Title: The framework of viewing andrepresenting skills for the engagement with digitaltextsKay Yong, KhooFaculty of Educat...
Literature Review CITE Research Symposium,2012   2
The meaning of literacy inthe    21st   century    haschanged markedly withemerging and now dominanttechnologies: that is,...
The need to redefine notions of reading, speaking,listening and writing as the basic skills in language learningis critica...
Young people are frequently described as digitalnatives as a result of their extensive experience ofdigital computer techn...
In “Growing Up Digital”, Tapscott (1998) states thattechnology is changing the practices andpreferences of young people in...
There are skills to be derived from children’sintuitive understandings arising from their naturalinteractions with digital...
There is an acknowledgement that the English Curriculum has to        evolve according to the changing world to prepare ch...
However, in Hong Kong, the government-mandated primary school’s curriculum of EnglishLanguage has not incorporated digital...
There is an emerging gap between children’s out-of-school digital practices and practices in theprimary school English Lan...
The literature suggests four areas of digital       practices that impact the engagement on screens:Mode                  ...
TheoreticalBackgroundCITE Research Symposium,2012   12
Cognitive theory of multimedia learningSelecting relevant                            Organizing thewords from the         ...
Research  QuestionsCITE Research Symposium,2012   14
With the new digital text practices that are found inliterature, the gaps of knowledge that need to be filled. Thegaps lea...
ResearchMethodologyCITE Research Symposium,2012   16
The study explored four cases of primary school-agedchildren. The methodology of the study was qualitative(Gay, Mills, & A...
CITE Research Symposium,2012   18
ResearchResultsCITE Research Symposium,2012   19
Results: The digital skills developed by the participantsParticipant One: Angel, a multi-mode representing practitionerThr...
Affordances of Images           Affordances of Writing                        Contextual Linking     Angel applied a newsp...
Affordances of Images                Affordances of Writing                      Contextual Linking In Figure 3, she used ...
Affordances of VideosAngel applied a video clip that showed a series of images with different narration for each, “The Han...
On top of the four digital practices that have been noted from the literature,two additional practices emerged specificall...
Table 2. Viewing and representing skills developed from children’s out-of-school digital practices   Skill           Area ...
The different processes were identified when Angel engaged with digital text by using the five skills. Analysing these pro...
Discussionof results and the research’s         implication.        CITE Research Symposium,2012   27
A pedagogical implication arises from this research. Each participanthad different preferences in relation to the ways in ...
The researcher found that skills                                 1,4 5 & 6 were utilized, while                           ...
The studies from the four cases                               show that English language                               lea...
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The framework of viewing and representing skills for engagement with digital texts

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KHOO, Kay (The University of Hong Kong)
http://citers2012.cite.hku.hk/en/paper_546.htm

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The framework of viewing and representing skills for engagement with digital texts

  1. 1. Title: The framework of viewing andrepresenting skills for the engagement with digitaltextsKay Yong, KhooFaculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong CITE Research Symposium 2012 (June 15th )
  2. 2. Literature Review CITE Research Symposium,2012 2
  3. 3. The meaning of literacy inthe 21st century haschanged markedly withemerging and now dominanttechnologies: that is, themove away from writing tothe new digital text mode,and from the medium of thebooks to that of thecomputer screens(Kress, 2010). CITE Research Symposium,2012 3
  4. 4. The need to redefine notions of reading, speaking,listening and writing as the basic skills in language learningis critical, as these skills are not adequate to addressdigital multimodal literacy. CITE Research Symposium,2012 4
  5. 5. Young people are frequently described as digitalnatives as a result of their extensive experience ofdigital computer technology (Buckingham & Willett,2006; Prensky, 2001). CITE Research Symposium,2012 5
  6. 6. In “Growing Up Digital”, Tapscott (1998) states thattechnology is changing the practices andpreferences of young people in a series of areas –namely, cognition, play, learning and etc. CITE Research Symposium,2012 6
  7. 7. There are skills to be derived from children’sintuitive understandings arising from their naturalinteractions with digital text. CITE Research Symposium,2012 7
  8. 8. There is an acknowledgement that the English Curriculum has to evolve according to the changing world to prepare children for the opportunities and challenges of life in the 21st century. Ministry of Education Australia has a longMOE Singapore has (2006) of Ontario, history of incorporating In the UK, a newalso introduced new Canada, has multimodal texts into primary curriculum isEnglish Language incorporated the context of English being reviewed and thisCurriculum in 2010 for multimodal texts into learning (Curriculum will be implemented inprimary and secondary the curriculum for Corporation., 1994; New 2011. “Viewing”, isschools to be young children as early South Wales Board of defined as a skillimplemented from 2010. as at stage one (p. 45). Studies, 1998). In the necessary forIn the new curriculum, Multimodal texts are recent outlined understanding andviewing and representing referred to as media Australia National responding toskills are introduced as texts in the curriculum, English Curriculum, information, andreceptive and productive and are introduced in systematic exploration “broadcasting” isskills to incorporate a the English Curriculum and production of identified as one of thewide range of literacy guide as one of four multimodal texts have key skills required toinformation/functional strands: oral been introduced present ideas andtexts (Singapore, 2010) communication, throughout the school opinions. (Department reading, writing and years (National for Children schools and media literacy. Curriculum Board, families UK, 2009). 2008). CITE Research Symposium,2012 8
  9. 9. However, in Hong Kong, the government-mandated primary school’s curriculum of EnglishLanguage has not incorporated digital text as anintegral aspect of Language learning (Education and Manpower Bureau HK, July 2004). CITE Research Symposium,2012 9
  10. 10. There is an emerging gap between children’s out-of-school digital practices and practices in theprimary school English Language classroom inHong Kong (which remain focused on linguisticlearning). CITE Research Symposium,2012 10
  11. 11. The literature suggests four areas of digital practices that impact the engagement on screens:Mode Contextual Links Navigation Multi-modesAffordances The ability to link The ability to The ability toThe ability to apply the elements of information navigate on screens recognize and createaffordances of modes in different modes (Leeuwen, 2005; elements in differentin meaning making ( contextually in spatial or modes (Jewitt, 2006; Martinec & Leeuwen, 2009Jewitt, 2006; temporal layouts ( ). Len Unsworth, 2008);Kress, 2003; Kress, 2010;Martinec & Leeuwen, 2009 Leeuwen, 2005);); CITE Research Symposium,2012 11
  12. 12. TheoreticalBackgroundCITE Research Symposium,2012 12
  13. 13. Cognitive theory of multimedia learningSelecting relevant Organizing thewords from the selected wordspresented text or into a coherentnarration verbal representation Organizing Integrating the Selecting relevant selected images pictorial and images from the into a coherent verbal presented pictorial representations illustrations representation and prior knowledge CITE Research Symposium,2012 13
  14. 14. Research QuestionsCITE Research Symposium,2012 14
  15. 15. With the new digital text practices that are found inliterature, the gaps of knowledge that need to be filled. Thegaps lead to three research questions:1: What digital literacy practices emerge from the participating children’s out-of-school technology use?2: How have these practices been extended to school activities? CITE Research Symposium,2012 15
  16. 16. ResearchMethodologyCITE Research Symposium,2012 16
  17. 17. The study explored four cases of primary school-agedchildren. The methodology of the study was qualitative(Gay, Mills, & Airasian, 2006; Merriam, 1988, 1998a,1998b, 2009; Yin, 1994). CITE Research Symposium,2012 17
  18. 18. CITE Research Symposium,2012 18
  19. 19. ResearchResultsCITE Research Symposium,2012 19
  20. 20. Results: The digital skills developed by the participantsParticipant One: Angel, a multi-mode representing practitionerThree digital artifacts were selected from Angel’s messageslisted in her Facebook. The researcher found that she hadacquired the following abilities:She was competent in both To apply affordances of To link elements of To navigate informationrecognizing and creating modes in meaning making. different modes on screens withmessages with elements of Images is to provide meaningfully in layouts. hypertexts. They afforddifferent modes -, i.e. video, depictive information The links integrate readers interaction withverbal narrations, images (Kress, 2010). elements of information in text in a manner that isand printed texts. Angel’s Writing affords the different modes meaningful to them (three selected digital description of ideas (Kress, contextually in spatial or Jonassen, 1986;artifacts, the messages 2010). temporal layouts ( Leeuwen, 2005;consisted of elements in Videos provide information Kress,2010; Martinec & Leeuwen, 2009different modes: i.e. that demand changes of Leeuwen, 2005); ). Angel could quicklyimages, sound, verbal time or space, or adapt to the navigationnarrations, video and information that is potential and thewriting. perceived through sight and processing of digital hearing (emotion, attitudes, texts of different modes. and etc.). CITE Research Symposium,2012 20
  21. 21. Affordances of Images Affordances of Writing Contextual Linking Angel applied a newspaper Angel urged readers of her Angel demonstrated her cutting to show the authentic message to tell more people (as understanding to elaborate on aspect of the message as in in Figure 2) about the news she the title (writing) with the Figure 2. had read that live puppies were newspaper cutting (an image) used as shark bait. as in Figure 2. Please help to disseminate… It was very cruel and inhumane…Do you notice that the dog is crying? Please disseminate this message! The title of the newspaper cutting: “Live puppies are used as shark bait”( 活小狗慘變 餌釣鯊魚 )Figure 2. Angels digital artifact with the title “PuppiesAs Fishing Bait.” CITE Research Symposium,2012 21
  22. 22. Affordances of Images Affordances of Writing Contextual Linking In Figure 3, she used her She determined to change the Angel demonstrated her to serious look photo to reflect image she was projecting of complement the body her friends’ perception of her. herself by using smiley faces to message (writing) with a photo get to know more friends (as in (an image) as in Figure 3. Figure 3). The title: “Your first impression for friends of different gender (for girls only).“ 妳給異性的 第一印象 ( 女生玩 )” The body message stated: “AC has completed a psychological test. The test showed that she felt she always needed to insert a smiley face so that she is viewed as approachable by friends of different gender.”Figure 3. The digital artifact by Angel with the title: A Psychological Test CITE Research Symposium,2012 22
  23. 23. Affordances of VideosAngel applied a video clip that showed a series of images with different narration for each, “The Handsome Guysand The Ugly Guys (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vZhSvMRiXtE)”. The narrations with illustrations comparedhow people perceived handsome and ugly boys performing a series of heterogeneous actions. For example: when ahandsome boy reads a book, people would praise him as “a decent boy”, but an ugly boy reading a book would betermed a “bookworm”. CITE Research Symposium,2012 23
  24. 24. On top of the four digital practices that have been noted from the literature,two additional practices emerged specifically from the Stage One study.Angel had also acquired the following abilities: To assimilate digital functionalities in as a part of engagement. andSome clear patterns emerged from Angel’s viewing engagement with these elements.There were two macro processes in Angel’s self-regulated engagement with theseelements, she selected elements and she integrated them with different links to form asemantic path of engagement. CITE Research Symposium,2012 24
  25. 25. Table 2. Viewing and representing skills developed from children’s out-of-school digital practices Skill Area Skill One Multi-mode The skill to recognize or to create elements of various modes. Two Affordances of mode The skill to apply or to engage with the affordances of various modes. Three Contextual Link The skill to interpret and create contextual links (in spatial/temporal layouts) between elements. Four Navigation The skill to move around a screen to engage with information. Five Digital functionality The skill to assimilate digital functionalities in one’s engagement on screens.In this study, five viewing and representing skills are identified (as in Table 2)in response to the first research question. Four of these skills - skills 1,2,3 and4 - were derived from practices identified in the literature review before thedata collection (Jewitt, 2006; Kress, 2010; Kress & Leeuwen, 2007;Leeuwen, 2005; Martinec & Leeuwen, 2009). An additional skill emerged fromthe study. CITE Research Symposium,2012 25
  26. 26. The different processes were identified when Angel engaged with digital text by using the five skills. Analysing these processes can lead to the development of the conceptual overview to frame the other five skills (as in i Table 3).Table 3.The framework of viewing and representing skillsMacro Process Element Selection Element Integration Multi-mode Contextual Link The skill to recognize and create elements of The skill to interpret and create contextual links (in different modes to form information. spatial/temporal layouts) with different elements to form information. Skills Affordances of mode Navigation The skill to apply and engage with the The skill to move around a screen to integrate affordances of different modes in elements to different elements to form information. form information. Digital functionality The skill to assimilate digital functionalities The skill to assimilate digital functionalities to in elements to form information. integrate elements to form information. CITE Research Symposium,2012 26
  27. 27. Discussionof results and the research’s implication. CITE Research Symposium,2012 27
  28. 28. A pedagogical implication arises from this research. Each participanthad different preferences in relation to the ways in which they engagedwith digital texts. • Multimodal practitioner • Multimodal written text representing • practitioner Digital savvy practitioner • Viewing practitionerThis finding implies that education should adopt more individualizedapproaches to allow learners to design their own style and practice inlearning. CITE Research Symposium,2012 28
  29. 29. The researcher found that skills 1,4 5 & 6 were utilized, while skills 2 & 3 were not in evidence. The second research question will be answered based on these findings. Although skill one (multi-mode) is extended as images in formal learning, the affordances of images (skill two) and the contextual links between images and writing mode (skill three) were not utilized. The result is consistent with the findings of other studies where images were found to be not utilized meaningfully in learning ( Daly & Unsworth, 2011; Len Unsworth, 2008). The children extended skills 4,5 & 6 intuitively into their formal learning on screens. Furthermore, feedback from the teachers indicated the fact that they were also aware of the skills.CITE Research Symposium,2012 29
  30. 30. The studies from the four cases show that English language learning at school focuses on linguistic development (such as grammar and reading comprehension) as observed in classroom observations and the interviews with the teachers. The children extended skills 1, 2 & 3 into their independent schoolwork. Besides creating their messages meaningfully with images and writing, they were also skilled at creating meaning with contextual links with non-linear spatial layouts (skill three). However, Skills 4,5 & 6 were not in evidence in their independent schoolwork: There was no teacher-led promotion of schoolwork to be completed on screens with digital texts; the teachers requested that independent schoolwork be printed to hard copy.CITE Research Symposium,2012 30

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