Chapter 11 050213 124840


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Management and Leadership

Chapter 11

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Chapter 11 050213 124840

  1. 1. © Hoy, 2008 Chapter 11 Leadership in Schools •Leadership is often regarded as the single most important factor in the success or failure of schools (Bass 1990)
  2. 2. © Hoy, 2008 Leadership Defined • Bennis (1989) considered leadership is like beauty, it is hard to define, but we know when we see it. • Martin M. Chemers (1997) stated that leadership is a process of social influence in which one person is able to enlist the aid and support of others in accomplishment of common task. • Katz and Kahn (1978) identify three major components of leadership 1) an attribute of an office or position, 2) characteristic of a person, and 3) a category of actual behaviour.
  3. 3. •Rodney T. Ogawa and Steven T. Bossert (1995) stated that leadership is a quality of school organizations, which flows broadly through social networks and roles. •Mark A. Smylie and Ann W. Hart (1999) support for leadership as an organizational property of school. Leadership defined broadly: a social process in which a member or members of a group influence the interpretation of events, choice of goals/outcomes, organization of work activities, motivation, abilities, power relations, and shared orientations. • As a social influence process and a specialized role, leadership is comprised of both rational and emotional elements Continue…. © Hoy, 2008
  4. 4. Aristotle thought that individuals are born with characteristics that would make them leaders •Early Trait Research five general categories •Capacity - intelligence, alertness, verbal facility, originality, judgment. •Achievement- scholarship, knowledge, athletic accomplishments. •Responsibility – initiative, persistence, aggressiveness, self- confidence, desire to excel •Participation – activity, cooperation, adaptability, humor. •Status – socioeconomic position, popularity. Trait, Skills, and Leadership © Hoy, 2008
  5. 5. According to Yukl (2002), personality traits are relatively stable dispositions to behave in a particular way. Five particularly important; •Self-confident leaders are more likely to set high goals for themselves and their followers. •Stress-tolerant leaders are likely to make good decisions, to stay calm, and to provide decisive direction to subordinates in difficult situations. •Emotionally mature leaders tend to have an accurate awareness of their strengths and weaknesses and to be oriented toward self- improvement. •Integrity means that the behaviours of leaders are consistent with their stated values and that they are honest, ethical, responsible, and trustworthy. •Extroversion or being outgoing, sociable, and comfortable in groups. Personality Traits © Hoy, 2008
  6. 6. •Task and interpersonal needs are two underlying dispositions that motivate effective leaders. •Power needs refer to motives of individuals to seek positions of authority and to exercise influence over others. •Achievement orientation includes a need to achieve, desire to excel, drive to succeed, willingness to assume responsibility and a concern for task objectives. •High expectations for success of school administrators refer to their belief that they can do the job. •Self-efficacy, the belief in one’s ability to organize and carry out a course of action, is related to leader performance and transformational leadership (Bass and Riggio, 2006) Motivational Traits © Hoy, 2008
  7. 7. •Technical skills mean having specialized knowledge about and being adapt at a specific type of work, activity, and procedure. •Interpersonal skills encompass an understanding of feelings and attitudes of others and knowing how to work with people in individual and cooperative work relationships. •Conceptual or cognitive skills involve the abilities to form and work with concepts, to think logically, and to reason analytically. Meaning help leaders develop and use ideas to analyze, organize and solve complex problems. Skills © Hoy, 2008
  8. 8. •Laissez-faire Leadership absence of transactions with followers. These leaders avoid expressing views or taking action, avoid or delay decisions, ignore responsibility, provide little feedback. Most passive, least effective of three types. •Transactional Leadership motivate followers by exchanging rewards for services. Leaders identify what followers want and try to provide it as reward for effort. Respond to followers’ immediate self-interest. Exchanges are economic: pursued on basis of cost-benefit. • Contingent reward leadership: leader behaviors focus on role and task requirements, provide rewards contingent on performance • Active management-by-exception: leaders maintain high levels of vigilance to ensure standards are met, take corrective action quickly • Passive management-by-exception: leaders fail to intervene until problems are serious. Three Types of Leadership © Hoy, 2008
  9. 9. •Transformational Leadership  Idealized influence builds trust and respect in followers  Inspirational motivation changes the expectations of group members to believe that the organization’s problems can be solved (Atwater and Bass, 1994)  Intellectual stimulation addresses the problem of creativity (Atwater and Bass, 1994)  Individualized consideration means that transformational leaders pay particular attention to each individual’s needs for achievement and growth. Continue… © Hoy, 2008
  10. 10. © Hoy, 2008 Path-Goal Theory of Leadership • Defined and redefined by House (1971, 1973, 1996) and House and Mitchell (1974). • Core assumption: followers will be motivated if they feel capable of doing the work, they believe efforts will produce desired outcomes, and rewards will be worthwhile • Leaders complement task environments, subordinates’ abilities, and compensate for deficiencies Five basic leader behaviors related to situational factors • Path-goal clarifying behaviors: make subordinates’ needs and preferences contingent on effective performance. When task demands are satisfying but ambiguous, path-goal clarifying behaviors will motivate. • Achievement-oriented leader behavior: encourage excellent performance, set challenging goals, seek improvements, show confidence. Will be effective when subordinates have individual responsibility and control over work.
  11. 11. • Supportive leader behavior: show concern for welfare, create psychologically supportive environment, and consider subordinates’ needs and preferences. Will be most necessary when situation is dangerous, monotonous, stressful, frustrating. Will have limited effect when tasks are intrinsically satisfying or situation is not stressful. • Value-based leader behavior: appeal to followers’ values, enhance self-efficacy, and tie self-worth to contributing to leader’s mission. Define the vision for the group and support with symbolic behaviors. Will produce intergroup conflict when values in the leader’s vision conflict with dominant coalition or prevailing culture. • Shared leadership: share leader behaviors with members of the work group. Will enhance cohesiveness and performance when work is interdependent within the work unit. Continue…. © Hoy, 2008
  12. 12. © Hoy, 2008 Individualized consideration • Individualized consideration: leaders pay particular attention to each individual’s needs for growth and achievement • Leaders act as mentors—help followers and colleagues develop potential and take responsibility for own development • Create new learning opportunities in supportive climate • Recognize and accept individual differences in needs and values • Use two-way communication, and interact personally with others
  13. 13. © Hoy, 2008 Research findings • Research on transformational leadership clarifies these generalizations: • Idealized influence and inspirational leadership most satisfying and effective (Avolio, 1999; Bass, 1990) • Transformational leaders receive higher ratings, are perceived to lead more effective organizations, and have subordinates that exert greater effort than transactional leaders (Yukl, 1998; Bass, 1998) • Transformational leadership in schools directly influences teacher perceptions of student goal achievement, and student grades (Leithwood 1994) • Influences three psychological characteristics of staff: perception of school characteristics, commitment to change, and organizational learning • Depends upon attending to all four “I’s”, with individualized consideration as a base • Support for Leithwood’s claims from other studies: Silins (1992), Marks & Printy (2003)
  14. 14. © Hoy, 2008 Distributed leadership • Distributed leadership models challenge the assumption that one person has to be in charge to make change happen • Multiple sources across the organization provide leadership in numerous tasks, such as budgets, evaluations, emergency management, and change processes • Proponents say it’s necessary because school organizations are so complex and tasks so wide-ranging that no one person can manage all • Ogawa & Bossert (1995): leadership is an organizational quality—flows through the networks of roles, and varies over time and across schools • Spillane et al (2001, 2003): leadership defined around the technical core-- “the identification, acquisition, allocation, coordination, and use of social, material, cultural resources necessary to establish the conditions for…teaching and learning” • School reform initiatives focus on shared or distributed leadership, as in Accelerated Schools, America’s Choice, and Success for All, which have more leadership positions than comparison schools (Camburn, Rowan and Taylor, 2003)
  15. 15. Analyze of transformational leadership in your school organization. Think of a principal or other leader with whom you have worked. Describe the individual using the factors of transformational leadership and how followers reacted. Activity 1 © Hoy, 2008