: (left) Northwestern Airlines Self-Service Check-in; (right) Redbox DVD rental.
    • Increasing use of automated self-service devices , especially in unattended locations, is posing problems for some, and absolute barriers for others.
  • 27. Digital Challenge 5: Rapid advance of technology outpacing usability Source: "National Council on Disability Explores Emerging Technology Trends and Provides Strategies for Change," December 27, 2006.
    • The incorporation of new technologies into products is causing products to advance beyond current accessibility techniques and strategies .
    • The rapid churn of mainstream technologies, that is, the rapid replacement of one product by another, is so fast that neither assistive technology nor technology-specific accessibility standards are keeping pace .
  • 28. Digital Challenge 6: Handheld devices Source: "Museums in Transition: Emerging Technologies as Tools for Free-Choice Learning." Science Museum of Virginia and Gyroscope Inc., November 2006. Photo: SIguide.
    • Handheld devices have their own unique challenges.
    • Developing content for devices that quickly go out of date
    • Maintenance concerns
    • Getting visitors accustomed to using a new and unfamiliar technology
    • Social isolation
    • Can interfere with use of exhibitions
  • 29. Good practices towards universal design Source: “Learning for Everyone: Creating Making Models Using Universal Design,” Christine Reich, Museum of Science
    • Utilize ADA guidelines and standards as a starting point
    • Brainstorm ideas for multi-sensory learning experiences
    • Pay attention to both access to the experience and access to learning
    • Involve people with disabilities as consultants, advisors, and visitors in formative and summative evaluation
  • 30. Shifting away from traditional family structure Sources: Census 2000 analyzed by the Social Science Data Analysis Network (SSDAN). U.S. Census Bureau, Survey of Income and Program Participation.
  • 31. Stay tuned
    • The Smithsonian Institution Accessibility program is conducting research on best practices for accessibility and universal design for computer-based interactives.
    • The product of this research will be a set of guidelines to supplement the widely-used Smithsonian Guidelines for Accessible Exhibition Design (1996).
    • Please contact Dana Allen-Greil with questions or comments at allen-greil@si.edu.
  • 32. Visitor expectations and post-Internet media usage: Cia Romano
  • 33.
    • Commercial implementations set a high bar
    • Digital experiences in personal, professional, and public environments
    • Social interaction through technology
    • Interaction with digital “persons” during routine transactions
    • Simulation - immersive game-like environments in everything from retail to research
    • Pervasive Internet -- near-universal access on many types of devices
    The museum visitor of 2017 will have massive exposure to digital interaction
  • 34.
    • Lockheed Martin's VR effort at its Ship Air Integration Lab
    • Used to design F-35 stealth fighter jets
    • Engineers, technicians, pilots, and customers use VR headsets and motion-capture sensors
    • Visitors "see" the fighter prototype and believable avatars of each other
    • User can design, inspect, practice in virtual space
    The museum visitor of 2017: Current implementations are creating the future Right, Bell Helicopter’s Design Visualization Center, Fort Worth TX US
  • 35.
    • Second Life: A “proof of concept” for immersive environments outside of games
    • Museums are experimenting with “virtual visits” - SL lets people do things they can’t do in real life (like fly around a rocket park)
    • Creates anticipation for a real-life visit
    • International
    • Not just for fun: Corporations such as IBM are using it to model business software
    The museum visitor of 2017: Current implementations are creating the future Right, user “flying” in International Spaceflight Museum, Second Life; over 5 million users; 30-50,000 online at any given time
  • 36.
    • Multi-touch technology allows instructive interaction
    • Used in highly realistic 2-D environments
    • Allows users to manipulate two points
    • Illustrates science concepts
    • Early version: iPhone, Mac Air
    The museum visitor of 2017: Current implementations are creating the future Right, demo from Perspective Pixel, Inc.
  • 37.
    • Gaming and HD
    • Massively multiplayer online games (also called MMOG or simply MMO)
    • Video games supporting hundreds or thousands of players simultaneously
    • “ Persistent world”
    • Allows players to cooperate and compete
    • MMOs can allow users to ”interact meaningfully with people around the world" (Wikipedia)
    The museum visitor of 2017: Current implementations are creating the future Right, World of Warcraft. In 2007, WOW had 8 million subscribers worldwide.
  • 38.
    • High-def “humans” in museums
    • Interpretation delivered as an interpersonal experience through use of high-def displays initiated by touchscreens
    The museum visitor of 2017: Current implementations are creating the future Right, Monterey Bay Aquarium, Monterey CA US. Visitors selecting items on a touchscreen “menu” learn about the “real cost” on oceans from a virtual “cook,” “waitress,” and “interpretive staffer” presented full-size on high-def screens
  • 39.
    • "I expect high-quality visuals and video with a believable physical component"
    • Experiencing interaction related to the artifact while in the museum
    • Experiencing a highly realistic version on the Web
    The museum visitor of 2017 expects realistic immersion
  • 40.
    • "I can directly participate in a digitally-generated experience with friends or other visitors"
    • Interacting with others using technology (simulation of fighter squadron)
    • Wayfinding according to his specific interests
    • Using a personal device (cell phone) to interact with interpretive material
    The museum visitor of 2017 expects social interaction through technology
  • 41.
    • "I will invest time if I think the experience will be worthwhile"
    • Constant demand for the visitor's attention = he is harder to attract
    • Learning through entertainment
    The museum visitor of 2017 expects purposeful entertainment:
  • 42.
    • "I will immediately know how to use it"
    • User-centric design is essential
    • Exhibitry complies with standards
    • Universal design
    The museum visitor of 2017 expects "quick, easy, intuitive":
  • 43.
    • None of these are science fiction any more
    • Telepresence
      • Visitors come to you from multiple locations, you go to the visitor
      • You jointly present artifacts with other museums in virtual space
      • Virtual recreation/simulation of historical events or atmospheric/environmental conditions
    • Human augmentation
      • Sensors worn on the body or in garments
      • Modified vision assistance/heads-up displays, cochlear implants
    • Unified pervasive computing
    The museum visitor of 2017 may be able to leverage sophisticated technology
  • 44.
    • The mindset of the future audience will be shaped by its exposure to sophisticated technologies.
    • Today's exhibitry relies heavily on text -- the same approach in 2017 will fail to engage the user
    • Balance the need to tell a story in chronological order with the audience’s desire to create its own experience
    • Conduct a field study to examine the effectiveness of current wayfinding and storytelling techniques
    The museum visitor of 2017: What is the impact of technology on wayfinding?
  • 45.
    • Infrastructure and “futureproofing” are critical
    • Discovery: What do we own? What will we need?
    • Information backbone and its subsets (public Web site, exhibits, intranet, portal, e-commerce)
    • In order to scale over time, technology platforms should employ industry standards
      • Avoid customization
      • Replace/upgrade outdated databases
      • Integration
      • All systems interoperate Partners - what can be leveraged? (Simulations from aircraft manufacturers?)
    • Standardization
    The museum visitor of 2017: Experience will depend on technical decisions made today
  • 46.
    • Digital technology requires the best human assets
    • Collaborate or die
    • Technology will only increase in complexity. You need everyone on board.
    • Zero tolerance for non-collaborative people
    • Partner with other museums
    • Hire/promote the best
    • Choose people who are passionate about the mission
    • Build strong relationships with outside thinkers
    The museum visitor of 2017: Experience will depend on management decisions today
  • 47.
    • JFK and the space program: “We’re going”
    • Technology will not replace iconic artifacts -- instead, it will enhance them and give them context.
    • As digital experience becomes more common, authenticity will become even more highly prized
    • Until telepresence becomes a reality, there is no such thing as “showing too much” of the museum. Our research shows that visitors are even likelier to plan a visit if they can see what it will be like.
    • Nothing replaces the direct experience of an icon. Nothing.
    The museum visitor of 2017: Address cultural concerns about technology
  • 48.
    • The Digital Interactive Guidelines Project
    • Research-based best-practices for touchscreens and digital media in museums
    • Originated by Cia Romano and Linda Wilson, Director of Research at Shedd Aquarium
    • Based on:
      • Field studies and usability testing at Shedd Aquarium, 2004 - 2006
      • Proprietary Usable Times 5 tm methodology for measuring computer screen effectiveness applied to physical spaces
      • Wiki at www.digitalinteractiveguidelines.org
    • More about usability at www.interfaceguru.com
    The museum visitor of 2017: Resources on usable digital media
  • 49. IT, interactives, and the Web: Every curator’s nightmare Dik Daso
  • 50. Curatorial viewpoint
    • Open-minded to different technologies
    • Able to incorporate visitor input — rapidly
    • As always—center on the artifact
      • Authenticity
      • Presentation (theme park vs. museum)
      • Information transmittal
    • Consider creating a “temporal zone”
  • 51. Curatorial viewpoint: paradigm shifts
    • What will future “carried devices” be?
      • Hand held, radio activated, deep information
      • “ iPod-like” downloads--only work in museum
      • A disposable patch for data gathering
    • Carry devices—how can we use them?
      • Information transmittal (basic function)
      • Enhance the museum experience (music/drama)
      • Gather data (loiter time, location) and USE IT!
        • This kind of technology already exists
  • 52. Information transmittal
    • Relate WWW and exhibit and interactive technology when possible
    • Decide how “deep” additional tools will allow the visitor to mine for information
    • Realize that “an exhibition is not a book”
      • Standardize labeling
      • Design to include ADA guidelines where possible
      • Way-finding and tour assistance (specialized tours that can be built on the Web page)
  • 53. Authenticity and labels
  • 54. Be NOT afraid to fail... Light box for “Bibles”
  • 55. Be NOT afraid to fail... Interactive photo studio setting
  • 56. Temporal zone plus high-end digital processing
  • 57. Authenticity/temporal zone/interactive and a little theater
  • 58. How does this work?
  • 59. Demonstrate the artifact technology
  • 60. Keys for future success
    • Fund information technology UP FRONT & include it in the design phase (include WWW)
    • Decide not only HOW it will work, but also WHAT it will do
    • What about ongoing costs?
      • Visitor will be willing to purchase experience enhancing tools
      • Included in entry fee if there is one
    • DO NOT BE AFRAID TO FAIL
  • 61. Questions?
  • 62. Accessibility resources
    • American Association of Museums Everyone’s Welcome
    • Association of Science and Technology Center’s Accessible Practices http://www. astc .org/resource/access/
    • Center for Universal Design http://www.design. ncsu . edu/cud/
    • Museum of Science Access web site, http://www. mos .. org/exhibitdevelopment/access
    • National Center for Accessible Media. http: //ncam . wgbh .org
    • National Park Service http://www. nps . gov/access/
    • Smithsonian Guidelines for Accessible Exhibition Design (1996) http://www. si . edu/opa/accessibility/exdesign/
    • “ Teaching Every Student in the Digital Age: Universal Design for Learning” by David Rose and Anne Meyer. http://www.cast.org
  • 63.
    • Dana Allen-Greil Allen-Greil@si.edu
    • Cia Romano Cia@interfaceguru.com
    • Dik Daso, PhD DasoD@si.edu
    • Victoria Portway [email_address]
    The museum visitor of 2017: The panel This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/us/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.