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Leadership and strategic management


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Leadership and strategic management

  2. 2. PRESENTATION OUTLINE 1. Introduction to leadership 2. Leadership communication 3. Leadership strategies 4. School leadership in the context of societal and organizational culture 5. Strategic management 6. Vision and strategic planning
  3. 3. 1.0 Introduction to Leadership 1.1 Definition of leadership There are many diverse definitions of leadership: • a process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task (Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia). • Its organizing a group of people to achieve a common goal. • the process of influencing the behavior of other people toward group goals in a way that fully respects their freedom( Roman Catholic Diocese of Rochester ).
  4. 4. Definition cont’d • the art of motivating a group of people to act towards achieving a common goal( Guide). • a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent(Kenneth Boulding in The Image: Knowledge in Life and Society ). • common ideas that characterize leadership definitions include exerting influence, motivating and inspiring, helping others realize their potential, leading by example, selflessness and making a difference.
  5. 5. 1.2 Factors of Leadership • There are four major factors in leadership (U.S. Army, 1983):
  6. 6. i. Leader • A leader must have an honest understanding of who s/he is, what s/he knows, and what s/he can do. • it is the followers, not the leader or someone else who determines if the leader is successful. • To be successful a leader has to convince his/her followers, not him/herself or his/her superiors, that s/he isworthy of being followed.
  7. 7. ii. Followers • Different people require different styles of leadership. • A leader must know his/her people. • The fundamental starting point is having a good understanding of human nature, such as needs, emotions, and motivation. iii. Communication • A leader leads through two-way communication much of which is nonverbal.
  8. 8. • What and how a leader communicates either builds or harms the relationship between him/her and his/her employees. iv. Situation • All situations are different. What one does in one situation will not always work in another. • one must use his/her judgment to decide the best course of action and the leadership style needed for each situation.
  9. 9. 1.3 Leadership Styles • No matter what their traits or skills, leaders carry out their roles in a wide variety of styles: Common leadership styles:( Muray, A.; Lewin, K.; Benincasa, R.) i. Autocratic(Authoritarian). The manager makes all the decisions and dominates team members. This approach generally results in passive resistance from team members and requires continual pressure and direction from the leader in order to get things done.
  10. 10. Leadership styles cont’d • Generally, this approach is not a good way to get the best performance from a team. • However, this style may be appropriate when urgent action is necessary or when subordinates actually prefer this style. ii. Participative(Democratic). The manager involves the subordinates in decision making by consulting team members (while still maintaining control), which encourages employee ownership for the decisions.
  11. 11. • A good participative leader encourages participation and delegates wisely, but bears the crucial responsibility of leadership. • The leader values group discussions and input from team members. • The participative leader motivates team members by empowering them to direct themselves. • The limitation of this style is that a participative leader may be seen as unsure, and team members may feel that everything is a matter for group discussion and decision.
  12. 12. iii. Laissez-faire(Delegative).(also called free-rein). • Hands-off approach in which the leader encourages team members to function independently and work out their problems by themselves, although he or she is available for advice and assistance. • The leader usually has little control over team members, leaving them to sort out their roles and tackle their work assignments without personally participating in these processes. • Laissez-faire is usually only appropriate when the team is highly motivated and skilled.
  13. 13. iv. Visionary. This style is most appropriate when an organization needs a new direction. Its goal is to move people towards a new set of shared dreams. • Visionary leaders articulate where a group is going, but not how it will get there – setting people free to innovate, experiment and take calculated risks. v. Coaching. This one-on-one style focuses on developing individuals, showing them how to improve their performance, and helping to connect their goals to the goals of the organization.
  14. 14. • Coaching works best with employees who show initiative and want more professional development. • But it can backfire if it’s perceived as “micromanaging” an employee, and undermines his or her self-confidence. vi. Affiliative. This style emphasizes the importance of team work, and creates harmony in a group by connecting people to each other. • this approach is particularly valuable “when trying to heighten team harmony, increase morale, improve communication or repair broken trust in an organization. • its emphasis on group praise can allow poor performance to go uncorrected.
  15. 15. vii. Pacesetting. In this style, the leader sets high standards for performance. • He or she is obsessive about doing things better and faster, and asks the same of everyone. • The style should be used sparingly, because it can undercut morale and make people feel as if they are failing. viii.Commanding. This is classic model of military style leadership – probably the most often used, but the least often effective.
  16. 16. • Because it rarely involves praise and frequently employs criticism, it undercuts morale and job satisfaction. • it is only effective in a crisis, when an urgent turnaround is needed.
  17. 17. 1.4 Leadership Theories • Students of leadership have produced theories involving traits,situational interaction, function, behavior, power, vision and values, charisma and intelligence, among others( Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia): 1) Trait theory of leadership • Based on the assumption that leadership is rooted in the characteristics that certain individuals possess. 2) Behavioral and style theories • Leadership is seen as a set of behaviors. E.g. to lead, self-confidence and high self-esteem are useful.
  18. 18. 3) Situational theory • This theory assumes that different situations call for different characteristics. • According to the theory, what an individual actually does when acting as a leader is in large part dependent upon characteristics of the situation in which he functions. • according to this group of theory, no single optimal psychographic profile of a leader exists.
  19. 19. 4) contingency theory • A synthesis of the trait and situational approaches i.e defining leadership styles and identifying which situations each style works better in. • defines the style of leadership as contingent to the situation. 5) Functional leadership theory • This theory argues that the leader's main job is to see that whatever is necessary to group needs is taken care of; thus, a leader can be said to have done their job well when they have contributed to group effectiveness and cohesion.
  20. 20. 6) Integrated psychological theory • The Integrated Psychological theory of leadership is an attempt to integrate the strengths of the older theories (i.e. traits, behavioral/styles, situational and functional) while addressing their limitations, largely by introducing a new element – the need for leaders to develop their leadership presence, attitude toward others and behavioral flexibility by practicing psychological mastery. • It also offers a foundation for leaders wanting to apply the philosophies of servant leadership.
  21. 21. 7) Transactional and transformational theories • The transactional leader (Burns, 1978) is given power to perform certain tasks and reward or punish for the team's performance. • It gives the opportunity to the manager to lead the group and the group agrees to follow his lead to accomplish a predetermined goal in exchange for something else. • Power is given to the leader to evaluate, correct, and train subordinates when productivity is not up to the desired level, and reward effectiveness when expected outcome is reached.
  22. 22. 8) Neo-emergent theory • The neo-emergent leadership theory (from the Oxford school of leadership) espouses that leadership is created through the emergence of information by the leader or other stakeholders, not through the true actions of the leader himself. • The reproduction of information or stories form the basis of the perception of leadership by the majority.
  23. 23. 2.0 Leadership communication • A leader must be able to communicate effectively/must have good communicate skills (Barrett, 2006). • Communication occupies 70 to 90 percent of leaders’ time every day( Mintzberg, 1973; Eccles & Nohria, 1991). • Good communication skills enable, foster, and create the understanding and trust necessary to encourage others to follow a leader.
  24. 24. 2.0 Definition of leadership communication • The controlled, purposeful transfer of meaning by which leaders influence a single person, a group, an organization or a community(Barrett, D.J.). • Leadership communication uses the full range of communication skills and resources to overcome interferences and to create and deliver messages that guide, direct, motivate or inspire others to action. • Consists of three primary rings: Core, managerial and corporate
  25. 25. • The higher up in an organization a leader moves, the more complex his or her communication demands become. i. Core communication • Strategy is the foundation on which any effective communication depends. • Leaders need to be able to analyze an audience in every situation and develop a communication strategy that facilitates accomplishing their communication objectives.
  26. 26. • They need to be able to write and to speak in the language expected of business leaders (clear, correct and concise). • They also need to be able to create and deliver oral presentations confidently and persuasively. • These are the capabilities at the core of all business communication upon which success in managerial and corporate communication depends.
  27. 27. ii. Managerial communication • Managerial communication capabilities build on the core abilities. • Capabilities that more directly involve managing others, from one-on-one contact to interacting with groups and the broader organization. • The skills needed to interact with individuals and to manage groups. • They include emotional intelligence, interpersonal skills and understanding of cross-cultural differences, listening, leading meetings and managing teams.
  28. 28. iii. Corporate communication • Involves expansion from the managerial skills to those abilities needed to lead an organization and address a broader community. 3.0 Leadership strategies • (Nelson, 2005;McSweeney,2009) provide 12 strategies for leadership success: 1. Creed. • A leader needs to create a mission statement for his/her life and job. • Each professional and personal project one undertakes should fall under the tenets of his/her creed and belief system.
  29. 29. 2. Heed • A leader ought to surround him/herself with people that can provide insight and wisdom, even if they disagree with them. • One should always understand all sides of an issue before making key decisions. • Need to connect with others and network. 3. Read • Leaders need to empower themselves with knowledge/be readers of all types of books.
  30. 30. 4. Knead • Leaders need to work hard at what they do. • Success doesn’t just happen. • An important part of working is asking. Kneading takes commitment and perseverance. • Never give up! 5. Feed • A leader should have the heart of a servant. • Feed well and feed others as well. • Many problems can be resolved and goals discussed over a full stomach.
  31. 31. 6. Seed • One needs to take time to invest in other people’s lives either intellectually or financially. • One ought to grow his/her business or ministry by planting seeds of wisdom, hope and experience within others. • The seed fund quietly help families that need a little extra financial sustenance and students that need scholarships.
  32. 32. 7. Weed • Leaders must yank negativity by the roots and banish it from their organizations and homes. • Be positive and stay positive even when challenges arise. 8. Speed • Be quick with compliments and always respond in a timely manner to phone calls and correspondence. Don’t be in a rush to make things happen.
  33. 33. 9. Greed • Avoid it. • Make each challenging situation a win/win for everyone. • Share your success with others. • Success comes from teamwork. 10. Deed • Treat others the way you want to be treated. • Each person needs to feel validated in life no matter who they are or what they do.
  34. 34. 11. Exceed • Go beyond expectations. Deliver quality and quantity and always be consistent with delivering your top performance. 12. Need • Go beyond the here and now of your life. • Identify a real need in your community or in the world and do something about it. • You will inspire your employees, friends and family with your actions to effect change.
  35. 35. 4.0 School leadership in the context of societal and organizational culture