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Mobiles, Vocabulary & Connecting Experiences


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My presentation for the EUROCALL Mobile Assisted Language Learning SIG meeting at TISLID2014

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Mobiles, Vocabulary & Connecting Experiences

  1. 1. Mobiles, Vocabulary & Connecting Experiences Joshua Underwood " A word acquires its sense from the context in which it appears; in different contexts, it changes its sense… The dictionary meaning is no more than a stone in the edifice of sense…” p.245 Vygotsky (1986)
  2. 2. Overview • Who am I? • Learning Vocabulary • Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) • Learning Experience (LX) Design • Connections: Some Opportunities & Challenges
  3. 3. Who am I? Designer/Researcher LearnerTeacher
  4. 4. I am an LX Designer miLexicon Participatory e-Science Homework
  5. 5. Homework Luckin et al., (2005), Kerawalla et al., (2007) Connecting learners & helpers across settings BBC News South East (2006) “What did you get up to today?”
  6. 6. Participatory Science Inquiry Underwood, J., Smith, H., Luckin, R., & Fitzpatrick, G. (2008) Connecting data capture & inquiry, sharing & reflection across settings
  7. 7. Learner: Personal & Social Language Inquiry Underwood, Luckin & Winters (2011)
  8. 8. Investigate Share Reflect: self-assessment prompts & item history miLexicon: nexus for activity & PLE C a p t u r e Underwood, Luckin & Winters (2012)
  9. 9. Teaching reminds me of… Practicalities & Constraints Engagement & Fun 
  10. 10. How to learn vocabulary?
  11. 11. There are quite a few vocab apps…
  12. 12. What should vocab apps do? • Incremental & multi-dimensional (Nation, 2001) • 11 principles: Personal stores centred on individual needs, …, shared with teachers for help with prioritization & strategies (Schmitt & Schmitt, 1995) • 17 criteria: require increasing retrieval effort & prompt generative use (Nakata, 2011) • Self-created material better for long-term retention (Hasegawa et al, 2008) • Integrate tools & vocabulary tutoring - track activity (Ma, 2013) • Integrate across activity (Kukulska-Hulme, 1988)
  13. 13. Some MALL tech directions • Situated capture & sharing: CloudBank/Lingobee (Pemberton & Winter, 2012), SCROLL (Ogata et al, 2011) • Situated help: Xpress (Chang et al, 2013), VocabNomad (Demmans Epp, 2013) • Situated & distributed practice: MicroMandarin (Edge et al, 2011) • Incidental: Vocabulary Wallpaper (Dearman & Truong, 2012),, etc… • Task-based: French Kitchen (Seedhouse et al, 2013) • Micro-learning, Wait-learning (Cai et al, 2014) • Automated glossing/picture notes (Han et., 2014), keyword TransPhoner (Savva et al, 2014) See Burston (2013) for a fairly comprehensive annotated bibliography
  14. 14. 7 ways to think about MALL Designs • Mobile device, learner, learning (Pegrum in Hockly, 2013) – content, tutorial, creation, communication (video) (Hockly, 2013) • 10 essential pedagogic elements: … Learner generated artefacts & activities that connect in class and out of class learning (Palalas, 2012) • 10 more principles: Push respectfully, Difference (Stockwell & Hubbard, 2013) • Despite context, in context, about context, through {creating} context (Sharples, 2012) • 10 dimensions: Facilitated Seamless Learning (video) (Wong, 2013) • Time, Place, Activity + Journey (Kukulska-Hulme et al, 2012) • Interaction trajectories: beginnings, ends, transitions (Benford et al, 2013)
  15. 15. Learner Centred Ecology of Resources My resources FiltersFilters Filters A world of resources Knowledge & Skills Environment Tools & People
  16. 16. Learner Centred Ecology of Resources (Luckin, 2010) • Context… …is local to a learner. … • Context is dynamic & associated with connections between, people, things, locations & events • in a narrative that is driven by people’s intentionality & motivations. • Technology can help to make those connections… • People can help to make those connections have meaning. • [Context’s]…timescale is [an] individual's life…” p.18 Luckin (2010)
  17. 17. Participatory story writing for design involve learners in writing their own technology-enhanced learning… • Who? • What? • Why? • Where? • Under what constraints? • With what help? People, MAPs, tools • When? The narrative – learning trajectory: grab & hold attention, episodes & transitions, what happens before, after, how does the learning story fit with the wider life story… Underwood (2014)
  18. 18. miLexicon as probe Technology probe (see Balaam, 2013) “in the wild” (see Rogers, 2011) Participatory Design Underwood, Luckin, Winters (2014)
  19. 19. 7 MALL opportunities & challenges • Looking out (one vision for Glass) & Looking in (eye- tracking technology & language learning research 1 & 2) • Connecting incidental & deliberate learning • Shared control: Learner & Teacher • Adaptive (to you) & Adaptable (by you) • Assessment with Help (e.g. beyond EnglishProfile, Write&Improve & Michael Carrier on ASR at IATEFL2014 - video) • Grab & Hold…………………………………….attention • Open not Closed – integration across apps & activites
  20. 20. Thanks “A word is a microcosm of human consciousness” Vygotsky (1986)
  21. 21. REFERENCES Balaam, M. (2013.) Using Technology Probes to Understand Educational Design Spaces, In the Handbook of Design in Educational Technology, Routledge, Burston, J. (2013). Mobile-assisted language learning: A selected annotated bibliography of implementation studies 1994–2012. Language Learning & Technology, 17(3), 157–225. Cai, Miller, Guo, Glass (2014) Wait-Learning: Leveraging Conversational Dead Time for Second Language Education. Proceedings CHI 2014 Carrier, M (2014) Speech recognition in ELT: its impact on teachers and learners Chang, Y.-J., Li, L., Chou, S.-H., Liu, M.-C., & Ruan, S. (2013). Xpress: Crowdsourcing Native Speakers to Learn Colloquial Expressions in a Second Language Yung-Ju. In CHI ’13 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems on - CHI EA '13 (p. 2555). New York, New York, USA: ACM Press. doi:10.1145/2468356.2468829 Dearman, D., & Truong, K. (2012). Evaluating the implicit acquisition of second language vocabulary using a live wallpaper. In Proceedings of the 2012 ACM annual conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI ’12 (p. 1391). New York, New York, USA: ACM Press. doi:10.1145/2207676.2208598 Demmans Epp, C. (2013). Mobile Adaptive Communication Support for Vocabulary Acquisition. In H. C. Lane, K. Yacef, J. Mostow, & P. Pavlik (Eds.), Proceedings of Artificial Intelligence in Education (Lecture No., pp. 876–879). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-39112-5_135 Edge, D., Searle, E., Chiu, K., Zhao, J., & Landay, J. A. (2011). MicroMandarin. In Proceedings of the 2011 annual conference on Human factors in computing systems - CHI ’11 (p. 3169). New York, New York, USA: ACM Press. doi:10.1145/1978942.1979413 Han, C.-H., Yang, C.-L., & Wang, H.-C. (2014). Supporting second language reading with picture note-taking. In Proceedings of the extended abstracts of the 32nd annual ACM conference on Human factors in computing systems - CHI EA ’14 (pp. 2245–2250). New York, New York, USA: ACM Press. Hasegawa, K., Ishikawa, M., Shinagawa, N., Kaneko, K., & Mikakoda, H. (2008). Learning effects of self-made vocabulary learning materials. Proceedings of IADIS International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age 2008 (pp.153-158), Lisbon: IADIS. Hockly, N (2013) Designer Learning: The teacher as designer of mobile-based classroom learning experiences. Monterey, CA: TIRPF Retrieved from content/uploads/2013/11/TIRF_MALL_Papers_Hockly.pdf Kerawalla, O'Connor, Underwood, et al. (2007) Exploring the potential of the Homework system and tablet PCs to support continuity of numeracy practices between home and primary school. Educational Media International 01/2007; 44:289-303. DOI:10.1080/09523980701680904 .
  22. 22. REFERENCES Kukulska-Hulme, A. (1988). A computerized interactive vocabulary development system for advanced learners. System, 16(2), 163–170. doi: An individual ‘treasure trove’ enriched with his or her own unique observations and experiences. Kukulska-Hulme, A., & Bull, S. (2009). Theory-based Support for Mobile Language Learning: Noticing and Recording. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (iJIM), 3(2), 12–18. doi:10.3991/ijim.v3i2.740 Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes (2012). Language learning defined by time and place: A framework for next generation designs. In: Díaz-Vera, Javier E. ed. Left to My Own Devices: Learner Autonomy and Mobile Assisted Language Learning. Innovation and Leadership in English Language Teaching, 6. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited , pp. 1–13. Kukulska-Hulme, A., Gaved, M., Brasher, A., Jones, A., Scanlon, E., & Paletta, L. (2012). Designing for inclusion through incidental language learning. In ICT for Language Learning (5th Edition), 15-16 November 2012. Florence, Italy. Retrieved from Kunze, Kai, Hitoshi Kawaichi, Kazuyo Yoshimura, and Koichi Kise. 2013. “Towards inferring language expertise using eye tracking.” CHI ’13 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems on - CHI EA '13: 217. Luckin, R., du Boulay, B., Smith, H., Underwood, J., Fitzpatrick, G., Holmberg, J., Kerawalla, L., Tunley, H., Brewster, D. & Pearce, D. (2005) Using Mobile Technology to Create Flexible Learning Contexts. Journal of Interactive Media in Education 2005(22). [] Ma, Q. (2013). Computer Assisted Vocabulary Learning: Framework and Tracking Users’ data. CALICO Journal, 230–243. doi: Nakata, T. (2011). Computer-assisted second language vocabulary learning in a paired-associate paradigm: A critical investigation of flashcard software. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 24(1), 17–38. Retrieved from Nation, I. S. P. (2001). Learning vocabulary in another language. Cambridge, England: CUP Ogata, H., Li, M., Hou, B., & Uosaki, N. (2011). SCROLL: Supporting to share and reuse ubiquitous learning log in the context of language learning. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 6(2), 69 – 82. Retrieved from Palalas, A. (2012). Design Guidelines for a Mobile-Enabled Language Learning System Supporting the Development of ESP Listening Skills. Thesis Pemberton, L., & Winter, M. (2011). SIMOLA: Helping Language Learners Bridge the Gap. In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on ICT for Language-Learning. Florence, Italy. Retrieved from http://conference.pixel- Rogers, Y. (2011). Interaction design gone wild: striving for wild theory. Interactions, 785(4), 58. doi:10.1145/1978822.197883 .
  23. 23. REFERENCES Savva, M., Chang, A. X., Manning, C. D., & Hanrahan, P. (2014). TransPhoner. In Proceedings of the 32nd annual ACM conference on Human factors in computing systems - CHI ’14 (pp. 3725–3734). New York, New York, USA: ACM Press. doi:10.1145/2556288.2556985 Schmitt, N., & Schmitt, D. (1995). Vocabulary notebooks: Theoretical underpinnings and practical suggestions. ELT Journal, 49(2), 133–143. Retrieved from Seedhouse, P., Preston, A., Olivier, P., Jackson, D., Heslop, P., Plötz, T., … Ali, S. (2013). The French Digital Kitchen. International Journal of Computer-Assisted Language Learning and Teaching, 3(1), 50–72. doi:10.4018/ijcallt.2013010104 Sharples, M (2012) Context & Learning. CALRG 2012 Conference presentation Smith (2012). Eye tracking as a measure of noticing: A study of explicit recasts in SCMC. Language Learning & Technology, 16(3), 53–81. Retrieved from Stockwell, G., & Hubbard, P. (2013). Some Emerging Principles for Mobile-assisted Language Learning (pp. 1–14). The International Research Foundation. Retrieved from content/uploads/2013/10/TIRF_MLL_Papers_StockwellHubbard_Final.pdf Underwood, J., Smith, H., Luckin, R., & Fitzpatrick, G. (2008). E-Science in the classroom – Towards viability. Computers & Education, 50(2), 535–546. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2007.07.003 Underwood, Luckin & Winters (2011) Context, narrative & making connections: designing a mobile app for learning vocabulary. Context and Technology Enhanced Learning (ConTEL) Workshop ECTEL 2011 Underwood, J., Luckin, R. and Winters, N.(2011) "Retelling Stories: Setting Learner Narratives in Resource Ecologies” In Proceedings of CSCL 2011. Underwood, J., Luckin, R., Winters, N (2012) Managing resource ecologies for mobile, personal and collaborative self- directed language learning In Proceedings of EuroCALL 2010 Underwood, Luckin, Smith et al., (2009) Reflections on Participatory Science for TELSci2.0, Proceedings of Science 2.0 workshop, ECTEL2009. Underwood (2014) Using iPads to help young learners design their own MALL activities. Accepted for presentation at EUROCALL 2014 Underwood, Luckin, Winters (2014) MALL in the wild: Learners’ designs for scaffolding vocabulary learning trajectories. Accepted for presentation at EUROCALL 2014 Vygotsky, L (1986) Thought & Language. MIT, London. .