Table of Contents Conditional + Irregulars Present Perfect Past Perfect Present Perfect Irregulars Subjunctive Perfect Tanto y Tan Impersonal “Se” Saber vs. Conocer Los Mandatos Formal/Informal Affirmative Commands Negative Commands 15. Irregular Commands 16. DOP and IOP 17. Nosotros Commands 18. Mono Verbs 19. Subjunctive 20. Irregulars 21. Trigger Phrases 22. Impersonal Expressions 23. Expressions of Emotion 24. Conjunctions of Time 25. Demonstrative Adjectives 26. Demonstrative Pronouns
Conditional + Irregulars Words like would, could, and should. Gustar type words are often used with it. Endings íaíasíaíamosíaisían
Present Perfect Formed by combining “has” or “have” with the past participle. Two verbs are required (Main and Auxiliary verb).
Past Perfect Combines the use of the auxiliary verb (had) with the past participle. Also requires two verbs (Main and Auxiliary verb). Use the imperfect tense with the past participle.
Present Perfect Irregulars
Subjunctive Perfect Formed by using present subjunctive of helping verb with the past participle. Example: I (have)….
Tanto y Tan Used to form comparisons of things with equal qualities using nouns. tanto(-a,-os,-as) + noun + como Used to form comparisons of things with equal qualities using adj. or adv. tan + adjective (adverb) + como
Impersonal “Se” Put verbs in the 3rd person and have it follow “se”. Se + 3rd person verb
Saber vsConocer Saber is used when you know a fact, to know something thoroughly, or to know how to do something. Conocer is used when something learning a person, place, or thing.
Los Mandatos Used to directly give someone an order. Can be formal, informal, nosotros, affirmative or negative.
Negative Commands Formed the same as the Affirmative commands except you just put a “no” in the front.
DOP and IOP Placed before verb to answer who and what. Placed before the verb to answer whom and for whom.
Nosotros Commands Command used when the speaker is involved. Just add “no” before the verb. (no) Lets + (verb)
Mono Verbs Affirmative nosotros commands>> drop the finial “s” before adding pronouns. To make it negative just add a “no” before. (no)(verb)mos + nos = (verb)monos
Subjunctive The subjunctive is used to express everything except certainty and objectivity: Things like doubt, uncertainty, subjectivity. Yo form of present indicative>>drop “o”>>add appropriate ending.
Irregulars TVDISHES -car, -gar, -zar verbs
Trigger Phrases Esperarque… Insistiren que… Mandarque… Preferirque… Prohibirque… Quererque… Es aconsejableque… Es necesarioque… Pedirque… Recomendarque… Rogarque… Sugerirque…
Impersonal Expressions Expressions that introduce an aspect of uncertainty.
Expressions of Emotion Es maloque …it's ( too) bad that Es mejorque … it's better that Es peorque … it's worse that Es preferibleque … it's preferable that Es raroque … it's strange that Es tristeque … it's sad that Es útilque … it's useful that Estarcontentoque … to be happy that Estartristeque … to be sad that Extrañarseque … to be amazed that Gustarseque … to like Másvale que … it's better that Sentirque … to regret, be sorry that Sorprenderseque … to be surprised that Temerque … to fear that Tenermiedoque … to be afraid that
Conjunctions of Time Así que… as soonas Cuando… when Despuesde que… after En cuanto… as soonas Hasta que… until Luego que… as soonas Tan pronto como… as soon as
Demonstrative Adjectives An adjective that points out something.
Demonstrative Pronouns Used to stand for nouns instead of modify them.