RailroadsBy 1850 the first railroads had proved sosuccessful that every industrializingcountry began to build railroad lines.Railroad building in Britain, France,Germany, Canada, Russia, Japan, andespecially in the United States fueled atremendous expansion in the world’s railnetworks from 1850 to 1900.
In the non-industrialized world, railroadswere also built wherever they would be ofvalue to business or to governmentRailroads consumed huge amounts ofland and timber for ties and bridges.Throughout the world, railroads openednew land to agriculture, mining, and otherhuman exploitation of natural resources.
Steamships and Telegraph Cables In the mid-nineteenth century a number of technological developments in shipbuilding made it possible to increase the average size and speed of ocean- going vessels. These developments included the use of iron (and then steel) for hulls, propellers, and more efficient engines
Entrepreneurs developed a form oforganization known as the shipping line inorder to make the most efficient use ofthese large and expensive new ships.Shipping lines also used the growingsystem of submarine telegraph cables inorder to coordinate the movements of theirships around the globe.
The Steel and Chemical Industries Steel is an especially hard and elastic form of iron that could be made only in small quantities by skilled blacksmiths before the eighteenth century. A series of inventions in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries made it possible to produce large quantities of steel at low cost.
Until the late eighteenth century chemicalswere also produced in small amounts insmall workshops.The nineteenth century brought large-scale manufacture of chemicals and theinvention of synthetic dyes and other neworganic chemicals
Nineteenth century advances inexplosives (including Alfred Nobel’sinvention of dynamite) had significanteffects on both civil engineering and onthe development of more powerful andmore accurate firearms
The complexity of industrial chemistry made itone of the first fields in which science andtechnology interacted on a daily basis.This development gave a great advantage toGermany, where government-funded researchand cooperation between universities andindustries made the German chemical andexplosives industries the most advanced in theworld by the end of the nineteenth century.
ElectricityIn the 1870s inventors devised efficientgenerators that turned mechanical energyinto electricity that could be used to powerarc lamps, incandescent lamps,streetcars, subways, and electric motorsfor industryElectricity helped to alleviate the urbanpollution caused by horse-drawn vehicles.Electricity also created a huge demand forcopper, bringing Chile, Montana, andsouthern Africa more deeply into the world
World Trade and FinanceBetween 1850 and 1913 world tradeexpanded tenfold, while the cost of freightdropped between 50 and 95 percent sothat even cheap and heavy products suchas agricultural products, raw materials,and machinery were shipped around theworld
The growth of trade and close connectionsbetween the industrial economies ofWestern Europe and North Americabrought greater prosperity to these areas,but it also made them more vulnerable toswings in the business cycle.One of the main causes of this growinginterdependence was the financial powerof Great Britain.
Non-industrial areas were also tied to the worldeconomy.The non-industrial areas were even morevulnerable to swings in the business cyclebecause they depended on the export of rawmaterials that could often be replaced bysynthetics or for which the industrial nationscould develop new sources of supply.Nevertheless, until World War I, the value ofexports from the tropical countries generallyremained high, and the size of their populationsremained moderate
Population and MigrationsBetween 1850 and 1914 Europe saw veryrapid population growthEmigration from Europe spurredpopulation growth in the United States,Canada, Australia, New Zealand, andArgentina.As a result, the proportion of people ofEuropean ancestry in the world’spopulation rose from one-fifth to one-third.
Reasons for the increase in Europeanpopulation include:1. A drop in the death rate2. Improved crop yields3. The provision of grain from newlyopened agricultural land in North America4. And the provision of a more abundantyear-round diet as a result of canning andrefrigeration
Asians also migrated in large numbersduring this period, often as indenturedlaborers
Urbanization and Urban EnvironmentsIn the latter half of the nineteenth centuryEuropean, North American, and Japanesecities grew tremendously both in terms ofpopulation and of size.In areas like the English Midlands, theGerman Ruhr, and around Tokyo Bay,towns fused into one another, creatingnew cities.
Urban growth was accompanied by changes inthe character of urban life.Technologies that changed the quality of urbanlife for the rich (and later for the working class aswell) included:1. Mass transportation networks2. Sewage and water supply systems3. Gas and electric lighting4. Police and fire departments5. Sanitation and garbage removal6. Building and health inspection, schools, parks,and other amenities.
New neighborhoods and cities were built(and older areas often rebuilt) on arectangular grid pattern with broadboulevards and modern apartmentbuildings.Cities were divided into industrial,commercial, and residential zones, withthe residential zones occupied by differentsocial classes.
While urban environments improved inmany ways, air quality worsened.Coal used as fuel polluted the air, whilethe waste of the thousands of horses thatpulled carts and carriages lay stinking inthe streets until horses were replaced bystreetcars and automobiles in the earlytwentieth century.
Middle-Class Womens “Separate Sphere”The term “Victorian Age” refers not only tothe reign of Queen Victoria (r.1837–1901),but also to the rules of behavior and theideology surrounding the family andrelations between men and women.Men and women were thought to belong in“separate spheres,” the men in theworkplace, the women in the home.
Before electrical appliances, a middle-class home demanded lots of workThe advent of modern technology in thenineteenth century eliminated some tasksand made others easierBut rising standards of cleanliness meantthat technological advances did nottranslate into a decrease in thehousewife’s total workload.
The most important duty of middle-classwomen was to raise their children.Victorian mothers lavished much time andattention on their children, but girlsreceived an education very different fromthat of boys.
Governments enforced legal discriminationagainst women throughout the nineteenthcenturySociety frowned on careers for middle-classwomen.Women were excluded from jobs that requiredhigher educationTeaching was a permissible career, but womenteachers were expected to resign when they gotmarried.Some middle-class women were not satisfiedwith home life and became involved in volunteerwork or in the women’s suffrage movement.
Working-Class WomenWorking-class women led lives of toil andpain.Many became domestic servants, facinglong hours, hard physical labor, andsexual abuse from their masters or theirmasters’ sons
Many more young women worked infactories, where they were relegated topoorly paid work in the textiles andclothing trades. Married women were expected to stayhome, raise children, do housework, andcontribute to the family income by taking inboarders, doing sewing or other pieceworkjobs, or by washing other people’s clothes.
Marx and SocialismSocialism began as an intellectualmovement.The best-known socialist was Karl Marx(1818–1883) who, along with FriedrichEngles (1820–1895) wrote the CommunistManifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867).Marx saw history as a long series ofclashes between social classes
Marxs theories provided an intellectualframework for general dissatisfaction withunregulated industrial capitalismMarx took steps to translate his intellectualefforts into political action
Labor MovementsLabor unions were organizations formedby industrial workers to defend theirinterests in negotiations with employers.Labor unions developed from the workers’“friendly societies” of the early nineteenthcentury and sought better wages,improved working conditions, andinsurance for workers
During the nineteenth century workers werebrought into electoral politics as the right to votewas extended to all adult males in Europe andNorth America.Instead of seeking the violent overthrow of thebourgeois class, socialists used their votingpower in order to force concessions from thegovernment and even to win electionsThe classic case of socialist electoral politics isthe Social Democratic Party of Germany
Nationalism and the Unification of Germany and Italy
Language and National Identity Before 1871Language was usually the crucial element increating a feeling of national unity, but languageand citizenship rarely coincided.The idea of redrawing the boundaries of statesto accommodate linguistic, religious, and culturaldifferences led to the forging of larger statesfrom the many German and Italian principalities,but it threatened to break large multiethnicempires like Austria-Hungary into smaller states
Until the 1860s nationalism was associated withliberalism, as in the case of the Italian liberalnationalist Giuseppe Mazzini.After 1848 conservative political leaders learnedhow to preserve the social status quo by usingpublic education, universal military service, andcolonial conquests to build a sense of nationalidentity that focused loyalty on the state
The Unification of Italy, 1860–1870 By the mid-nineteenth century, popular sentiment favored Italian unification. Unification was opposed by Pope Pius IX and Austria Count Cavour, the prime minister of Piedmont-Sardinia, used the rivalry between France and Austria to gain the help of France in pushing the Austrians out of northern Italy
In the south, Giuseppe Garibaldi led arevolutionary army in 1860 that defeatedthe Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.A new Kingdom of Italy, headed by VictorEmmanuel (the former king of Piedmont-Sardinia) was formed in 1860.In time, Venetia (1866) and the PapalStates (1870) were added to Italy
The Unification of Germany, 1866– 1871 Until the 1860s the German-speaking people were divided among Prussia, the western half of the Austrian Empire, and numerous smaller states. Prussia took the lead in the movement for German unity because it had a strong industrial base in the Rhineland and an army that was equipped with the latest military, transportation, and communications technology
During the reign of Wilhelm I (r. 1861–1888) thePrussian chancellor Otto von Bismarck achievedthe unification of Germany through acombination of diplomacy and the Franco-Prussian War.Victory over France in the Franco-Prussian Warcompleted the unification of Germany, but it alsoresulted in German control over the Frenchprovinces of Alsace and Lorraine and thus in thelong-term enmity between France and Germany
Nationalism after 1871After the Franco-Prussian War all politicianstried to manipulate public opinion in order tobolster their governments by using the press andpublic education in order to foster nationalisticloyalties.In many countries the dominant group usednationalism to justify the imposition of itslanguage, religion, or customs on minoritypopulations, as in the attempts of Russia to“Russify” its diverse ethnic populations
Herbert Spencer (1820–1903) and otherstook up Charles Darwin’s ideas of “naturalselection” and “survival of the fittest” andapplied them to human societies in such away as to justify European conquest offoreign nations and the social and genderhierarchies of Western society.
Germany at the Center of EuropeInternational relations revolved around a unitedGermany, which, under Bismarck’s leadership,isolated France and forged a loose coalition withAustria-Hungary and Russia. At home, Bismarck used mass politics andsocial legislation to gain popular support and todevelop a strong sense of national unity andpride amongst the German people
Wilhelm II (r. 1888–1918) dismissedBismarck and initiated a German foreignpolicy that placed emphasis on theacquisition of colonies
The Liberal Powers: France and Great BritainFrance was now a second-rate power in Europe,its population and army being smaller than thoseof Germany, and its rate of industrial growthlower than that of the Germans.French society seemed divided betweenmonarchist Catholics and republicans withanticlerical views; in fact, popular participation inpolitics, a strong sense of nationhood, and asystem of universal education gave the Frenchpeople a deeper cohesion than appeared on thesurface
In Britain, a stable government and a narrowing in thedisparity of wealth were accompanied by a number ofproblems.Particularly notable were Irish resentment of Englishrule, an economy that was lagging behind those of theUnited States and Germany, and an enormous empirethat was very expensive to administer and to defend.For most of the nineteenth century Britain pursued apolicy of “splendid isolation” toward Europe;preoccupation with India led the British to exaggerate theRussian threat to the Ottoman Empire and to the CentralAsian approaches to India while they ignored the rise ofGermany
The Conservative Powers: Russia and Austria-HungaryThe forces of nationalism weakenedRussia and Austria-Hungary.Austria had alienated its Slavic-speakingminorities by renaming itself the “Austro-Hungarian Empire.”The Empire offended Russia byattempting to dominate the Balkans, andparticularly by the annexation of Bosnia-Herzogovina in 1908
Ethnic diversity also contributed toinstability in Russia.Attempts to foster Russian nationalismand to impose the Russian language on adiverse population proved to be divisive
In 1861 Tsar Alexander II emancipated thepeasants from serfdom, but did so in sucha way that it only turned them intocommunal farmers with few skills and littlecapital. Tsars Alexander III (r. 1881–1894) andNicholas II (r. 1894–1917) opposed allforms of social change.
Russian industrialization was carried out by thestate, and thus the middle-class remained smalland weak while the land-owning aristocracydominated the court and administration. Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905) and the Revolution of 1905 demonstratedRussia’s weakness and caused Tsar Nicholas tointroduce a constitution and a parliament (theDuma), but he soon reverted to the traditionaldespotism of his forefathers.
China, Japan, and the Western Powers, to 1867In the late nineteenth century Chinaresisted Western influence and becameweaker; Japan transformed itself into amajor industrial and military power.The difference can be explained partly bythe difference between Chinese andJapanese elites and their attitudes towardforeign cultures.
In the late nineteenth century Chinaresisted Western influence and becameweaker; Japan transformed itself into amajor industrial and military power. The difference can be explained partly bythe difference between Chinese andJapanese elites and their attitudes towardforeign cultures.
In China a “self-strengthening movement” triedto bring about reforms, but the EmpressDowager Cixi and other officials opposedrailways or other technologies that would carryforeign influences into the interior.They were able to slow down foreign intrusion,but in doing so, they denied themselves the bestmeans of defense against foreign pressure.
In the early nineteenth century, Japan wasruled by the Tokugawa shogunate andlocal lords had significant autonomy.This system made it hard for Japan tocoordinate its response to outside threats
In 1853, the American CommodoreMatthew C. Perry arrived in Japan with afleet of steam-powered warships anddemanded that the Japanese open theirports to trade and American ships
Dissatisfaction with the shogunatescapitulation to American and Europeandemands led to a civil war and theoverthrow of the shogunate in 1868
The Meiji Restoration and the Modernization of Japan, 1868– 1894The new rulers of Japan were known as the MeijioligarchsThe Meiji oligarchs were willing to change theirinstitutions and their society in order to help transformtheir country into a world-class industrial and militarypower.The Japanese had a long history of adopting ideas andculture from China and Korea; in the same spirit, theJapanese learned industrial and military technology,science, engineering, and even clothing styles andpastimes from the West.
The Japanese government encouragedindustrialization, funding industrialdevelopment with tax revenue extractedfrom the rural sector and then sellingstate-owned enterprises to privateentrepreneurs.
The Birth of Japanese ImperialismIndustrialization was accompanied by thedevelopment of an authoritarianconstitutional monarchy and a foreignpolicy that defined Japan’s “sphere ofinfluence” to include Korea, Manchuria,and part of China
Japan defeated China in a war that began in1894, thus precipitating an abortive Chinesereform effort (the Hundred Days Reform) in 1898and setting the stage for Japanese competitionwith Russia for influence in the Chinese provinceof Manchuria.Japanese power was further demonstrated whenJapan defeated Russia in 1905 and annexedKorea in 1910