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  1. 1. Grammar book II<br />Dylan Morgan<br />
  2. 2. <ul><li>Infinitive + ending
  3. 3. Used for what might happen, what could happen
  4. 4. Can also express past tense and future tense of what could have happened or what should happen.</li></li></ul><li>Conditional irregulars<br />
  5. 5. Perfect tenses<br />Conjugating Haber before a participle.<br />Used to express has or have.<br />
  6. 6. Perfect participles irregulars<br />abrir (to open) - abierto (open)<br />cubrir (to cover) - cubierto (covered)<br />decir (to say) - dicho (said)<br />escribir (to write) - escrito (written)<br />freír (to fry) - frito (fried)<br />hacer (to do) - hecho (done)<br />morir (to die) - muerto (dead)<br />poner (to put) - puesto (put)<br />resolver (to resolve) - resuelto (resolved)<br />romper (to break) - roto (broken)<br />ver (to see) - visto (seen)<br />volver (to return) - vuelto (returned)<br />
  7. 7. Subjunctive perfect<br />Haber + past participle<br />Expresses opinion, like normal subjunctive tense.<br />Applies to present, present perfect, or future tenses.<br />
  8. 8. Tan vs. Tanto<br />English meaning: as…as.<br />Tan is used when you are comparing adjectives, as in as tall as.<br />Tanto is used when your comparison involves a noun, ie as many dollars as.<br />The only exception is, “as much as,” which can be stated as tantocomo.<br />
  9. 9. Impersonal se<br />Se is used when you’re not referring to a specific subject.<br />Takes the form of almost any tense, save yo and ustedes tenses.<br />Se goes before the verb who has the impersonal subject.<br />Verb with impersonal se will always be in Usted tense.<br />
  10. 10. Saber vs. Conocer<br />Both are the spanish verbs, “to know.”<br />Facts are always stated in saber, but not opinions due to the subjunctive tense.<br />Conocer involves talking about a person, place, or thing that you are familiar with and know something about.<br />
  11. 11. Los Mandatos<br />Commands in Spanish used for other peoples or objects being told to do something.<br />Can be informal or formal, depending on the setting and the object.<br />Only available in the usted/usedes and tu tenses<br />
  12. 12. Informal commands vs. Formal<br />Two types of mandatos: formal and informal.<br />Formal is when you want to show respect to somebody or something, and is used more commonly than informal and represented by the usted/ustedescomands<br />Informal is when you know someone or something personally, and is a more friendly term towards them.<br />
  13. 13. Affirmitivemandatos<br />Used for commanding someone to do something.<br />If the command is informal, you go to the usted form and then take the opposite ending.<br />If the command is formal, you go to the yo form and then use the usted form instead of the o, keeping any irregularities.<br />If it was normally in the ustedes tense, you do the same for formal except using the opposite ustedes tense.<br />
  14. 14. Negative mandatos<br />When you want to command someone NOT to do something.<br />For formal commands you proceed as before, but simply add a no in front of the command, not attached to the command in any way<br />The informal commands you do the same as before except you take the opposite ending of the usted tense, (iear become ir and er/ir become ar), and you add an s to the end, along with adding a no.<br />
  15. 15. Irregular commands<br />Formal commands:<br />dardéUd.den Uds.<br />estarestéUd.esténUds.<br />irvayaUd.vayanUds.<br />sersea Ud.seanUds.<br />sabersepaUd.sepanUds.<br />
  16. 16. Irregular informal commands<br />Informal commands: the affirmitive has the following:<br /><br />Negative uses TV DISHES for irregulars.<br />
  17. 17. Pronouns and commands <br />Affirmitive pronouns attach to the end of commands, usually possibly with accents in their proper places.<br />Negative commands have an unattached no before the verb itself.<br />
  18. 18. Nosotros commands<br />Used to express commands for yourself or a group of people including yourself, ie let’s.<br />Affirmitive commands just have the yo form of the verb with the opposite verb ending in the nosotros tense.<br />Negative commands do the same as affirmitive except with the addition of a no in front of the verb.<br />Only exception in Ir: Vamos in affirmitive, no vayamos in negative<br />
  19. 19. Mono verbs<br />Reflexive verbs add their pronoun to the ending, but with the dropping of the s to become “_monos”.<br />Ir also behaves this way; there are no irregulars.<br />
  20. 20. Subjunctive tense<br />Represents moody, subjective things.<br />Has a special tense in the present tense.<br />Yo form of the verbwith irregular endings listed below: –ar verbs are on the left, all others on the right.<br />
  21. 21. Subjunctive trigger words: <br />dudarque --  to doubt thatesdudosoque --  it is doubtful that es improbable que -- it's unlikely that esinciertoque -- it's uncertain that esposibleque -- it's possible that no creerque-- not to believe that esincreíbleque --  it's incredible thatno esciertoque -- it's not certain thatno esverdadque --  it's not true thatesinciertoque --  it's untrue thatesmentiraque --  it's a lie thatno estarconvencido de que -- to not be convinced that no estarseguro de que -- to not be sure that no parecerque -- to not seem thatno pensarque -- to not think that no suponerque -- to not suppose that puede ser que -- it may be thatnegarque -- to deny that no imaginarseque -- to not imagine thattemerque -- to suspect that <br />
  22. 22. Impersonal expressions. <br />convieneque .<br />it is advisable that . <br />esaconsejableque .<br />it is advisable that . <br />esbuenoque .<br />it's good that . <br />esdifícilque .<br />it's unlikely that . <br />esdudosoque .<br />it's doubtful that . <br />esfácilque .<br />it's likely that . <br />esfantásticoque .<br />it's fantastic that . <br />esimportanteque .<br />it's important that . <br />esimposibleque .<br />it's impossible that . <br />es improbable que .<br />it's unlikely that . <br />esinciertoque .<br />it's uncertain that . <br />esincreíbleque .<br />it's incredible that . <br />es (una) lástimaque .<br />it's a shame that . <br />esmaloque .<br />it's bad that . <br />esmejorque .<br />it's better that . <br />esmenesterque .<br />it's necessary that . <br />esnecesarioque .<br />it's necessary that . <br />esposibleque .<br />it's possible that . <br />
  23. 23. Expressions of emotion<br />esevidenteque . <br />it is certain that . <br />esobvioque . <br />it is obvious that . <br />esverdadque . <br />it's true that . <br />no esdudosoque . <br />it is not doubtful that . <br />no hay dudaque . <br />there is no doubt that . <br />
  24. 24. Conjunctions of Time<br />
  25. 25. Demonstratives<br />When you refer to this, use este or esta, depending on the last letter of the noun,<br />When you want to use that, use estas or estes, again depending on the last letters of the noun<br />When you are using that thing over there, you uses aquel or aquella, with an s if there are multiple things.<br />