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Capital meets capabilities: negotiating cultural exclusion in participatory culture

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Presentation for ICEL 2018 (International Conference for E-Learning), Cape Town, 5 - 6th July.

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Capital meets capabilities: negotiating cultural exclusion in participatory culture

  1. 1. Capital meets capabilities: negotiating cultural exclusion in participatory culture. by Noakes, Walton and Cronj , 2016ẻ 06/05/18 Designed by @travisnoakes Honorary Research Associate, UCT Centre for Film and Media Studies 1 13th International Conference on E-learning www.academic-conferences.org/conferences/icel CHAPTER 7 Inequality in digital personas: e-portfolio curricula, cultural repertoires and social media by Noakes, T. (2009-) 2018
  2. 2. 06/05/18 Designed by @travisnoakes Honorary Research Associate, UCT Centre for Film and Media Studies 2 Online content curation by emergent visual creatives
  3. 3. Presentation outline 06/05/18 Designed by @travisnoakes Honorary Research Associate, UCT Centre for Film and Media Studies 3 1. Digital curation as a new media literacy 2. Online portfolio curation as a form of participatory culture 3. Gaps in participatory culture 4. Understand key inequalities in the digital persona of visual arts students 5. Does a ‘Capital meets Capabilities’ framework address gaps in participatory culture for a marginalized student, “Masibulele”? 6. Are there new gaps that it can assist in identifying?
  4. 4. 06/05/18 Designed by @travisnoakes Honorary Research Associate, UCT Centre for Film and Media Studies 4 Whereas in earlier times, apposite words to describe activities around publication may have been ‘written’, ‘edited’ and ‘produced’, it is quite clear that they are inadequate to capture all the self-representational activities or practices in networked, digital, culture. The word ‘curated’ does so by subsuming all of those practices and adding others that are possible in social media… Curating is about knowing how the different forms you are working with work together to make meaning intertextually and for which purposes and audiences they are successful. (Potter, 2015) Digital curation as a new media literacy
  5. 5. Digital curation as a core digital and media literacy practice 06/05/18 Designed by @travisnoakes Honorary Research Associate, UCT Centre for Film and Media Studies 5 Cohen, James N. MA and Mihailidis, Paul, "Exploring Curation as a core competency in digital and media literacy education" (2013). Faculty Works: Digital Humanities & New Media. 4. http://digitalcommons.molloy.edu/dhnm_fac/4 (page 16)
  6. 6. Growthinplatformsforcurating varieddataasinformation Designed by @travisnoakes Honorary Research Associate, UCT Centre for Film and Media Studies 606/05/18
  7. 7. 06/05/18 Designed by @travisnoakes Honorary Research Associate, UCT Centre for Film and Media Studies 7 Image retrieved from: http://modernworkplacelearning.com/magazine/modern-professional-learners-toolkit-for-2018/ (2018-03-12)
  8. 8. 806/05/18 Designed by @travisnoakes Honorary Research Associate, UCT Centre for Film and Media Studies A. Collating artworks and inspirations B. Production -Remediating -Editing -Assembling C. Sharing -Moving media artefacts across different stages -Interacting with online audiences Visual creatives’ online portfolio curation process Practices in [digital curation] https://carbonmade.com/portfolios https://www.deviantart.com/daily-deviations/?columns=2 Digital curation framework (Potter, 2015) https://www.behance.net
  9. 9. Profile description Profile image Portfolio title Contact details Areas of expertise SkillsFooter Artist. Date. Folder Name, Description Artwork Title with description Tags i.e. Client 1 ‘Home’ page template 3 ‘Artwork project folder’ page template 2 ‘About’ page template (artist’s profile) Availability for freelance graphic Creative’s name Portfolio title Designed by @travisnoakes Honorary Research Associate, UCT Centre for Film and Media Studies 06/05/18 9 4 ‘Search page results’ template Folders of digitised artworks Digital curation options with Carbonmade
  10. 10. 06/05/18 Designed by @travisnoakes Honorary Research Associate, UCT Centre for Film and Media Studies 10 Digital portfolios serve as cultural and symbolic capitals that may help justify Tertiary academic opportunities (digital portfolios at CPUT & UCT) Commercial projects (creativemarket.com) Part-time, freelance gigs (www.behance.net/joblist) Contributions to volunteer causes (https://www.volunteermatch.org) Full-time jobs (https://www.linkedin.com/jobs/graphic-designer-jobs?country=za) Online portfolios can support growth in social capital via Understanding the breadth of visual creativity and who is involved in what Platform to first ‘seem’ and then ‘be’ an expert in your area(s) of speciality Develop one’s persona as an expert by sharing ‘know-how’ in affinity groups and showcase examples of one’s work Online portfolios may generate ongoing economic capital Link to online shops and auctions selling one’s visual (re-)productions Enter select works into online competitions Digital portfolios can be exchanged for cultural, symbolic, social and economic capital
  11. 11. What is Participatory Culture? 1. ‘Participatory culture’ is one in which in which fans and other consumers are invited to actively participate in the creation and circulation of new content (Jenkins, 2006). North American researchers (Jenkins, et al., 2006; Jenkins, 2013; Jenkins, Ito and boyd, 2015) follow strategies that focus on participants’ resourcefulness, albeit in well-resourced settings compared to those most South Africans experience. 2. Many North American homes can support young people with sharing their artistic expressions online. Participatory culture strongly supports this, albeit typically focusing on digital productions. 3. Participatory culture also includes informal mentorship between the most experienced and novices (Jenkins, Clinton, Purushatma, Robison & Weigel, 2006). 4. In appropriating educational technologies, such creativity may include approaches that a focus on digital divides might miss (Jenkins, Ito and boyd, 2015). 06/05/18 Designed by @travisnoakes Honorary Research Associate, UCT Centre for Film and Media Studies 11 Online portfolio curation in Cape Town as a form of participatory culture 1. Keen visual creatives tend to be fans of, and involved in, particular domains and genres. 2. Emergent visual creatives in Cape Town share work from their different roles online (Venter, 2015. Noakes, Walton, Venter & Cronje, 2014. Walton & Donner, 2012). 3. Such creatives may also interact with peers with similar interests offline and learn from experts online (Venter, 2017. Noakes, 2018). 4. Many visual creative roles do not necessarily involve digital practices and can be accommodated by participatory culture’s focus on young people’s resourcefulness.
  12. 12. Digital divides as a participatory gap Participatory culture in the US (outlier) 06/05/18 Designed by @travisnoakes Honorary Research Associate, UCT Centre for Film and Media Studies 12 Participatory culture in Cape Town (better than average) Case study for Zalas, a digital information virtuoso. (Media Ecologies, Horst, Herr-Stephenson & Robinson in Hanging Out, Messing Around, Geeking Out. Ito et al, 2010, p 68 -69, ) Case study for Sbu, an aspirant animator. (Public Access, Private Mobile. Walton & Donner, 2012, p 24-25,)
  13. 13. The participation divide/participation gap(s) 06/05/18 Designed by @travisnoakes Honorary Research Associate, UCT Centre for Film and Media Studies 13 Chapter 3. Gaps and Genres in Participation in Participatory Culture in a Networked Era by Mimi Ito, danah boyd and Henry Jenkins, 2016. Section of page 68. A participation gap is the unequal access to the opportunities, experiences, skills, and knowledge that will prepare youths for full participation in future society. In addition to ICT access and ownership, these also include: 1.self-confidence and empowerment (Jenkins, Ito and boyd, 2016) 1.participation in consumer culture (Jenkins et al. 2016) 2.knowledge and skills (Jenkins et al. 2016) 3.mentorship (Jenkins, Ito and boyd, 2015), 4.links between academic and informal repertoires (Jenkins et al. 2016) 5.language (Jocson & Rosa, 2015) 6.and opportunities linked to online sharing and work (Jenkins et al. 2016)
  14. 14. A framework for gaps 06/05/18 Designed by @travisnoakes Honorary Research Associate, UCT Centre for Film and Media Studies 14 Builds on insights from: Education Journalism Cultural anthropology Communication studies Lacks a framework for participation gaps: [ Bourdieusian cultural sociology + Sen’s capability approach ] Understanding gaps/divides in participatory culture using cultural sociology and a capability approach. Travis Noakes’ research notebook(2017). Chapter 3. Gaps and Genres in Participation in Participatory Culture in a Networked Era, page 82.
  15. 15. 06/05/18 15 Designed by @travisnoakes Honorary Research Associate, UCT Centre for Film and Media Studies See Phone to Photoshop: Mobile workarounds in young people’s visual self-presentation strategies (Noakes, Walton, Venter & Cronje, 2014) Participation in art, design or ICT as “formal privilege” Illustration by Anja Venter, 2014.
  16. 16. 06/05/18 16 Designed by @travisnoakes Honorary Research Associate, UCT Centre for Film and Media Studies Illustration by Anja Venter, 2014. School computer centres and art/design subjects as Capetonian “luxuries”
  17. 17. Reproduction of Cape Town’s ‘creative class’ {from mostly middle- and upper class origins} 06/05/18 Designed by @travisnoakes Honorary Research Associate, UCT Centre for Film and Media Studies 17 Social reproduction in trajectories linked to the visual arts or visual design. Graphic by Travis Noakes, 2016.
  18. 18. #1 Action research fieldwork 2010 - 2013 06/05/18 Designed by @travisnoakes Honorary Research Associate, UCT Centre for Film and Media Studies 18 12 government school volunteers 17 independent school students ‘View of independent school from pool ’. Illustration by Travis Noakes, 2015. ‘View of government school from parking lot’. Illustration by Travis Noakes, 2015. Three research contributions #2 Longitudinal study Up to three years of digital curations at school #3VERY different levels of resourcing i.e. contrasting media ecologies in schools {BUT much greater differences @ home!} Screenshot of “Hui”’s Carbonmade ‘homepage’, November, 2010. Screenshot of Hui’s Carbonmade ‘homepage’, May, 2012
  19. 19. Research questions and theoretical lenses to research choices and contexts 06/05/18 Designed by @travisnoakes Honorary Research Associate, UCT Centre for Film and Media Studies 19 A COMBINATION OF THEORETICAL LENSES RQ1. What digital self-presentation and organisation choices do visual arts students make in their e-portfolios? RQ2. How do visual arts e-portfolios and visual culture repertoires relate to individual habitus and spaces of production? Inequality approach Infrastructure studies Analysis 1.Innovative multimodal content analysis of screenshots. 2.Case studies referencing sources 1 to 7. SOCIAL INTERACTIONISM SOCIAL SEMIOTICS DIGITAL MATERIALISM CULTURAL THEORY
  20. 20. 06/05/18 Designed by @travisnoakes Honorary Research Associate, UCT Centre for Film and Media Studies 20 Relationship of an individuals’ habituses to social semiotic spaces and repertoires Habitus and social semiotic spaces. Graphic by Travis Noakes, 2018. The habitus is, ‘a system of durable, transposable dispositions which functions as the generative basis of structured, objectively unified practices’ (Bourdieu, 1977). Habitus is socialised subjectivity; the way society becomes deposited in persons in the form of lasting dispositions, or trained capacities and structured propensities to think, feel and act in determinant ways, which then guide them (Wacquant 2005). Affinity spaces are common for customers in high- technology, capitalist environments (Gee, 2000, 2001, Riffkind, 2000). Typically, the customers of businesses in these spaces share a common endeavor and support each other in developing and dispersing knowledge about their shared passion.
  21. 21. Four key dimensions of inequality evidenced in young people’s e-portfolio styles 21 A digital hexis for developing a templated self Differing opportunities to draw on cultural and leisure repertoires Legitimated practices Differentiated practices Affinity spaces - Class (Race) - Gender 1 REMEDIATION 3 NEGOTIATING POSITIONS 06/05/18 Designed by @travisnoakes Honorary Research Associate, UCT Centre for Film and Media Studies 2 LIFESTYLES 4 RISKS WITH ONLINE VISIBILITY negotiating digitally disciplined personas Free home internet access Mobile-centric No internet access outside the computer lab - Class (Race) - Sex/GenderWhite, middle class cultural capital - Class - Race Sharing one’s real name as male privilege
  22. 22. The Capital meets Capabilities framework 06/05/18 Designed by @travisnoakes Honorary Research Associate, UCT Centre for Film and Media Studies 22
  23. 23. 06/05/18 Designed by @travisnoakes Honorary Research Associate, UCT Centre for Film and Media Studies 23 Masibulele’s e-portfolio Four thumbnail page examples Anonymised table of thumbnail webpages images for Masibulele (Noakes, 2018, p.163)
  24. 24. The Capital meets Capabilities framework applied to Masibulele’s case 06/05/18 Designed by @travisnoakes Honorary Research Associate, UCT Centre for Film and Media Studies 24
  25. 25. 06/05/18 Designed by @travisnoakes Honorary Research Associate, UCT Centre for Film and Media Studies 25 Under-connected: -Mobile internet -Computer use in computer lab and on home PC. • Disciplinary: traditional mixed-media • Fan of the ‘art industry’ • Sought publicity: contact details • Facebook and Black Berry Messenger (BBM) groups for his fashion label Black male with working-class parents • Observational drawing in pencil, illustrator, portrait drawer, oil and normal pastel work, painter, mixed- media sculptor, relief tiler and collages. • Initially only disciplinary, but did add fashion label • Did not share traditional mixed-media Background • Fashion entrepreneur • Music and movies fan • Socialiser • ‘Explorer’ • Fashion entrepreneur • Socialiser • Music fan • Explorer Masibulele aspirant designer and fashion entrepreneur Digital information habitus Other leisure personas E-portfolio curation Other habituses Related rolesPrimary habitus Vocational habitus A fashion entrepreneur, who used a mobile digital information habitus in presenting his classroom and aspirant designer personas. Visual creative personas • Fashion entrepreneur • Surface designer • Architect
  26. 26. Being where it’s at online 06/05/18 Designed by @travisnoakes Honorary Research Associate, UCT Centre for Film and Media Studies 26
  27. 27. Credits + Thanks National Research Foundation. Procedural literacy, digital media and curriculum grant. University of Cape Town, Department of Film and Media Studies. S.A.M.E. South African Multimodality in Education research group. Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Faculty of Informatics and Design. T.E.R.P.S. Technology in Education Research Postgrad students. 06/05/18 Designed by @travisnoakes Honorary Research Associate, UCT Centre for Film and Media Studies 27 Illustration | Design | New Media Research w: www.nannaventer.co.za c: anjaventer@gmail.com IllustratIONS by
  28. 28. Thank you! 06/05/18 Designed by @travisnoakes Honorary Research Associate, UCT Centre for Film and Media Studies 28

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