knowledge• what is k?• how is k acquired?• how do we know what we know?• why do we know what we know?• what do humans know?• who controls k?• how is k controlled?
human thought/ideas human language source codehigh-level language (e.g. C++, Java, PERL) low-level language (assembly language) code irretrievable machine code (binary)
“Linux is subversive. Who would have thought even ﬁve years ago that a world-class operating system couldcoalesce as if by magic out of part-time hacking by several thousand developers scattered all over the planet, connected by only tenuous strands of the Internet.” (Raymond, 1997)
“A key to transformation is for the teaching profession to establishinnovation networks that capturethe spirit and culture of hackers - the passion, the can-do, the collective sharing.” (Hargreaves, 2003)
Free/Open Content “describes any kind of creative work in a format that explicitly allows copying and modifying of its information by anyone, notexclusively by a closed organization, ﬁrm, or individual.” (Wikipedia)
Children and young people are described as ‘the collaboration generation’, eager to work togethertowards common goals, share content and draw upon“the power of mass collaboration”. This combination of individualisation and collaboration is often presented as giving young people a propensity to question, challenge and critique. These are individuals who “typically can’t imagine a life where citizens didn’t have the tools to constantly think critically, exchange views, challenge, authenticate, verify, or debunk. The Digital Native - Myth & Reality, Selwyn (2009)
“... age is not a determining factor instudents’ digital lives; rather, their familiarityand experience using ICTs is more relevant.” “... the notion of ‘digital natives’ is inaccurate: those with such attributes are effectively a digital elite. Instead of a new net generation growing up to replace an older analogue generation, there is a deepening digital divide ... characterized not by age but by access and opportunity.”
“The gene has it’s cultural analog too: the meme. In cultural evolution, a meme is a replicator and propagator - an idea, a fashion, a chain letter, or a conspiracy theory. On a bad day, a meme is a virus” Lowenstein, 1999
“...for all the money, tax revenue and intelligence that Westerngovernments have at their disposal (they) seemingly cannot gettheir heads around a simple enough concept that wherever one is, someone is watching and recording.” Zack Whitaker
“Technological ﬂuency means much more than the ability to use technological tools;that would be equivalent to understanding a few common phrases in a language. To become truly ﬂuent in a language (like English or French), one must be able toarticulate a complex idea or tell an engaging story -- that is, to be able to make things of signiﬁcance with these tools. ” The Computer Clubhouse: Technology Fluency in the Inner City, Resnick, Rusk, & Cooke (1998)
The Difference Between Digital Literacy & Digital Fluency, C. Briggs (2011)
On Digital Video • “Ten years ago, not one student in a hundred, nay, one in a thousand, could have produced videos like this. It’s a whole new skill, a vital and important skill, and one utterly necessary not simply from the perspective of creating but also of comprehending videoStephen Downes communication today.
“To answer your question, I did use Youtube to learn how to dance. I consider it my ‘main’ teacher.” “10 years ago, street dance was very exclusive, especially rare dances like popping (the one I teach and do). You either had to learn it from a friend that knew it or get VHS tapes which were hard to get. Now with Youtube, anyone, anywhere in the world can learn previously ‘exclusive’ dance styles.”