Chapter 22


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Chapter 22

  1. 1. Chapter 22: Asian Transitions in an era of Global Change AP World History II
  2. 2. European Arrival <ul><li>Vasco de Gama and his Portuguese crew arrive in India in 1498 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found a sea route around Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portugal, not Spain! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial trading in Calicut </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asians weren’t interested in European-made goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asians were, however, ready to trade for silver bullion! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Europeans realize that the Muslims arrived in Southern Asia well before they did! </li></ul>
  3. 3. Asian Sea Trade Network <ul><li>3 Main Zones </li></ul><ul><li>West: Arab Zone-glass, carpet, and tapestry making. </li></ul><ul><li>Center: Indian Zone-superb cotton textiles. </li></ul><ul><li>East: Chinese Zone-paper, porcelain, and silk textiles. </li></ul><ul><li>Places like Japan, East Africa, and South East Asia were known to contribute raw materials. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Come from places like Ceylon (known for Spices). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indonesian Archipelago </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spices, ivory from Africa </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. European Arrival <ul><li>There were two characteristics of the trading system that needed to be understood by the Europeans </li></ul><ul><li>First…NO CENTRAL CONTROL </li></ul><ul><li>Second…Military force was absent from commercial exchanges </li></ul>
  5. 6. European Arrival <ul><li>Mercantilist: one who taught that a state’s power depended heavily on the amount of precious metals a monarch had. </li></ul><ul><li>Trading along the Asian network was therefore going to be unprofitable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It would enrich and strengthen merchants and rulers from rival kingdoms (Muslims) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>De Gama turns to force instead of peaceful trading. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates tribute payments along the coast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portuguese were united in their drive for wealth and religious converts. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. European Arrival <ul><li>Portuguese trading empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish control over key Asian products, particularly spices, such as cinnamon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resistance, poor discipline, corruption, and shipping losses take a heavy toll on the empire by the end of the 16 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>English and Dutch compete to win control over the trading system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Dutch are the victors (short-term), and the English fall-back to India </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Dutch Trading Empire <ul><li>Fortified towns and factories (supply) </li></ul><ul><li>Warships on patrol </li></ul><ul><li>Monopoly control over limited products </li></ul><ul><li>More efficient than the Portuguese </li></ul>
  8. 9. Inland… <ul><li>Asians were able to defend territory much better on the interior, on the mainland and on islands. </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans found themselves to be not as effective on land-warfare for trading empires. </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish conquest of LUZON in 1560s (Philippines) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslim rulers resist on the southern island of Mindanao </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Spreadin’ the faith… <ul><li>Spread of Roman Catholicism was a major force in the Europeans thrust into the Indian trade network. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial indifference and open hostility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>India appeared to be one of the more promising fields for conversion. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some learn different languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopted vegetarian diets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aimed at converting upper-caste Hindus, who would then set the example for lower-class (untouchables, etc.) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Conversion <ul><li>Conversion only occurred in isolated areas </li></ul><ul><li>Somewhat successful on the Northern islands of the Philippines. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Friars built new settlements with town squares where the church was located. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Represents a mix of Christian and Filipino ways </li></ul>
  11. 12. China and the Ming Dynasty <ul><li>Restoration of ethnic Chinese rule under the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest population of any civilization of the time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renewed agricultural/commercial growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Europeans use New World bullion to pay for goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High degree of technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large numbers of skilled engineers and artisans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Centralized bureaucracy </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. China and the Ming Dynasty-Hongwu <ul><li>Zhu Yuanzhang declares himself the Hongwu Emperor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First Ming Emperor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hongwu=“Vast Military” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wants to rid China of all traces of the “barbarian” Mongols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mongol dress was discarded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mongol names were dropped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mongol palaces were destroyed </li></ul></ul>
  13. 15. China and the Ming Dynasty-Hongwu <ul><li>Return of the Scholar-Gentry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Somewhat suspicious of this class because of his Peasant upbringings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scholars versed in Confucian classics were appointed to high positions in government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil Service Examination system was reinstated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abolished the position of chief minister </li></ul><ul><li>Instituted Public beatings for bureaucrats found guilty of corruption and incompetence </li></ul>
  14. 16. China and the Ming Dynasty-Hongwu <ul><li>Hongwu tries to cut down on factionalism and conspiracies that eroded power from earlier Dynasties </li></ul><ul><li>Exiled all potential rivals to the throne to estates in the provinces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forbade them to be involved in political affairs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thought control-deleted sections of Mencius’ writings </li></ul>
  15. 17. China and the Ming Dynasty-Hongwu <ul><li>Introduced measures to improve lives of peasants </li></ul><ul><li>Public works projects </li></ul><ul><li>Unoccupied land would become the tax-exempt property of those who cleared and cultivated it </li></ul>
  16. 18. China and the Ming Dynasty <ul><li>Women: subordinate to men as per Confucianism. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Played role in Hongwu’s court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hundreds/Thousands of women would wait at the palace to be seen by the emperor as one of his concubines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Status was defined as to their ability to bear male children </li></ul></ul>
  17. 19. Ming China <ul><li>Territory controlled was not as expansive as in the T’ang Dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial and Population boom began in the Song Dynasty was continued </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish and Portuguese mercantile contacts imports crops from the New World </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From the Andes highlands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maize, sweet potatoes, peanuts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grown on inferior soil with little irrigation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultivation spread quickly through marginal areas </li></ul></ul>
  18. 21. Ming China <ul><li>Food crop importation is key to hedging famine amongst HUGE population growth </li></ul>
  19. 22. Ming China <ul><li>Commercial growth: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced handicraft industries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Silk textiles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fine ceramics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance of trade was VERY MUCH in China’s favor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arab, Asian, and now European traders arrive at Macao and Canton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These are the only two places where Europeans were allowed to do business in Ming China </li></ul></ul>
  20. 23. Ming China <ul><li>Merchants make lots of money in this trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxes paid to scholar-gentry (bribes, too) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Merchants invested more in land </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ming prosperity was reflected in the fine arts </li></ul><ul><li>Development of Chinese literature (the Novel) </li></ul>
  21. 24. Ming China <ul><li>Between 1405 and 1423 China launched a series of impressive expeditions at Sea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During Yunglo’s reign </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Went to Southeast Asian kingdoms, Persia, southern Arabia, East Africa </li></ul>
  22. 25. Ming China <ul><li>Zhenghe’s expeditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>62 ships (4 for De Gama, 3 for Columbus) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>28,000 sailors, merchants, soldiers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>400 foot long ships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China had the capacity to expand at least a century before the Europeans rounded the Cape of Good Hope. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 26. Ming China <ul><li>After 1400, China aims to LIMIT China’s overseas commerce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ming war fleet dramatically declines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As the Chinese shut themselves in, the Europeans were irresistibly drawn to the Middle Kingdom for converts. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some scholars show interest in Christianity, but never took a real hold on the court, or the people. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 27. Ming China-Decline <ul><li>Highly centralized, absolutist structure developed by Hongwu and continued by Yunglo could not be continued. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Official corruption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolation of weak rulers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public works projects fall into disrepair. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Floods, droughts, famine afflict the land </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increased foreign threats, mostly by the Manchu </li></ul><ul><li>The last emperor of the Ming, Chongzhen, commits suicide as the walls of the Forbidden City are scaled by rebels…the Dynasty ends in 1644. </li></ul>
  25. 28. Japan <ul><li>Kamakura Shogunate: 1185-1333, establishment of the Shogunate under Minamoto no Yoritomo </li></ul><ul><li>Ashikaga Shogunate: 1336-1573, weaker with most of the power lying in the hands of regional Daimyo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1500’s, continual civil war amongst the Daimyo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three able-military leaders were needed to restore unity and order </li></ul></ul>
  26. 29. Japan <ul><li>Oda Nobunaga used firearms that Japan had gained from the Portuguese in the 1540s. </li></ul><ul><li>Deposed the last of the Ashikaga Shoguns in 1573 </li></ul><ul><li>By 1580 he puts most of Honshu island under his command </li></ul><ul><li>Killed in 1582 </li></ul>
  27. 30. Japan <ul><li>Toyotomi Hideyoshi (one of Nobunaga’s Generals) moved to punish those who betrayed Nobunaga and renewed the drive to break the power from the Daimyo. </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled most of Japan by 1590 </li></ul><ul><li>Launched two attacks on Korea in 1592 and 1597 with almost 150,000 soldiers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No real success… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dies in 1598 </li></ul>
  28. 31. Japan <ul><li>Tokugawa Ieyasu concentrates on consolidating power at home. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1603 he was granted power as Shogun by the Emperor </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning of the TOKUGAWA SHOGUNATE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ends civil wars, brought the semblance of political unity to the islands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules from Edo (later to be, Tokyo) </li></ul></ul>
  29. 32. The Tokugawa Shogunate
  30. 33. The Tokugawa Shogunate <ul><li>Europeans had increasing contact with the Japanese throughout the warring period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brought goods traded in India, China, and SE Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchanged for Silver, copper, pottery, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traders and missionaries brought firearms, printing presses, and other western devices, like clocks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contacts with Europeans changed warfare (guns), and led to increased commercial contacts with China, Korea, Philippines, and Siam </li></ul>
  31. 34. Conversion (before Tokugawa) <ul><li>Jesuits employ the top-down model of impressing the leader (in this case, Nobunaga in the 1570s) </li></ul><ul><li>Convert many of the Daimyo’s </li></ul><ul><li>Nobunaga himself was said to be at the verge of conversion. </li></ul><ul><li>Hundreds of thousands of converts by the early 1580s </li></ul><ul><li>Hideyoshi though, was distrustful of the Europeans, and saw the writing on the wall… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial and Military ventures first…then conquer the islands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversion is cut short in the 1580s </li></ul></ul>
  32. 35. Tokugawa Isolationism <ul><li>Beginning in the 1580’s, amid skepticism about the intentions of the Europeans official measures are taken to restrict foreign activities in Japan. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Christian Missionaries are ordered off the islands by Hideyoshi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ieyasu continues the persecution and bans Christianity by 1614. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Missionaries are hunted, killed, or expelled. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese were required to renounce their faith, or face imprisonment, torture and execution. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 36. Tokugawa Isolationism <ul><li>1630: All Japanese ships were forbidden to trade, or even sail overseas </li></ul><ul><li>1640s: Only a limited number of Dutch and Chinese chips were allowed to trade on the island of Deshima, in Nagasaki Bay. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copper export was restricted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western books banned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreigners were permitted to live and travel only to VERY restricted areas. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By the 1650s total isolationism was almost complete. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on Japan’s unique historical experience </li></ul></ul>