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1
Leadership-Outlines
• What are status, power and authority?
• Types of power
• What is leadership?
• Significance of Lea...
2
Leadership-Introduction
• In order to understand leadership, a clear
understanding about status, power and authority and...
3
Leadership-Outlines
• Power the is the capacity to influence and determine the
behavior of others.
• There are five type...
4
Defining Leadership
• Leadership is the process influencing followers and
subordinates to achieve goals of the organizat...
5
Leadership-Significance
• Effective leadership gives direction to the efforts of all
workers in accomplishing the goals ...
Types of Leadership Style
• Autocratic:
• Leader makes decisions without reference to
anyone else
• High degree of depende...
Types of Leadership Style
• Democratic:
• Encourages decision making
from different perspectives – leadership may be
empha...
Types of Leadership Style
• Democratic:
• May help motivation and involvement
• Workers feel ownership of the firm and its...
Types of Leadership Style
• Laissez-Faire:
• ‘Let it be’ – the leadership responsibilities
are shared by all
• Can be very...
Types of Leadership Style
• Paternalistic:
• Leader acts as a ‘father figure’
• Paternalistic leader makes decision but ma...
11
Leadership-Approaches
• Great Man Theories/ Trait Approach (Leaders are born , not
made)
• Behavioral Approach-Leadersh...
12
Leadership-Approaches
• Skills - Clever (intelligent) - Conceptually skilled -
Creative - Diplomatic and tactful - Flue...
13
Leadership-Approaches
Behavioral Approach
• This approach is focused on the leadership roles and
relationships with the...
14
Leadership-Approaches
Behavioral Approach
• Consideration-behavior concerned with well-being
and esteem of followers an...
15
Leadership-Approaches
Behavioral Approach
• Initiating structure and consideration are two independent
dimensions that ...
16
Leadership-Approaches
Behavioral Approach (Managerial Grid)
• The Managerial Grid developed by Robert Blake and
Jane Mo...
The Blake Mount Grid
17
18
Leadership-Approaches
Behavioral Approach (Managerial Grid)
• (1,1) Impoverished Management-Effective
production is uno...
19
Leadership-Approaches
Behavioral Approach (Managerial Grid)
• (5,5)Middle of the Road-Push for production but do
not go...
20
Leadership-Approaches
Situational/Contingency Approach
• Whilst behavioral theories may help managers
develop particula...
21
Leadership-Contingency Theory
• Fiedler's contingency theory postulates that there is
no single best way for managers t...
22
Leadership-Contingency Theory
• Fiedler postulates that three important situational
dimensions are assumed to influence...
Findings from Fiedler
Model
E X H I B I T 11–2
E X H I B I T 11–2
24
Leadership-Contingency Theory
• Managers were rated as to whether they were
relationship oriented or task oriented.
• T...
25
Leadership-Contingency Theory
• These environmental variables are combined in a
weighted sum that is termed "favorable"...
Path-Goal Theory of
Leadership
• Path-Goal Theory Perspective
• Conditions of Leadership Motivation
• Leader Behaviors & Subordinate
Characteristics
• Ta...
Path-Goal Theory (House, 1971) Description
Path-goal theory centers on how leaders
motivate subordinates to accomplish
des...
Path-Goal Theory (House, 1971) Description
• Goal - To enhance employee performance and satisfaction by
focusing on employ...
Challenge to Leader
• Use a Leadership Style that best meets subordinates
motivational needs
• choose behaviors that compl...
Conditions of Leadership Motivation
• It increases the number and kinds of payoffs
subordinates receive from their work
• ...
Basic Idea
Path-Goal Theory
Major Components of Path-Goal Theory
Path-Goal Theory Suggests:
Each type of leader behavior has a
different kind of impa...
Leader Behaviors
Directive Leadership
• Leader who gives subordinates task instruction
including:
• What is expected of th...
Leader Behaviors
Supportive Leadership
• Refers to being friendly and approachable as a leader
and includes:
• Attending t...
Leader Behaviors
Participative Leadership
• Leader who invites subordinates to share in the
decision-making
• A participat...
Leader Behaviors
Achievement Oriented Leadership
• Leader who challenges subordinates to perform work at
the highest level...
Subordinate Characteristics
• Determine how a leader’s behavior will be interpreted
by subordinates in a given work contex...
Subordinate Characteristics
Strong need for affiliation
– Friendly and concerned leadership is a source
of satisfaction
–...
Subordinate Characteristics
Desire for Control
– Internal locus of control
 Leadership that allows subordinates to feel ...
Subordinate Characteristics
Perception of their own ability –
specific task
– As perception of ability and competence
goe...
Task Characteristics
ComponentsComponents
Task Characteristics:
– Design of subordinates’ task
– Organization’s formal au...
Task Characteristics
• Unclear and ambiguous - Leader needs to
provide structure
• Highly repetitive - Leader needs to pro...
Task Characteristics
ObstaclesObstaclesObstaclesObstacles
• Anything in the work setting that gets in the way of
subordina...
How Does the Path-Goal Theory
Approach Work?
• Focus of Path-Goal Theory
• Strengths
• Criticisms
• Application
How Does Path-Goal Theory Work?
• The leader’s job is to help subordinates reach their goals
by directing, guiding, and co...
Path-Goal Theory Approach
• Path-goal theory is a
complex but also
pragmatic approach
• Leaders should choose
a leadership...
Path-Goal Theory Matrix
Strengths
• Useful theoretical framework. Path-goal theory is
a useful theoretical framework for understanding
how various...
Criticisms
• Interpreting the meaning of the theory can be
confusing because it is so complex and
incorporates so many dif...
Application
• PGT offers valuable insights that can be
applied in ongoing settings to improve one’s
leadership.
• Informs ...
53
Improving Leadership
Selection and Placement-
• To match leader with job
• Job description/analysis to know the charact...
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Leadership

key concept of leadership, significance of leadership, different approaches of leadership,improving leadership

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Leadership

  1. 1. 1 Leadership-Outlines • What are status, power and authority? • Types of power • What is leadership? • Significance of Leadership • Leadership Styles • Leadership Approaches • Improving Leadership
  2. 2. 2 Leadership-Introduction • In order to understand leadership, a clear understanding about status, power and authority and their links with leadership is imperative. • Status is social rank or position in a group. The sources of status can be formal as well as informal. • Formal organizational sources-Occupation or Job (salary) • Personal Sources-Education, Age, Seniority, Race, Religion, Parentage, sex, competence, Associates/linkages • Status symbols-job titles, pay, clothing, size and location of desk or office, location of parking space, type of company car assigned, secretaries, privacy, furnishings, privileges, ceremonies of induction an possessions
  3. 3. 3 Leadership-Outlines • Power the is the capacity to influence and determine the behavior of others. • There are five types of power according to French and Raven: • Coercive power -capacity to punish • Reward power- capacity to provide reward • Legitimate power -person’s position in organizational hierarchy • Referent power -the personal characteristics of an individual that make other people want to associate with him/her • Expert power -The skill, expertise and knowledge an individual possesses • Authority is a right; the right to decide, to command or to perform. Authority is institutionalized or legitimate power and constitutes one of the major sources of power. There are three types of authority: Traditional, charismatic and legal-rational
  4. 4. 4 Defining Leadership • Leadership is the process influencing followers and subordinates to achieve goals of the organizations • According to Ralph Stogdill, leadership can be defined in terms of followers, task, the performance of the organization, accomplishment of organizational goals and so on. • Keith Davis defined leadership as the process of influencing followers in the accomplishment of the goal of the organization in a particular situation • Leadership can be expressed through a equation; • Leadership= f (lfs) where f=function, l=leader, f=followers and s= situation
  5. 5. 5 Leadership-Significance • Effective leadership gives direction to the efforts of all workers in accomplishing the goals of the organization. It is the human factor that binds a group together and motivates it toward goal achievement. • Leadership transforms potential into reality • Effective leadership in organization provides higher- quality and more efficient goods and services • It provides a sense of cohesiveness, personal development and higher level of satisfaction among the employees • It provides an overarching sense of direction and vision, an alignment with environment, a healthy mechanism for innovation and creativity and a resource for invigorating organizational culture
  6. 6. Types of Leadership Style • Autocratic: • Leader makes decisions without reference to anyone else • High degree of dependency on the leader • Can create de-motivation and alienation of staff • May be valuable in some types of business where decisions need to be made quickly and decisively
  7. 7. Types of Leadership Style • Democratic: • Encourages decision making from different perspectives – leadership may be emphasised throughout the organisation • Consultative: process of consultation before decisions are taken • Persuasive: Leader takes decision and seeks to persuade others that the decision is correct
  8. 8. Types of Leadership Style • Democratic: • May help motivation and involvement • Workers feel ownership of the firm and its ideas • Improves the sharing of ideas and experiences within the business • Can delay decision making
  9. 9. Types of Leadership Style • Laissez-Faire: • ‘Let it be’ – the leadership responsibilities are shared by all • Can be very useful in businesses where creative ideas are important • Can be highly motivational, as people have control over their working life • Can make coordination and decision making time-consuming and lacking in overall direction • Relies on good team work • Relies on good interpersonal relations
  10. 10. Types of Leadership Style • Paternalistic: • Leader acts as a ‘father figure’ • Paternalistic leader makes decision but may consult • Believes in the need to support staff
  11. 11. 11 Leadership-Approaches • Great Man Theories/ Trait Approach (Leaders are born , not made) • Behavioral Approach-Leadership traits can be taught • Situational Approach-Situation determines leadership effectiveness Great Man Theories • It assumes that great men rise to leadership positions because of their superior abilities attributes • Keith Davis identified four traits that are related to effective leadership. These are-intelligence, social maturity and breadth, inner motivation and achievement • Main leadership traits and skills identified by Stogdill(1974) are • Traits - Adaptable to situations - Alert to social environment - Ambitious and achievement-orientated - Assertive - Cooperative - Decisive - Dependable - Dominant (desire to influence others) - Energetic (high activity level) - Persistent - Self-confident - Tolerant of stress - Willing to assume
  12. 12. 12 Leadership-Approaches • Skills - Clever (intelligent) - Conceptually skilled - Creative - Diplomatic and tactful - Fluent in speaking - Knowledgeable about group task - Organized (administrative ability) - Persuasive - Socially skilled • This approach fell into disfavor because factors separate from the leader such as the situation or the subordinates were not take into consideration • It failed to find one single trait that identified a person as a leader regardless of the situation • Leadership turned from personality variables to looking at the specific behaviors that would differentiate effective from ineffective leaders
  13. 13. 13 Leadership-Approaches Behavioral Approach • This approach is focused on the leadership roles and relationships with the followers • It involves the behavioral pattern which is used by the leader to influence the followers to achieve the goals of the organization • Two influential studies- Ohio State Studies and Managerial Grid Studies • Ohio State Studies- A series of studies on leadership was conducted at Ohio State University to find out the most important behavior of leaders. To do this they developed a questionnaire called Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ). An analysis of thousands of identified two major factors in leader behavior
  14. 14. 14 Leadership-Approaches Behavioral Approach • Consideration-behavior concerned with well-being and esteem of followers and satisfying their needs. • It is an indicative of friendship, mutual trust and respect in the relationship between the leader and the followers. • Initiation of Structure -behaviors designed to assign tasks and roles to groups and to focus on performing the task. • Leaders try to establish well defined patterns of organization, channel of communication and methods of procedure.
  15. 15. 15 Leadership-Approaches Behavioral Approach • Initiating structure and consideration are two independent dimensions that give rise to four types of leadership behavior. They are 1. A leader who is high on structure and low on consideration is more interested in the task (planning, communication) of the organization. 2. A leader who is high on consideration and low on structure tends to encourage superior-subordinate cooperation. 3. A leader who is high on both structure and consideration is interested in both work and people. 4. A leader who is low on both structure and consideration is neither interested in work nor in the workers, he is a sleeping type leader. Unfortunately the way in which leaders behaved had little to do with how they performed
  16. 16. 16 Leadership-Approaches Behavioral Approach (Managerial Grid) • The Managerial Grid developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton focuses on task (production) and employee (people) orientations of managers, as well as combinations of concerns between the two extremes. • A grid with concern for production on the horizontal axis and concern for people on the vertical axis and plots five basic leadership styles. • The first number refers to a leader's production or task orientation; the second, to people or employee orientation. • They identified five types of basic leadership styles through the managerial grid
  17. 17. The Blake Mount Grid 17
  18. 18. 18 Leadership-Approaches Behavioral Approach (Managerial Grid) • (1,1) Impoverished Management-Effective production is unobtainable because people are lazy, apathetic and indifferent. Sound and mature relationships are difficult to achieve. Conflict is inevitable, leader relies on previous practices • (9,1)Task Management- management is task oriented, a leader’s responsibility is to plan, direct and control the work of those subordinate to him/her. • (1,9) Country Club Management-voluntary cooperation is needed to obtain high level of production (lack of conflict and good fellowship)
  19. 19. 19 Leadership-Approaches Behavioral Approach (Managerial Grid) • (5,5)Middle of the Road-Push for production but do not go all out. Give some but not all. Be fair and firm( mgt compromises, finds difficulty in innovation and change) • (9,9) Team Management-Production is from integration of task and human requirements. Tasks need to be carefully explained and decision agreed with the subordinates • Blake and Mouton propose that “Team Management” - a high concern for both employees and production - is the most effective type of leadership behavior. However, (9,1) is the most popular in organizations.
  20. 20. 20 Leadership-Approaches Situational/Contingency Approach • Whilst behavioral theories may help managers develop particular leadership behaviors they give little guidance as to what constitutes effective leadership in different situations. • Indeed, most researchers today conclude that no one leadership style is right for every manager under all circumstances. • Instead, contingency-situational theories were developed to indicate that the style to be used is contingent upon such factors as the situation, the people, the task, the organization, and other environmental variables. • The major theories contributing towards this school of thought are described below.
  21. 21. 21 Leadership-Contingency Theory • Fiedler's contingency theory postulates that there is no single best way for managers to lead. • Situations will create different leadership style requirements for a manager. The solution to a managerial situation is contingent on the factors that impinge on the situation. • For example, in a highly routine (mechanistic) environment where repetitive tasks are the norm, a relatively directive leadership style may result in the best performance, however, in a dynamic environment a more flexible, participative style may be required. • Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Questionnaire • An instrument that purports to measure whether a person is task- or relationship-oriented.
  22. 22. 22 Leadership-Contingency Theory • Fiedler postulates that three important situational dimensions are assumed to influence the leader’s effectiveness. They are: • Leader-member relations: the degree of confidence the subordinates have in the leader. It also includes the loyalty shown to the leader and the leader’s attractiveness. • Task structure: the degree to which the followers’ jobs are routine as contrasted with non-routine. • Position power: the power inherent in the leadership position. It includes the rewards and punishments typically associated with the position, the leader’s formal authority (based on ranking in the managerial hierarchy), and the support that the leader receives from supervisors and the overall organization.
  23. 23. Findings from Fiedler Model E X H I B I T 11–2 E X H I B I T 11–2
  24. 24. 24 Leadership-Contingency Theory • Managers were rated as to whether they were relationship oriented or task oriented. • Task oriented managers tend to do better in situations that have good leader-member relationships, structured tasks, and either weak or strong position power. They do well when the task is unstructured but position power is strong. Also, they did well at the other end of the spectrum when the leader member relations were moderate to poor and the task was unstructured. • Relationship oriented managers do better in all other situations. Thus, a given situation might call for a manager with a different style or a manager who could take on a different style for a different situation.
  25. 25. 25 Leadership-Contingency Theory • These environmental variables are combined in a weighted sum that is termed "favorable" at one end and "unfavorable" at the other. Task oriented style is preferable at the clearly defined extremes of "favourable" and "unfavorable" environments, but relationship orientation excels in the middle ground. Managers could attempt to reshape the environment variables to match their style. • Another aspect of the contingency model theory is that the leader-member relations, task structure, and position power dictate a leader's situational control. In a favorable relationship the manager has a high task structure and is able to reward and or punish employees without any problems. In an unfavorable relationship the task is usually unstructured and the leader possesses limited authority. The spelling out in detail (favorable) of what is required of subordinates affects task structure.
  26. 26. Path-Goal Theory of Leadership
  27. 27. • Path-Goal Theory Perspective • Conditions of Leadership Motivation • Leader Behaviors & Subordinate Characteristics • Task Characteristics • How Does the PGT Approach Work? Overview
  28. 28. Path-Goal Theory (House, 1971) Description Path-goal theory centers on how leaders motivate subordinates to accomplish designated goals Emphasizes the relationship between the leaders style the characteristics of the subordinates the work setting DefinitionDefinition
  29. 29. Path-Goal Theory (House, 1971) Description • Goal - To enhance employee performance and satisfaction by focusing on employee motivation • Motivational Principles (based on Expectancy Theory) - Subordinates will be motivated if they believe: • they are capable of performing their work • that their efforts will result in a certain outcome • that the payoffs for doing their work are worthwhile PerspectivePerspective
  30. 30. Challenge to Leader • Use a Leadership Style that best meets subordinates motivational needs • choose behaviors that complement or supplement what is missing in the work setting • enhance goal attainment by providing information or rewards • provide subordinates with the elements they need to reach their goals
  31. 31. Conditions of Leadership Motivation • It increases the number and kinds of payoffs subordinates receive from their work • Makes the path to the goal clear and easy to travel through with coaching and direction • Removes obstacles and roadblocks to attaining the goal • Makes the work itself more personally satisfying Leadership generates motivation when:
  32. 32. Basic Idea
  33. 33. Path-Goal Theory
  34. 34. Major Components of Path-Goal Theory Path-Goal Theory Suggests: Each type of leader behavior has a different kind of impact on subordinates motivation Whether or not a particular leader behavior is motivating is contingent on – subordinate characteristics – task characteristics
  35. 35. Leader Behaviors Directive Leadership • Leader who gives subordinates task instruction including: • What is expected of them • How task is to be done • Timeline for task completion • Leader - • sets clear standards of performance • makes rules & regulations clear to subordinates
  36. 36. Leader Behaviors Supportive Leadership • Refers to being friendly and approachable as a leader and includes: • Attending to well-being & human needs of subordinates’ • Using supportive behavior to make work environment pleasant • Treating subordinates as equals & give them respect for their status
  37. 37. Leader Behaviors Participative Leadership • Leader who invites subordinates to share in the decision-making • A participative leader: • Consults with subordinates • Seeks their ideas & opinions • Integrates their input into group/organizational decisions
  38. 38. Leader Behaviors Achievement Oriented Leadership • Leader who challenges subordinates to perform work at the highest level possible • An achievement oriented leader: • Establishes a high standard of excellence for subordinates • Seeks continuous improvement • Demonstrates a high degree of confidence in subordinates’ ability to establish & achieve challenging goals
  39. 39. Subordinate Characteristics • Determine how a leader’s behavior will be interpreted by subordinates in a given work context • Researchers focus on subordinates’ • Need for affiliation • Preferences for structure (less uncertainty) • Desires for control (Locus of Control) • Self-perceived level of task ability
  40. 40. Subordinate Characteristics Strong need for affiliation – Friendly and concerned leadership is a source of satisfaction – Supportive Leadership Preference for Structure – Dogmatic & authoritarian  Leadership provides psychological structure, task clarity & greater sense of certainty in work setting – Directive Leadership
  41. 41. Subordinate Characteristics Desire for Control – Internal locus of control  Leadership that allows subordinates to feel in charge of their work & makes them an integral part of the decision-making process  Participative Leadership – External locus of control  Leadership that parallels subordinates feelings that outside forces control their circumstances  Directive Leadership
  42. 42. Subordinate Characteristics Perception of their own ability – specific task – As perception of ability and competence goes up need for highly directive leadership goes down. – Directive leadership may become redundant – possibly excessively controlling
  43. 43. Task Characteristics ComponentsComponents Task Characteristics: – Design of subordinates’ task – Organization’s formal authority system – Primary work group of subordinates
  44. 44. Task Characteristics • Unclear and ambiguous - Leader needs to provide structure • Highly repetitive - Leader needs to provide support to maintain subordinate motivation • Weak formal authority - If formal authority system is weak, the leader needs to assist subordinates by making rules and work requirements clear • Nonsupportive/weak group norms - Leader needs to help build cohesiveness and role responsibility Task Situations Requiring Leader InvolvementTask Situations Requiring Leader Involvement
  45. 45. Task Characteristics ObstaclesObstaclesObstaclesObstacles • Anything in the work setting that gets in the way of subordinates • They create excessive uncertainties, frustrations, or threats for subordinates • Leaders responsibility is to help subordinates by – • Removing the obstacles • Helping subordinates around them • Assisting with obstacles will increase • Subordinates’ expectations to complete the task • Their sense of job satisfaction
  46. 46. How Does the Path-Goal Theory Approach Work? • Focus of Path-Goal Theory • Strengths • Criticisms • Application
  47. 47. How Does Path-Goal Theory Work? • The leader’s job is to help subordinates reach their goals by directing, guiding, and coaching them along the way • Leaders must evaluate task and subordinate characteristics and adapt leadership style to these • The theory suggests which style is most appropriate for specific characteristics
  48. 48. Path-Goal Theory Approach • Path-goal theory is a complex but also pragmatic approach • Leaders should choose a leadership style that best fits the needs of subordinates and their work • Path-goal theory provides a set of assumptions about how different leadership styles will interact with subordinate characteristics and the work situation to affect employee motivation FocusFocusFocusFocus Overall ScopeOverall ScopeOverall ScopeOverall Scope
  49. 49. Path-Goal Theory Matrix
  50. 50. Strengths • Useful theoretical framework. Path-goal theory is a useful theoretical framework for understanding how various leadership behaviors affect the satisfaction of subordinates and their work performance. • Integrates motivation. Path-goal theory attempts to integrate the motivation principles of expectancy theory into a theory of leadership. • Practical model. Path-goal theory provides a practical model that underscores and highlights the important ways leaders help subordinates.
  51. 51. Criticisms • Interpreting the meaning of the theory can be confusing because it is so complex and incorporates so many different aspects of leadership; consequently, it is difficult to implement. • Empirical research studies have demonstrated only partial support for path-goal theory. • It fails to adequately explain the relationship between leadership behavior and worker motivation. • The path-goal theory approach treats leadership as a one-way event in which the leader affects the subordinate.
  52. 52. Application • PGT offers valuable insights that can be applied in ongoing settings to improve one’s leadership. • Informs leaders about when to be directive, supportive, participative, or achievement oriented • The principles of PGT can be employed by leaders at all organizational levels and for all types of tasks
  53. 53. 53 Improving Leadership Selection and Placement- • To match leader with job • Job description/analysis to know the characteristics of the leader • Personality traits, Skills, knowledge and behavior (cv. Interviews and assessment center-role playing, work samples) Situational Engineering- one alternative to matching leaders and positions is changing the situation to make it more favorable for the leader. The only program for doing so is Leader Match. • It is difficult to change leadership style over night • It is easier to diagnose situations in which leaders are likely to perform best and to modify situations so they match the leader’s style (by applying LPC-Least preferred coworker) Leadership Training -change the leader to fit the requirement of the position to train the leader (innovative techniques-case analysis, role modeling, simulations, higher education, courses) and so on

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