World history chapter 22 notes


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World history chapter 22 notes

  1. 1. World History Chapter 22 Notes Enlightenment & Revolution Section 1 The Scientific Revolution Scientific Revolution • Middle Age scholars based their ideas on the works of ancient Greek thinkers such as Aristotle, Ptolemy, and Galen - Believed earth was flat and that it was the center of the universe • 1600’s – Scientific Revolution began Nicolaus Copernicus • Proved that the earth was round and that it rotated on its axis as it revolved around the sun • Sun was at the center of the universe • He was afraid to publish his ideas Johannes Kepler • Used mathematical formulas to show that the planets revolve around the sun • Proved planets move in oval paths called ellipses • Kepler challenged the teachings of academic and religious leaders (Protestant) Galileo • 1609 – built telescope and observed night skies • became convinced that Copernicus’s theory was correct • Catholic Church forced him to recant his work - Continued to work in secret • Helped to establish the universal laws of physics Francis Bacon • English philosopher who claimed that ideas based solely on tradition or unproven facts should be completely discarded • Helped develop the scientific method Isaac Newton • Developed theory of universal gravitation • Developed calculus to prove his theory William Harvey • English physician who made advances understanding human anatomy - Discovered that blood circulates through the body pumped by the heart • Disproved many of Galen’s hypothesis - Liver digested food and processed it into blood Robert Hooke • Used newly invented microscope to discover the cell 1
  2. 2. Section 2 The Enlightenment in Europe Political Ideas • Philosophers began believing that political, economic and social relationships could also be understood through reasoned analyses • Political philosophers believed in the idea of natural law or universal moral law that , like physical laws, could be understood by applying reason • 1600’s – England struggled with political tensions of a Civil War - Country was divided between people who wanted the king to have absolute power and those who though the people should have the right to govern themselves • Thomas Hobbes – used natural law to argue that an absolute monarchy was the best form of government - Believed that violence and disorder came naturally to human beings and chaos would occur with an absolute monarch • John Locke – believed that government was base on a social contract and that it was necessary to establish order - Believed that people in a state of nature are reasonable and moral - Natural rights – rights belonging to all humans from birth (Life, Liberty, and Property) - Thomas Jefferson based much of the Declaration of Independence on Locke’s ideas Reason Influenced Law and Religion • Began incorporating scientific or reasoned thoughts in applying the law - Placed less emphasize on heresy and confessions made under torture - Helped to end unjust trials • 1600’s – Several people made the 1st attempts to create a body of international law - William Penn – Founder of the Quaker colony of Pennsylvania - Believed in pacifism (opposition to war and violence) - Advocated an assembly of nations committed to world peace • 1700’s – New religious philosophy called deism - Believed in one God - Denounced organized religion declaring that it exploited people’s ignorance and superstitions - Intended to construct a simpler and more natural religion based on reason and natural law Section 3 The Enlightenment Spreads Age of Enlightenment • Late 1600’s through the 1700’s • People studied the world as though they were looking at it for the 1st time 2
  3. 3. - No longer held back by tradition • Enlightened thinkers perceived the universe as a machine governed by fixed laws - Saw God as the master mechanic of the universe (the builder of a machine who provided laws and then allowed it to run on its own - Believed in progress or the idea that the world and its people could be improved • Started a philosophical revolution Spreading Ideas • Philosophes – Thinkers of the Enlightenment who spread new and exciting ideas • 1751 – Encyclopedia 1st published - 28 volumes covered everything then known about the sciences technology and history - It criticized the church and government and praised religious tolerance - Denis Diderot – sent to prison for it publication • Baron de Montesquieu – Believed that government should be divided equally among 3 branches of government - Legislative, Executive, and Judicial • Voltaire – writer who wrote plays, essays, and books that were often satirical - believed in free speech “I disagree with what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it” Enlightenment Opponents • Some people saw the structure and ordered view of the universe as overly rational and devoid of emotion and feeling • Jean- Jacques Rousseau – criticized the era’s reliance on reason - Believed that people should rely more on instinct and emotion • Immanuel Kant – Believed that reason could not answer the problems of metaphysics (Branch of philosophy that deals with spiritual issues such as the existence of God) • John Wesley – Led a movement called Methodism - Stressed the value of personal religious experience - Wanted more feeling in religion Section 4 The American Revolution Road to Revolt • Mid 1700’s – 13 colonies thrived on the east coast of North America • Population reached 1.5 million people by 1763 - People had migrated to escape religious persecution or to gain a new start on life • Radical political ideas about republicanism, universal suffrage, liberty and equality remained in the colonies • Frontier hardships and easy access to land blurred class division • Colonist were used to governing themselves - Each colony had its own representative assembly The British Empire in America • Government left the colonies alone except for regulating trade 3
  4. 4. • Colonies main role was to produce goods mostly raw materials that could not be produced in Great Britain and to markets for British manufactured goods • Colonies economies thrived - South – plantations grew tobacco, rice and indigo - Middle – grew enough food to feed families and trade throughout the year - New England – turned to the sea as a result of poor soil • 1600’s – England passed Navigation Acts - Colonies were required export certain products only to Great Britain - All goods going to the colonies 1st had to pass through Great Britain (duty had to be paid) - Weren’t completely enforced Colonial Political Power • Most of the colonies were managed by a governor appointed by the king • Each colony also had an elected assembly • Higher percentage of the population voted (land easer to acquire) • Assemblies and governors fought for power - Most arguments were over money • Colonies held firm to their right to approve any new taxes requested by the Crown Tightening Colonial Controls • French and Indian War caused the British Government to interfere more in colony affairs - Needed money to pay for the cost of the war • 1763 - George Greenville appointed 1st Lord of the Treasury - Issued a proclamation of 1763 that said colonist couldn’t settle west of the Appalachian Mtns. (wanted to avoid conflicts with Indians) - Began enforcing Navigation Acts (tried smugglers in British military courts) • Stamp Act – tax on all printed materials, - Required that all printed materials newspapers, shipping documents, playing cards bear a stamp to show that a tax had been paid to Great Britain - Direct Tax – tax paid directly to the government rather than being included in the price of goods Colonial Protest • Boycotted British Goods (Refused to buy) • Attacked Stamp Agents • Colonies said they could not be taxed since they had no representatives in Parliament (No taxation without representation) • Boston Massacre – five people in a mob killed by British soldiers • England repealed most of the taxes but kept a tax on tea • Boston Tea Party – colonist dumped British tea into Boston harbor • Intolerable Acts – Closed Boston harbor until tea had been paid for and required citizens to house and feed soldiers First Continental Congress • September 5, 1774 – 56 delegates met in Philadelphia 4
  5. 5. • 1st time colonies were united as a group • Congress resolved that the colonies were entitled to a free and exclusive power of legislation - Only colonial legislatures had the right to make laws • Agreed not import goods from Great Britain after December 1774 • Agreed not to export goods to Greta Britain after September 1775 • Volunteer armies were organized in every colony (minutemen) A War for Independence • April 19, 1775 – Massachusetts governor ordered General Thomas Gauge to seize colonist military supplies at Concord - Paul Revere and William Dawes warned the minutemen - British met resistance as they marched to Concord and back to Boston Moving Toward Separation • May 1775 – Second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia • Organized an army - Named George Washington military commander • Tried one last time to arrange a peaceful compromise - Sent Olive Branch Petition to King George III - British government refused the petition - Ended chances of peaceful settlement • Thomas Paine – wrote Common Sense - Called upon colonist to break away from Great Britain • Thomas Jefferson – wrote - Stated the colonist reasons for The Declaration of Independence separation from Great Britain - Jefferson influenced by John Locke’s concept of the “social contract” - July 4 1776 – Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence - Made reconciliation with Great Britain impossible The War for Independence • Revolution – the violent overthrow of a government • Britain had a stronger army • Had to fight a long distance war - Had to conquer the whole country to win • Battle of Saratoga - turning point of the war - Colonies victory convinced France help - Spain followed in 1779 - England became less interested in defeating the colonies • Battle of Yorktown – last battle of the - British surrender in October 1781 The United States Government • United States was a confederation or loose union of independent states in the beginning • Articles of Confederation – 1st government in U.S 5
  6. 6. - Too weak to deal with national problems • The Constitution – set up a federal government in which political power was divided between the national and states governments - Also provided for separation of powers - U.S. was a republic in which the President was elected The Republic’s Significance • Proved the Enlightenment values could work in practice • Has inspired peoples throughout the world seeking freedom from oppression 6
  7. 7. - Too weak to deal with national problems • The Constitution – set up a federal government in which political power was divided between the national and states governments - Also provided for separation of powers - U.S. was a republic in which the President was elected The Republic’s Significance • Proved the Enlightenment values could work in practice • Has inspired peoples throughout the world seeking freedom from oppression 6