Booting Android: bootloaders, fastboot and boot images

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Discover the internal workings of Android bootstrap. Find out how to reveal and modify a boot image.

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Booting Android: bootloaders, fastboot and boot images

  1. 1. Booting Android Bootloaders, fastboot and boot images Booting Android 1 Copyright © 2011-2016, 2net Ltd
  2. 2. License These slides are available under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 license. You can read the full text of the license here http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/legalcode You are free to • copy, distribute, display, and perform the work • make derivative works • make commercial use of the work Under the following conditions • Attribution: you must give the original author credit • Share Alike: if you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under a license identical to this one (i.e. include this page exactly as it is) • For any reuse or distribution, you must make clear to others the license terms of this work Booting Android 2 Copyright © 2011-2016, 2net Ltd
  3. 3. About Chris Simmonds • Consultant and trainer • Author of Mastering Embedded Linux Programming • Working with embedded Linux since 1999 • Android since 2009 • Speaker at many conferences and workshops "Looking after the Inner Penguin" blog at http://2net.co.uk/ https://uk.linkedin.com/in/chrisdsimmonds/ https://google.com/+chrissimmonds Booting Android 3 Copyright © 2011-2016, 2net Ltd
  4. 4. Overview • Android system images: boot, recovery, system, userdata and cache • Android "boot blobs" • Bootloaders for Android • Fastboot • Flash memory and flash filesystems Booting Android 4 Copyright © 2011-2016, 2net Ltd
  5. 5. Image files • A typical build for an Android device produces five image files in out/target/product/<product> Image Description boot.img Kernel + ramdisk used for normal boot recovery.img Kernel + ramdisk used to boot into recovery mode system.img File system image for /system userdata.img File system image for /data cache.img File system image for /cache Booting Android 5 Copyright © 2011-2016, 2net Ltd
  6. 6. Typical flash memory layout Bootloader Boot kernel + ramdisk Recovery kernel + ramdisk /system - read-only file system /data - read/write file system /cache - read/write file system misc (optional - used during OTA update) Booting Android 6 Copyright © 2011-2016, 2net Ltd
  7. 7. The bootloader • All systems need a bootloader • Responsible for: • Early hardware initialisation • Load and boot kernel and initial ram filesystem • System maintenance, including loading and flashing new kernel and system images • Example: U-Boot • Open source • Used in many dev boards (BeagleBone, Raspberry Pi) and in many shipping products • http://www.denx.de/wiki/U-Boot/WebHome Booting Android 7 Copyright © 2011-2016, 2net Ltd
  8. 8. Booting Android • It is possible to boot Android using a normal bootloader such as U-Boot • However, most devices include Android-specific features: • Support normal and recovery boot modes • Ability to load kernel + ramdisk blobs (boot.img and recovery.img) • The fastboot protocol • Example: LK (Little Kernel) • git://codeaurora.org/kernel/lk.git • Supports many Qualcomm-based devices as well as rudimentary support for BeagleBoard and PC-x86 Booting Android 8 Copyright © 2011-2016, 2net Ltd
  9. 9. The Android bootloader • Pre JB 4.2, AOSP had source for a simple bootloader in bootable/bootloader/legacy • Used in early handsets (Android Dev Phone, HTC Dream) • Not updated since the Eclair release • Some of this code may have found its way into proprietary bootloaders Booting Android 9 Copyright © 2011-2016, 2net Ltd
  10. 10. Android boot and recovery images • The files boot.img and recovery.img are created by the tool mkbootimg (the code is in system/core/mkbootimg) • They contain a compressed kernel, the kernel command line and, optionally, a ramdisk in the normal Linux compressed cpio format • Most Android bootloaders can read and load these images into memory • The format is defined in bootimg.h Booting Android 10 Copyright © 2011-2016, 2net Ltd
  11. 11. Boot and recovery image format Header Kernel image (zImage) ramdisk image (compressed cpio) struct boot_img_hdr { unsigned char magic[8]; // "ANDROID!" unsigned kernel_size; unsigned kernel_addr; unsigned ramdisk_size; unsigned ramdisk_addr; unsigned second_size; // 2nd image: not used unsigned second_addr; unsigned tags_addr; unsigned page_size; // typically 2048 unsigned unused[2]; unsigned char name[16]; // product name unsigned char cmdline[512]; // kernel cmdline unsigned id[8]; // timestamp/checksum/etc unsigned char extra_cmdline[1024]; }; From system/core/mkbootimg/bootimg.h Booting Android 11 Copyright © 2011-2016, 2net Ltd
  12. 12. Boot sequence Bootloader Boot recovery Boot normal Load recovery kernel and ramdisk Recovery mode Load normal kernel and ramdisk Run /init Read init*.rc Mount file systems Start services Normal mode Power on Booting Android 12 Copyright © 2011-2016, 2net Ltd
  13. 13. Reverse-engineering a boot image • Sometimes it is useful to extract the files from a boot or recovery image • There are numerous tools to do so, for example boot-extract https://github.com/csimmonds/boot-extract $ boot-extract recovery.img Boot header flash page size 2048 kernel size 0x432358 kernel load addr 0x10008000 ramdisk size 0x173740 ramdisk load addr 0x11000000 name cmdline zImage extracted ramdisk offset 4403200 (0x433000) ramdisk.cpio.gz extracted $ ls ramdisk.cpio.gz recovery.img zImage Booting Android 13 Copyright © 2011-2016, 2net Ltd
  14. 14. Extracting files from a ramdisk • The ramdisk is just a compressed cpio archive • Extract the files like so: $ zcat ramdisk.cpio.gz | cpio -i 5665 blocks $ ls charger fstab.manta property_contexts ... Booting Android 14 Copyright © 2011-2016, 2net Ltd
  15. 15. Creating a new ramdisk • Do the following $ cd some-directory $ find . | cpio -H newc --owner root:root -ov > ∼/ramdisk.cpio $ cd ∼ $ gzip ramdisk.cpio • The end result will be ramdisk.cpio.gz Booting Android 15 Copyright © 2011-2016, 2net Ltd
  16. 16. Creating a new boot image • You can create a boot or recovery image using the mkbootimg command • For example: $ mkbootimg --kernel zImage --ramdisk ramdisk.cpio.gz --base 0x10000000 --pagesize 2048 -o recovery-new.img • --base is used by mkbootimg to calculate the kernel and ramdisk load addresses as follows: • kernel_addr = base + 0x00008000 • ramdisk_addr = base + 0x01000000 Booting Android 16 Copyright © 2011-2016, 2net Ltd
  17. 17. Fastboot • Fastboot is a USB protocol and a command language for various maintenance and development tasks • Fastboot protocol v0.4 is defined in: • bootable/bootloader/legacy/fastboot_protocol.txt (up to JB 4.1) • system/core/fastboot/fastboot_protocol.txt (JB 4.3 and later) NOTE: fastboot is not about the speed of booting; it is about making the development process simpler (and faster) Booting Android 17 Copyright © 2011-2016, 2net Ltd
  18. 18. Booting into the bootloader • On a typical Android device you can boot into the bootloader by: • powering on while pressing various buttons (Google for details) • from a running device, typing: $ adb reboot-bootloader • Once the device has booted into the bootloader you can use the fastboot command on the development machine to communicate with it Booting Android 18 Copyright © 2011-2016, 2net Ltd
  19. 19. fastboot commands (1/3) Basic commands Command Description devices List devices attached that will accept fast- boot commands getvar Get a variable continue Continue boot process as normal reboot Reboot device reboot-bootloader Reboot back into bootloader Booting Android 19 Copyright © 2011-2016, 2net Ltd
  20. 20. fastboot commands (2/3) Flashing commands Command Description erase <partition> Erase <partition> flash <partition> Erase and program <partition> with <partition>.img of current product flash <partition> <filename> Erase and program <partition> with <filename> flashall Erase and program boot.img, recovery.img and system.img of current product and then reboot Where <partition> is one of boot, recovery, system, userdata, cache current product is $ANDROID_PRODUCT_OUT Note: the location and size of partitions is hard-coded in the bootloader Booting Android 20 Copyright © 2011-2016, 2net Ltd
  21. 21. fastboot commands (3/3) Special commands Command Description oem Device-specific operations boot <kernel> <ramdisk> Load and boot kernel and ramdisk Example: $ fastboot -c "kernel command line" boot zImage ramdisk.cpio.gz Booting Android 21 Copyright © 2011-2016, 2net Ltd
  22. 22. fastboot variables The getvar command should return values for at least these variables: Variable Meaning version Version of the protocol: 0.4 is the one doc- umented version-bootloader Version string of the Bootloader version-baseband Version string of the Baseband Software product Name of the product serialno Product serial number secure If "yes" the bootloader requires signed im- ages Booting Android 22 Copyright © 2011-2016, 2net Ltd
  23. 23. Unlocking the bootloader • Most devices ship with the bootloader locked • fastboot getvar secure returns true • Unlocking - where it is allowed - is device specific • For example, on recent Nexus devices you use a fastboot oem command $ fastboot oem unlock • Answer yes to the on-screen prompt • For security reasons, this wipes the data and cache partitions Booting Android 23 Copyright © 2011-2016, 2net Ltd
  24. 24. What goes where? ramdisk.img: read-only ramdisk /init /init.rc /system /data /cache system.img: read-only /app built-in Android apps /bin native binaries /framework Java components of framework /lib native libraries ... userdata.img: read-write /app user-installed Android apps /data persistent data /dalvik-cache optimised Dex files /system ... cache.img: read-write /backup place to backup up app data /recovery logs used in recovery mode Booting Android 24 Copyright © 2011-2016, 2net Ltd
  25. 25. Flash memory devices • In almost all cases data is stored in flash memory • There are two main types • Raw NAND flash, where the chips are accessed directly by Linux • Managed flash, which contain an on-chip controller • Managed flash is the most common • Examples: • MMC, SD and MicroSD cards: removeable storage • eMMC (embedded MMC): same electrical interface as MMC, but packaged as a chip • UFS (Universal Flash Storage): similar to eMMC, but faster and with a SCSI command set Booting Android 25 Copyright © 2011-2016, 2net Ltd
  26. 26. Raw NAND flash • NAND flash chips are accessed via the Linux MTD (Memory Technology Device) drivers • Partitions are named /dev/block/mtdblockN where N is the partition number • /proc/mtd lists the partitions and sizes # cat /proc/mtd dev: size erasesize name mtd0: 05660000 00020000 "system" mtd1: 04000000 00020000 "userdata" mtd2: 04000000 00020000 "cache" Booting Android 26 Copyright © 2011-2016, 2net Ltd
  27. 27. File systems for raw NAND flash • Flash translation layer implemented in the filesystem • NAND flash devices require special filesystem support, such as: • jffs2 (Journalling Flash File System 2) • Note: incompatible with the Android run-time (no writeable mmaped files)! • yaffs2 (Yet Another Flash File System 2) • ubifs (Unsorted Block Image File System) • Most Android devices with NAND flash use yaffs2 Booting Android 27 Copyright © 2011-2016, 2net Ltd
  28. 28. SD and eMMC • Flash translation layer implemented in the chip • The controller chip splits flash memory into 512-byte sectors just like hard drives • Accessed via the Linux mmcblock driver • Partition device nodes have names of the form mmcblk[chip number]p[partition number] • For example: /dev/block/mmcblk0p3 /system /dev/block/mmcblk0p8 /data /dev/block/mmcblk0p4 /cache Booting Android 28 Copyright © 2011-2016, 2net Ltd
  29. 29. File systems for eMMC • eMMC devices "look" like hard drives • Use the same filesystem types • The preferred type in most Android devices is ext4 • Alternative: F2FS (Flash Friendly File System) • Develpoed by Samsung, and deployed on some of their devices • Faster file writes than ext4 Booting Android 29 Copyright © 2011-2016, 2net Ltd
  30. 30. SD cards and other removable media • This includes MMC, SD, microSD and USB flash drives • For compatibility with other operating systems they come pre-formatted with FAT32 • Use the Linux vfat driver Booting Android 30 Copyright © 2011-2016, 2net Ltd
  31. 31. Delving deeper • This is an excerpt from my Android Porting class • If you would like to find out more secrets of Android, visit http://www.2net.co.uk/training.html and book a course Booting Android 31 Copyright © 2011-2016, 2net Ltd

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