“Web 2.0 tools exist that might allow academics to reﬂectand reimagine what they do as scholars. Such tools mightpositively affect -- even transform - research, teaching, and service responsibilities - only if scholars choose to build serious academic lives online, presenting semi-public selves and becoming invested in and connected to the work of their peers and students.” (Greenhow, Robelia, & Hughes, 2009)
“given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow” (Linus’ Law, Raymond 1997)
“A key to transformation is for the teaching profession to establish innovation networks that capture the spirit and culture of hackers -the passion, the can-do, collective sharing.” ~ Hargreaves, 2003
“Open Education is the simple andpowerful idea that the world’s knowledge is a public good and that technology in general and the Worldwide Web in particular provide an extraordinary opportunity for everyone to share, use, and reuse knowledge.” (William & Flora Hewlett Foundation)
open(ness) (short version) open education free software open source software open educational resourcesopen content open access publicationopen access courses open teaching open scholarship open accreditation
• pedagogical affordance. • knowledge exchange, curation, sensemaking, wayﬁnding, collaboration,connected(ness) crowdsourcing, remixing, (short version) problem solving ... • facilitated through personal learning networks/ environments (PLNs/PLEs)
Free/Open Content “describes any kind of creative work in a format that explicitly allows copying and modifying of its information by anyone, notexclusively by a closed organization, ﬁrm, or individual.” (Wikipedia)
Why Do Students Go to University? Content Degrees Social Life Support Services (Wiley, 2010)
Why Do Students Go to University? PLoS GCTWikipedia MCSE Google Scholar ACT OCW Content DegreesFlatworld K arXiv.org CNE CCNA Open Courses Facebook Twitter Skype Social Life Support Services MySpace Yahoo! Answers MMOGs Quora ChaCha (Wiley, 2010)
early lessons• knowledge needs to be free.• relationships trump content.• transparency & openness are powerful conditions for knowledge sharing.• distributed, weak-tie communities can help to solve complex problems.• education can greatly beneﬁt from the experiences of open (source) communities (i.e., networked communities of practice).
ChangesEarly Day of PC in Schools Today’s Social/Mobile Reality
media stats (2010)• 107 trillion emails (89% spam), from 1.04 billion users.• 255 million websites• 1.97 billion Internet users• 152 millions blogs• 600 million Facebook users (sharing 30 billion pieces of content per month)• 2 billion videos watched on Youtube daily• 5 billion photos hosted on Flickr Stats as of January 2011 via Royal Pingdom
“The average digital birth of children happens at about 6 months.” “In Canada, US, UK, France Italy, Germany & Spain ... 81% of children under the age of two have some kind of digital proﬁle or footprint.”
Easily Copied Instantly SharedEasily Edited Viewable by Millions
On Digital Video • “Ten years ago, not one student in a hundred, nay, one in a thousand, could have produced videos like this. It’s a whole new skill, a vital and important skill, and one utterly necessary not simply from the perspective of creating but also of comprehending videoStephen Downes communication today.
“To answer your question, I did use Youtube to learn how to dance. I consider it my ‘main’ teacher.” “10 years ago, street dance was very exclusive, especially rare dances like popping (the one I teach and do). You either had to learn it from a friend that knew it or get VHS tapes which were hard to get. Now with Youtube, anyone, anywhere in the world can learn previously ‘exclusive’ dance styles.”
additional lessons• growing modes of access and the ability to publish & disseminate to wide audiences are key affordances.• (digital) citizenship & (digital) identity are emerging content areas that heavily implicate emerging pedagogies.• crowdsourcing & social curation of content will prove transformational for learning environments.