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Language learning materials development



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Language learning materials development

  1. 1. Nur Laely Basir
  2. 2.  The matters or substances from which something can be made  (s) Tools or apparatus for the performance of a given task  Having a logical connection with a subject matter or the consequential events or facts, or the knowledge of which would significantly affect a decision or course of action
  3. 3. AUTHENTIC MATERIALS  Any materials which is not designed for learning and teaching purposes  Magazines, newspaper, TV broadcasts, recorded real telephone conversation, and the like ARTIFICIAL/ARTIFACT MATERIALS  Any materials which are designed and intended for learning and teaching purposes  Textbooks, CDs for listening, and the like
  4. 4.  anything which is used by teachers or learners to facilitate the learning of a language  anything which is deliberately used to increase the learners’ knowledge and/or experience of the language
  5. 5.  anything which is done by writers, teachers or learners to provide sources of language input and to exploit those sources in ways which maximize the likelihood of intake  the supplying of information about and/or experience of the language in ways designed to promote language learning
  6. 6.  Any attempts to measure the value of materials  For materials to be valuable, the learning points should be potentially useful to the learners and that the learning procedures should maximize the likelihood of the learners actually learning what they want and need to learn  It is not necessarily enough that the learners enjoy and value the materials
  7. 7.  anything done by materials developers or teachers to facilitate the learning of the language (teaching)  a conscious process which consists of the committing to memory of information relevant to what is being learned (learning)
  8. 8. KINDS  Explicit Learning: learners are aware of when and what they are learning  Implicit Learning: learners are not aware of when and what they are learning CONTENT  Declarative knowledge: knowledge about the language system  Procedural knowledge: knowledge of how the language is used
  9. 9.  Materials should achieve impact  noticeable effect on learners: curiosity, interest and attention are attracted. Impact can be achieved through: novelty, variety, attractive presentation and appealing content.  Materials should help learners to feel at ease  Materials should help learners to develop confidence  What is being taught should be perceived by learners as relevant and useful
  10. 10.  Materials should require and facilitate learner self-investment  Learners must be ready to acquire the points being taught  Materials should expose the learners to language in authentic use  The learners’ attention should be drawn to linguistic features of the input
  11. 11.  Materials should provide the learners with opportunities to use the target language to achieve communicative purposes  Materials should take into account that the positive effects of instruction are usually delayed  Materials should take into account that learners differ in learning styles  Materials should take into account that learners differ in affective attitudes
  12. 12.  Materials should permit a silent period at the beginning of instruction  Materials should maximize learning potential by encouraging intellectual, aesthetic and emotional involvement which stimulates both right and left brain activities  Materials should not rely too much on controlled practice  Materials should provide opportunities for outcome feedback
  13. 13.  any systematic description of the techniques and exercises to be used in classroom teaching  the key in developing sound materials is to ensure that they are described and organized well enough so that teachers can use them with no confusion and with a minimum of preparation time
  14. 14. Adopting Adapting Developing
  15. 15. • It is necessary to decide what types of materials are desirable: books, CD etc • All available materials of these types should be located just in case they might prove useful: short list of candidates for materials that might be adopted – ask for a desk copy from publishers
  16. 16. • Some form of review/evaluation procedures must be set up to pare this list down to only those materials that should be seriously considered so that final choices can be made: material evaluation • Some strategy for the regular review of these adopted materials must be set up to make sure that they do not become irrele-vant to the needs of the students and the changing conditions in the program: ongoing evaluation
  17. 17.  Materials Background  Author’s credentials/records education and experience  Publisher’s reputation  quality
  18. 18.  Fit to Curriculum  Approach  assumptions and theories  Syllabus  KI/KD  Needs  General language needs  proficiency and students  Situational needs  availability and cultural appropriateness  Goals and objectives  Percentage of match  degree of appropriateness  Order  degree of order (appropriate order/organization)  Content  Consistent with techniques used in the program  degree of acceptance  Consistent with exercises used in the program  degree of acceptance
  19. 19.  Physical Characteristics  Layout  Space  white-spaces  Pictures and text  qualities and quantities  Highlighting  effectiveness  Organization  existence and quality  Table of contents  Index  Answer key  Glossary  Reference potential
  20. 20.  Physical Characteristics  Editorial qualities  accuracy, consistency, clarity and practicality  Content is accurate and edited in a manner consistent with your style  Directions are clear and easy to follow  Examples are clear  Material quality  Paper  Binding  Tear-out pages
  21. 21.  Logistical Characteristics  Price  Auxiliary parts  Audiovisual aids  Workbooks  Software  Unit tests  Availability
  22. 22.  Teachability  Teachers edition  Answer key  Annotations to help teachers explain, plan activities and the like  Reviews  Acceptability among teachers
  23. 23. • Developing materials can be done only if all efforts to adopt materials for purposes of teaching those objectives fail to uncover suitable materials. • We need to pay attention to needs assessment, goals and objectives, and tests which describe a program.
  24. 24. • Materials can be developed that will create the best possible match between materials and the curriculum in question. • Pay attention to Approach, Types of Syllabus, Techniques, and Tasks
  25. 25.  Structural (organized around grammatical structures)  Situational (organized around various settings in which the learners are likely to use the language, such as at the bank, at the supermarket, at a restaurant, and so forth)  Topical (organized around themes or topics, such as health, food, clothing, and so forth)  Functional (organized around communicative functions, such as identifying, reporting, correcting, describing, and so forth)
  26. 26.  Notional (organized around conceptual categories, such as duration, quantity, location, and so forth)  Skills (organized around skills, such as listening for gist, listening for specific information, listening for inferences, and so forth)  Task- or activity-based (organized around activities, such as drawing maps, following directions, following instructions, and so forth)
  27. 27.  The situations in which the foreign language will be used, including the topics that will be dealt with  The language activities in which the learner will engage  The language functions that the learner will fulfill  What the learner will be able to do with respect to each topic
  28. 28.  The general notions that the learner will be able to handle  The specific (topic-related) notions that the learner will be able to handle  The language forms that the learner will be able to use when the course is completed  The degree of skill with which the learner will be able to perform.
  29. 29. • Find and evaluate materials that might serve at least some of the students' needs and help to meet at least some of the course objectives • Fill in the gaps that have been identified
  30. 30.  Finding and Evaluating refer to the checklist in adopting materials
  31. 31.  Analyzing  Matches to current objectives  Mismatches to current objectives  Percent of objectives that need to be supplemented from outside these materials  Percent of existing matches that will require revision  Decide which set(s) of materials to adapt
  32. 32. Classifying  Use any logical classes of objectives to help you group them for analysis  List places in materials where each objectives is addressed  Leave blanks where supplemental materials are needed
  33. 33.  Filling-in the Gaps  From other materials  From created materials Teacher as resources Resource file
  34. 34. Reorganizing Complete the list Reorganize