Motivation
&
Training
Presented to : Dr. Mubbshar
Presented By
Shahroz Abid
Mudassir Naveed
Ather Iqbal
Miss Amber
Usman Khan
Zahid Chaudhry
Ijaz Ali

IBMS-UAF
What we are going to present??
Motivation
Mudassir Naveed
Ather Iqbal

Miss Amber

Introduction to
Motivation
Motivational Theories
Motivation and the...
Leadership

Usman Khan

Introduction to leadership
The Leader’s Role
The 6 Leadership Styles
Factors affecting leaders...
Training

Zahid Chaudhry

Introduction to Training
Seven sales challenges
for organizations for the
survival in the
comp...
Training

Ijaz Ali

Evaluating Training
Programs
The Four Levels
Reason, Purpose and
Benefits for Training
Guidelines f...
Mudassir Naveed
Motivation
• In sales force management motivation refers
to the amount of efforts a sales person is
willing to expend to accomplish t...
• Sales managers do not motivate sales
people. What they do is provide the
circumstances that will encourage
salespeople t...
Improving motivation is important to sales
success as research has shown that high levels
of motivation lead to:
 Increas...
Motivational Theories:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Theory.
Herzberg’s dual factor theory.
Vroom’s expectan...
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
Theory.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
Theory.
Maslow argued that:
 when no needs are fulfilled, a person
concentrates on their physiological needs.
 When these needs ...
Although Maslow’s belief that.
one set of needs only becomes important
after lower order needs have been
completely satis...
Herzberg’s Dual Factor Theory
Herzberg’s dual factor theory.
The two-factor theory is the theory that
holds that motivation involves both:
 Motivation factors
 Hygiene factors
Motiv...
Comparison of Maslow’s and Herzberg’s
Theories of motivation
Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs

Herzberg’s Two-Factor theory

Se...
Vroom’s Expectancy Theory.
Ather Iqbal
Adams’s Inequity Theory
Equity Theory
Developed by - Stacey Adams 1963
• Fairness and Equity are key components.
• Equity theory is based in the i...
Referent groups

• Self-inside: Your own experience within your
current organization ('…when I worked for
Bob, things were...
Equity Theory
Developed by - Stacey Adams
Formula:

One’s Own Outcomes
One’s Own Inputs

=

Other’s Outcomes
Other’s Input...
One’s Inputs:
•Time
•Effort
•Loyalty
•Hard Work
•Commitment
•Ability
•Adaptability
•Flexibility
•Tolerance
•Determination
...
Equity Ratio
Perceived Ratio
Comparison
Outcomes A
Inputs A

<

Outcomes A
Inputs A

=

Equity

Inputs B
Outcomes B

>

In...
Likert's Sales Management
Theory.
Likert’s sales management theory:
Likert based his sales management theory on
research that looked specifically at the
mot...
His research investigated two methods of sales
meeting.
1. Group Methods.
• Problems that had arisen in the field
• Learn ...
The Churchill, Ford and
Walker model of salesforce
motivation
The Churchill, Ford and Walker
model of salesforce motivation:
Churchill model suggests that :
• The higher the salesperso...
The implications of this model for sales
managers are as follows:
1. They should convince salespeople that they
will sell ...
Motivation and the productivity
of the sales force:
Two prime determinants of sales force
performance
• Ability to perform...
Miss Amber
Influencing factors of sales force
productivity:
Influencing factors of sales force productivity

• Customer reaction and ...
How to motivate sales force and
boost productivity:
I. Sales quotas
II. Sales contests
III. Compensation plans and reward ...
Usman Khan
LEADERSHIP
Leadership denotes taking action and getting results.
The Leader’s Role – to Transform
• Clarity of Purpose
• Courage
• Commitment
• Effective communicators
• Persistent and ha...
The 6 Leadership Styles
Coercive
Coaching

Authoritative

Pacesetting

Affiliative

Democratic
The 6 Leadership Styles
– Coercive

• When it is necessary to
immediately take charge
“Do what I tell you”
• Profession - ...
The 6 Leadership Styles
– Authoritative
• When people are looking for
direction
“I want you to come with me”

• Profession...
The 6 Leadership Styles
– Affiliative

• When you need to exhibit employee
empathy
“People come first”
• Profession – mini...
The 6 Leadership Styles
– Democratic

• When it is necessary to get the
input of others
“What do you think?”
• Occupation ...
The 6 Leadership Styles
– Pacesetting

• When it is necessary to meet a
deadline with high performance
“Do as I do, now”
•...
The 6 Leadership Styles
– Coaching
• When it is necessary to have
patience

“Have you tried it this way?”
• Occupation – T...
Factors affecting leadership
styles
• The task
• The tradition of an organization
• The type of labor force
• The leader’s...
Which Leadership Style Is Best?
• Depends on function of the leader,
subordinates, and situation
• Some leaders can’t work...
Zahid Chaudhry
Training
Training
Organized activity aimed at imparting
information and/or instructions to improve
the recipient's performance or t...
Dr. Leonard Nadler
“ Training is learning that is provided in order to
improve performance on the present job. ”

Speaker,...
To put it another way, we might say that :
The purpose of training is to help people
learn something they need to know or ...
Seven sales challenges for
organizations for the survival in the
competitive marketplace:
1. Distinguish between similar p...
4. Mastering the art of consultative selling.
5. Managing a team selling approach.
6. Knowing the customer’s business.
7. ...
Benefits of Training
Enhanced skill levels
For Example
Needs analysis
Presentation and demonstration,
Negotiation
Obje...
 Improved motivation
Motivation

Training

Salesperson’s belief
Higher
performance.

salesperson’s belief

Motivate
Highe...
Improved self-confidence
Training
self-confidence
performance

sales

Fewer complaints
Training
Better meeting of custom...
 Reduced costs
Training in self-management and journey
planning should reduce costs.
Higher skills should mean fewer ca...
Lower staff turnover
Training shows staff that the company is willing
to invest in them raising morale and loyalty.

Red...
Higher job satisfaction
The confidence and success which accompanies
higher skill levels developed during training lead
t...
Skill development
These are four classic stages to learning a
skill.
1. Unconsciously unable
2. Consciously unable
3. Cons...
Stage 1
Unconsciously unable
Trainee does not think about skills.
Defines the situation before a trainee decides
to ente...
Stage 3
Consciously able
Consciously able Trainee knows what to do and
is reasonably proficient in individual skills but
h...
Shahroz Abid
Components of a training
program
A training program will attempt to cover a
combination of knowledge and skill
development...
1. The company
• Brief history of the company
• How it has grown and where it intends to go
in the future.
• Policies rele...
2. Products.
• Knowledge about company’s products
• Description of how the products are made
• The implications for produc...
3. Competitors and their
products.
• Identification of competitors
• Competitors products
• Differences between competitor...
4. Selling procedure and
techniques.

• Examination of the factors analyzed
• Include practical sessions where trainees
de...
5. Work organization and report
preparation.
• Time management skills
• Territory management skills

6. Relationship manag...
Methods
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

The lecture
Films
Role playing
Case studies
In-the-field training
E-learning
1)The lecture
• Useful in giving information and providing
a frame of reference to aid the learning
process.
• Should be s...
2)Films
• Useful supplement to the lecture in
giving information and showing how a
skill should be performed
• Add an extr...
3)Role playing
• It allows the trainees to learn by their
own successes and failures in a buyer–
seller situation.
• Feedb...
4)Case studies
Particularly appropriate for developing
analytical skills.
Trainees are asked to
I.
II.
III.
IV.

analyze s...
5)In-the-field training
• Experience gained by real-life selling
situations
• The evaluation
• And feedback provided by th...
6)E-learning
• Heavy time constraints
• Modern salespeople Avoid that taking
days off work to attend a traditional sales
t...
Case study
Case study
• Business began in 1919 with one man, Jack
Cohen
• In 1929, the first Tesco store opened in north
London.
• Te...
Tesco offers employees both on-the-job training
and off-the-job training
On-the-job training methods at Tesco include:
1. ...
off-the-job training
• Month 1 – visit and work in all parts of a store to
familiarize themselves. The new manager is
allo...
Prefer training method by the Tesco??
For the employee, on-the-job training is directly
relevant to their work, they get t...
Ijaz Ali
Evaluating Training Programs
The Four Levels
Evaluation
• It is a process of establishing a
worth of something.

• The ‘worth’, which means the
value, merit or excelle...
Evaluation is a ………..

State of mind, rather
than a set of
techniques
Training Evaluation
• Training evaluation - the process of
collecting the outcomes needed to
determine if training is effe...
Reasons for Evaluating
Training
• Companies make large investments in
training and education and view them as
a strategy t...
Purpose of Evaluation
• Feedback - on the effectiveness of the
training activities
• Control - over the provision of train...
Benefits of Evaluation
• Improved quality of training activities
• Improved ability of the trainers to relate
inputs to ou...
What can be evaluated??
Remember 3 Ps
• The Plan
• The Process
• The Product
How to evaluate the Plan??
• Course Objectives
• Appropriate selection of participants
• Timeframe
• Teaching Methods
How to Evaluate the
Process??
• Planning Vs. Implementation
• Appropriate participants
• Appropriate time
• Effective use ...
How to Evaluate the Product?
Is only evaluation of the product sufficient?
• Time
• Ultimately all stages require evaluati...
Four level of Evaluation
During program evaluation
• Level One
Reaction
• Level Two
Learning
Post program evaluation
• Lev...
Kirkpatrick’s Four-Level
Framework of Evaluation Criteria
Reaction Level
A customer satisfaction measure
• Were the participants pleased
with the program
• Likelihood of applying t...
Learning Level
• What did the participants learn in the
program?
• The extent to which participants change
attitudes, incr...
LEARNING
The measuring of learning in any training
program is the determination of at least
one of these measuring paramet...
Level Two Strategies
• Consider using scenarios, case studies,
sample project evaluations, etc, rather
than test questions...
Behavior
• Level 3 attempts to evaluate how much
transfer of knowledge, skills, and attitude
occurs after the training.
Behavior Level
• How the training affects performance.
• The extent to which change in behavior
occurred.
• Was the learni...
Conditions Necessary to
Change:
The person must:
• have a desire to change.
• know what to do and how to do it.
• work in ...
Guidelines for Evaluating
Behavior
• Measure on a before/after basis
• Allow time for behavior change (adaptation) to
take...
Guidelines for Evaluating
Behavior
• Get 100% response or a sample?
• Depends on size of group. The more the
better.
• Rep...
Results Level:
• Impact of education and
training on the organization or
community.
• The final results that occurred as a...
Examples of Level Four:
How did the training save costs
Did work output increase
Was there a change in the quality of w...
Guidelines for Evaluating
Results:
• Measure before and after
• Allow time for change to take place
• Repeat at appropriat...
Training sales managers:
To succeed as a sales manager requires a
formidable set of skills and roles
The following:
• Deve...
• Co-coordinating hybrid sales forces of
telemarketers and field salespeople;
• Keeping up to date with the latest
technol...
• Continually seeking ways to exceed
customer expectations and create added
value In buyer–seller relationships;
• Creatin...
Methods used to train sales
managers:
Motivation and training
Motivation and training
Motivation and training
Motivation and training
Motivation and training
Motivation and training
Motivation and training
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  • Briefly introduce the 6 leadership styles by name. When we look at leadership styles with the Shackelton Case study, you’ll see how this plays out. He was a very effective leader who knew how to pick the right style for the right situation.
  • Coercive is:Take chargeDirectiveDecisiveImmediateA coercive leader might say, “Do what I tell you”The profession of a coercive leader might be: Fire chiefIn our world, when might you use coercive leadership? Take suggested answers then reveal the answer on the slideHealth and Safety Manager or PM about to witness an accidentAsk group to come up with specific times they have seen this style used, either appropriately or inappropriately
  • Authoritative is:DirectiveDecision makerA authoritative leader might say, “I want you to come with me”The profession of a authoritative leader might be: A new Prime Minister or PresidentIn our world, when might you use authoritative leadership? Take suggested answers then reveal the answer on the slideTaking over a troubled project, or someone recently put in chargeAsk group to come up with specific times they have seen this style used, either appropriately or inappropriately
  • Affiliative is:EmpatheticCompassionateListenerAn Affiliativeleader might say, “People come first”The profession of a affiliative leader might be: Priest, minister, rabbi, HR ProfessionalIn our world, when might you use affiliative leadership? Take suggested answers then reveal the answer on the slideHandling an employee with personal issues, or dealing with a group of employees after a traumatic event.If you go overboard for someone who is having a difficult personal situation, nothing makes more of a difference to an employee’s engagement than your empathetic leadership. If you show that you care, that the company cares, the employee gives back. Conversely, if you don’t deal sensitively with someone going throug a difficult time, this is one of the biggest disengagement factors. Ask group to come up with specific times they have seen this style used, either appropriately or inappropriately
  • Democratic is:InclusiveListenerSincerely interestedOpen to suggestionA democratic leader might say, “What do you think?”The profession of a democratic leader might be: Olympic Committee Selection ChairIn our world, when might you use democratic leadership? Take suggested answers then reveal the answer on the slideCross functional task team leader, or dealing with a diverse group of senior staffAsk group to come up with specific times they have seen this style used, either appropriately or inappropriately
  • Pacesetting is:Take chargeInitiateInvolvedA pacesetting leader might say, “Do as I do, now”The profession of a coercive leader might be:Captain of a ‘Crew’ TeamIn our world, when might you use coercive leadership? Take suggested answers then reveal the answer on the slideProject Manager working with team to get deliverable out tonightAsk group to come up with specific times they have seen this style used, either appropriately or inappropriately
  • Coaching is:PatientForgivingTeacherA coaching leader might say, “Have you tried it this way?”The profession of a coaching leader might be: TeacherIn our world, when might you use coercive leadership? Take suggested answers then reveal the answer on the slideA manager dealing with a new employee; or when cross trainingAsk group to come up with specific times they have seen this style used, either appropriately or inappropriately
  • Motivation and training

    1. 1. Motivation & Training Presented to : Dr. Mubbshar
    2. 2. Presented By Shahroz Abid Mudassir Naveed Ather Iqbal Miss Amber Usman Khan Zahid Chaudhry Ijaz Ali IBMS-UAF
    3. 3. What we are going to present??
    4. 4. Motivation Mudassir Naveed Ather Iqbal Miss Amber Introduction to Motivation Motivational Theories Motivation and the productivity of the sales force Influencing factors of sales force productivity How to motivate sales force and boost productivity
    5. 5. Leadership Usman Khan Introduction to leadership The Leader’s Role The 6 Leadership Styles Factors affecting leadership styles Which Leadership Style Is Best?
    6. 6. Training Zahid Chaudhry Introduction to Training Seven sales challenges for organizations for the survival in the competitive marketplace Benefits of Training Skill development Shahroz Abid Components of a training program Methods of Training Case Study
    7. 7. Training Ijaz Ali Evaluating Training Programs The Four Levels Reason, Purpose and Benefits for Training Guidelines for Evaluating behavior and Results Training Sales Managers Methods used to train sales managers
    8. 8. Mudassir Naveed
    9. 9. Motivation
    10. 10. • In sales force management motivation refers to the amount of efforts a sales person is willing to expend to accomplish the tasks associated with his job. • It is critical that sales managers appreciate that motivation is far more sophisticated than the view that all salespeople need is a ‘kick up the pants.
    11. 11. • Sales managers do not motivate sales people. What they do is provide the circumstances that will encourage salespeople to motivate themselves.
    12. 12. Improving motivation is important to sales success as research has shown that high levels of motivation lead to:  Increased creativity.  Working smarter and a more adaptive selling approach.  Working harder.  Increased use of win–win negotiation tactics.  Higher self-esteem.  A more relaxed attitude and a less negative emotional tone.  Enhancement of relationships.
    13. 13. Motivational Theories: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Theory. Herzberg’s dual factor theory. Vroom’s expectancy theory. Adams’s inequity theory. Likert's sales management theory.
    14. 14. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Theory.
    15. 15. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Theory.
    16. 16. Maslow argued that:  when no needs are fulfilled, a person concentrates on their physiological needs.  When these needs are fulfilled, safety needs become preponderant and important determinants of behavior.  When these are satisfied, belongingness becomes important and so on.
    17. 17. Although Maslow’s belief that. one set of needs only becomes important after lower order needs have been completely satisfied has been criticized. The theory does have relevance to sales force motivation. The theory does have relevance to sales force motivation.
    18. 18. Herzberg’s Dual Factor Theory
    19. 19. Herzberg’s dual factor theory.
    20. 20. The two-factor theory is the theory that holds that motivation involves both:  Motivation factors  Hygiene factors Motivation factors are strong contributors to job satisfaction while hygiene factors are not strong contributors but must be there to prevent employees from being dissatisfied.
    21. 21. Comparison of Maslow’s and Herzberg’s Theories of motivation Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs Herzberg’s Two-Factor theory Self actualization needs Motivators: Esteem needs Responsibilities Challenging work Recognition achievement Social needs Safety & security needs Maintenance factors: Job security Good pay Physiological needs Working conditions Type of supervision Interpersonal relations
    22. 22. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory.
    23. 23. Ather Iqbal
    24. 24. Adams’s Inequity Theory
    25. 25. Equity Theory Developed by - Stacey Adams 1963 • Fairness and Equity are key components. • Equity theory is based in the idea that individuals are motivated by fairness, • If they identify inequities in the input/output ratios of themselves and their referent group, they will seek to adjust their input to reach their perceived equity. • Adams' suggested that the higher an individual's perception of equity, the more motivated they will be, and vice versa • If someone perceives an unfair environment, they will be demotivated.
    26. 26. Referent groups • Self-inside: Your own experience within your current organization ('…when I worked for Bob, things were better…') • Self-outside: Your own experience, but at another organization ('…when I did this same job for XYZ, I was paid a lot less…') • Others-inside: Other people within your current organization ('…the management team just sits around a conference table all day, and gets paid way too much…') • Others-outside: Other people outside your current organization ('…the sales force our competitor has some pretty weak benefits…')
    27. 27. Equity Theory Developed by - Stacey Adams Formula: One’s Own Outcomes One’s Own Inputs = Other’s Outcomes Other’s Inputs
    28. 28. One’s Inputs: •Time •Effort •Loyalty •Hard Work •Commitment •Ability •Adaptability •Flexibility •Tolerance •Determination •Enthusiasm •Personal sacrifice •Trust in superiors •Support from co-workers and colleagues •Skill One’s Outcomes: •Job security •Salary •Employee benefit •Expenses •Recognition •Reputation •Responsibility •Sense of achievement •Praise •Thanks •Stimuli
    29. 29. Equity Ratio Perceived Ratio Comparison Outcomes A Inputs A < Outcomes A Inputs A = Equity Inputs B Outcomes B > Inequity (Under rewarded) Inputs B Outcomes B Outcomes A Inputs A Outcomes B Employee’s Ratio Comparison Inputs B Inequity (Over rewarded)
    30. 30. Likert's Sales Management Theory.
    31. 31. Likert’s sales management theory: Likert based his sales management theory on research that looked specifically at the motivation of salespeople. linkert tested the hypothesis that: The sales managers’ own behaviors provide a set of standards which, in themselves, will affect the behavior of their salespeople. He founded that : High performing sales teams usually had sales managers who themselves had high performance goals.
    32. 32. His research investigated two methods of sales meeting. 1. Group Methods. • Problems that had arisen in the field • Learn from one another. 2. Monopolist Method: • Discouraged interaction between salespeople • opportunity to lecture them rather than to stimulate discussion.
    33. 33. The Churchill, Ford and Walker model of salesforce motivation
    34. 34. The Churchill, Ford and Walker model of salesforce motivation: Churchill model suggests that : • The higher the salesperson’s motivation, the greater the effort, leading to higher performance. • Enhanced performance will lead to greater rewards which will bring about higher job satisfaction.
    35. 35. The implications of this model for sales managers are as follows: 1. They should convince salespeople that they will sell more by working harder or by being trained to work ‘smarter’ (e.g. more efficient call planning, developing selling skills). 2. They should convince salespeople that the rewards for better performance are worth the extra effort. For example A sales manager might build up the worth of a holiday prize by stating what a good time they personally had when there.
    36. 36. Motivation and the productivity of the sales force: Two prime determinants of sales force performance • Ability to perform • Willingness to perform Productivity = Output/Input Sales productivity = Sales revenues / Sales expenses
    37. 37. Miss Amber
    38. 38. Influencing factors of sales force productivity: Influencing factors of sales force productivity • Customer reaction and volatility of market • Time taken to convert prospect in to customer • Work environment • Work methods • Selling skills • Sales person motivation
    39. 39. How to motivate sales force and boost productivity: I. Sales quotas II. Sales contests III. Compensation plans and reward systems IV. Innovative ideas V. Fun work places VI. Improving communication VII.Participation in decisions pertaining to improvements in selling techniques VIII.Job enrichment helps in self actualization IX. Share in profits
    40. 40. Usman Khan
    41. 41. LEADERSHIP Leadership denotes taking action and getting results.
    42. 42. The Leader’s Role – to Transform • Clarity of Purpose • Courage • Commitment • Effective communicators • Persistent and hard worker • Self-aware • Love their work • Inspire others • Establish human relationships based on trust, respect and caring • Risk takers
    43. 43. The 6 Leadership Styles Coercive Coaching Authoritative Pacesetting Affiliative Democratic
    44. 44. The 6 Leadership Styles – Coercive • When it is necessary to immediately take charge “Do what I tell you” • Profession - The Fire Chief • When to use? In a crises, with problem people
    45. 45. The 6 Leadership Styles – Authoritative • When people are looking for direction “I want you to come with me” • Profession – a new Prime Minister or President, New CEO • When to use? Taking over a troubled project, or someone recently put in charge
    46. 46. The 6 Leadership Styles – Affiliative • When you need to exhibit employee empathy “People come first” • Profession – minister, • When to use? Handling an employee with personal issues, or dealing with a group of employees after a traumatic event
    47. 47. The 6 Leadership Styles – Democratic • When it is necessary to get the input of others “What do you think?” • Occupation – Selection Chair • When to use? To perform Cross functional task and to get contribution
    48. 48. The 6 Leadership Styles – Pacesetting • When it is necessary to meet a deadline with high performance “Do as I do, now” • Occupation- Sale managers • Our World? Project Manager working with team to get deliverable out “tonight”
    49. 49. The 6 Leadership Styles – Coaching • When it is necessary to have patience “Have you tried it this way?” • Occupation – Teacher • When to use? A Manager dealing with a new employee; or when cross training
    50. 50. Factors affecting leadership styles • The task • The tradition of an organization • The type of labor force • The leader’s personality • The time • Gender
    51. 51. Which Leadership Style Is Best? • Depends on function of the leader, subordinates, and situation • Some leaders can’t work well with high participation of subordinates • Some employees lack the ability or desire to assume responsibility • Participative decision making may be better when time pressure is not acute
    52. 52. Zahid Chaudhry
    53. 53. Training
    54. 54. Training Organized activity aimed at imparting information and/or instructions to improve the recipient's performance or to help him or her attain a required level of knowledge or skill.
    55. 55. Dr. Leonard Nadler “ Training is learning that is provided in order to improve performance on the present job. ” Speaker, author, and master trainer Bob Pike says at the opening of his book, Creative Training Techniques: “ The purpose of any training program is to deliver results. People must be more effective after the training than they were before. ”
    56. 56. To put it another way, we might say that : The purpose of training is to help people learn something they need to know or be able to do for a specific purpose — to achieve organizational objectives and goals, carry out specific tasks, prepare for new responsibilities, or attain their career goals.
    57. 57. Seven sales challenges for organizations for the survival in the competitive marketplace: 1. Distinguish between similar products and services. 2. Putting together groups of products to form a business solution. 3. Handling the more educated buying population.
    58. 58. 4. Mastering the art of consultative selling. 5. Managing a team selling approach. 6. Knowing the customer’s business. 7. Adding value through service.
    59. 59. Benefits of Training Enhanced skill levels For Example Needs analysis Presentation and demonstration, Negotiation Objection handling Closing and relationship management Greater customer orientation
    60. 60.  Improved motivation Motivation Training Salesperson’s belief Higher performance. salesperson’s belief Motivate Higher performance
    61. 61. Improved self-confidence Training self-confidence performance sales Fewer complaints Training Better meeting of customer needs and higher service levels reduce the number of customer complaints.
    62. 62.  Reduced costs Training in self-management and journey planning should reduce costs. Higher skills should mean fewer call backs to close the sale. Better use of technology should also reduce costs (e.g. using email rather than site visits where appropriate).
    63. 63. Lower staff turnover Training shows staff that the company is willing to invest in them raising morale and loyalty. Reduced management support Well trained salespeople require less managerial support as they can manage their own activities.
    64. 64. Higher job satisfaction The confidence and success which accompanies higher skill levels developed during training lead to higher job satisfaction. Higher sales and profits The result of the above advantages of training is that sales should be higher and costs lower resulting in higher company profits.
    65. 65. Skill development These are four classic stages to learning a skill. 1. Unconsciously unable 2. Consciously unable 3. Consciously able 4. Unconsciously able
    66. 66. Stage 1 Unconsciously unable Trainee does not think about skills. Defines the situation before a trainee decides to enter a career in selling. By reading or being told about the skills. Stage 2 Consciously unable  Trainee reads about skills but cannot carry them out in practice. know what to do but cannot successfully perform any of the skills
    67. 67. Stage 3 Consciously able Consciously able Trainee knows what to do and is reasonably proficient in individual skills but has difficulty putting them all into practice together. Stage 4 Unconsciously able Trainee can perform the task without thinking about it; skills become automatic.
    68. 68. Shahroz Abid
    69. 69. Components of a training program A training program will attempt to cover a combination of knowledge and skill development. Five components can be identified: 1. The company 2. products. 3. Competitors and their products. 4. Selling procedure and techniques. 5. Work organization and report preparation. 6. Relationship management
    70. 70. 1. The company • Brief history of the company • How it has grown and where it intends to go in the future. • Policies relevant to the selling function • How the company is organized relationship between sales and the marketing function • Marketing strategies • Advertising strategies • Codes of ethics
    71. 71. 2. Products. • Knowledge about company’s products • Description of how the products are made • The implications for product quality and reliability, • The features of the product • The benefits they confer on the consumer.
    72. 72. 3. Competitors and their products. • Identification of competitors • Competitors products • Differences between competitors and the company’s products • Identification of Competitive edge on competitors products • Competitor marketing strategies
    73. 73. 4. Selling procedure and techniques. • Examination of the factors analyzed • Include practical sessions where trainees develop skills through role-playing exercises • For example, the Xerox Professional Selling Skills training program focuses on five selling steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. Opening sales calls Effective listening Objection handling Closing 5. Follow-up.
    74. 74. 5. Work organization and report preparation. • Time management skills • Territory management skills 6. Relationship management • Training program will place heavy emphasis on people skills. • For example, the IBM consultative sales training program emphasizes working with clients as consultants to build close relationships and work jointly to solve problems. The case components of the program involve people and communication skills.
    75. 75. Methods 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The lecture Films Role playing Case studies In-the-field training E-learning
    76. 76. 1)The lecture • Useful in giving information and providing a frame of reference to aid the learning process. • Should be supported by the use of visual aids, for example, professionally produced PowerPoints. • Trainees should be encouraged to participate so that the communication is not just one way.
    77. 77. 2)Films • Useful supplement to the lecture in giving information and showing how a skill should be performed • Add an extra dimension to a lecture by demonstrating how the principles can be applied in a selling situation.
    78. 78. 3)Role playing • It allows the trainees to learn by their own successes and failures in a buyer– seller situation. • Feedback is provided by other group members, the sales trainer and by audiovisual means. • Seeing oneself perform is an enlightening and rewarding experience and can demonstrate to the trainee the points raised by other members of the group
    79. 79. 4)Case studies Particularly appropriate for developing analytical skills. Trainees are asked to I. II. III. IV. analyze situations, identify problems and opportunities and make recommendations
    80. 80. 5)In-the-field training • Experience gained by real-life selling situations • The evaluation • And feedback provided by the sales
    81. 81. 6)E-learning • Heavy time constraints • Modern salespeople Avoid that taking days off work to attend a traditional sales training course • Technological advances make learning via the internet.
    82. 82. Case study
    83. 83. Case study • Business began in 1919 with one man, Jack Cohen • In 1929, the first Tesco store opened in north London. • Tesco has net profits (before tax) of around £3 billion. • UK Tesco now has over 2,200 stores ranging from the large Extra hypermarket style stores to small Tesco Express high street outlets • Tesco now has approximately 280,000 employees in the UK and over 460,000 worldwide
    84. 84. Tesco offers employees both on-the-job training and off-the-job training On-the-job training methods at Tesco include: 1. Shadowing – a person already in the job shows the employee how to do it 2. coaching – a manager or designated colleague will help trainees work through problems and inspire them to find solutions 3. mentoring – a more experienced member of staff acts as an adviser 4. job rotation or secondment – the trainee has the opportunity of covering their target role, taking full responsibility on a temporary or limited basis.
    85. 85. off-the-job training • Month 1 – visit and work in all parts of a store to familiarize themselves. The new manager is allocated a ‘buddy’ – an experienced member of staff who they can go to with problems. • Months 2-4, – practice their knowledge and skills in real situations and identify any skills gaps • Months 5-6 – undertake a placement as a Department Manager • Months 6-12 – take on their first manager role • Month 12 – review progress with their manager and discuss future development.
    86. 86. Prefer training method by the Tesco?? For the employee, on-the-job training is directly relevant to their work, they get to know the people in their area and feel part of the team faster. On-the-job training also has several advantages for the company: I. It is cheaper than off-the-job training. II. Managers see progress and can help when problems arise to resolve them quickly. III. The employee is still working during training so is more productive. IV. The employee puts learning into practice.
    87. 87. Ijaz Ali
    88. 88. Evaluating Training Programs The Four Levels
    89. 89. Evaluation • It is a process of establishing a worth of something. • The ‘worth’, which means the value, merit or excellence of the thing
    90. 90. Evaluation is a ……….. State of mind, rather than a set of techniques
    91. 91. Training Evaluation • Training evaluation - the process of collecting the outcomes needed to determine if training is effective. • Evaluation design - collection of information, including whom, what, when, and how, for determining the effectiveness of the training program.
    92. 92. Reasons for Evaluating Training • Companies make large investments in training and education and view them as a strategy to be successful; they expect the outcomes of training to be measurable. • Training evaluation provides the data needed to demonstrate that training does provide benefits to the company.
    93. 93. Purpose of Evaluation • Feedback - on the effectiveness of the training activities • Control - over the provision of training • Intervention - into the organizational processes that affect training
    94. 94. Benefits of Evaluation • Improved quality of training activities • Improved ability of the trainers to relate inputs to outputs • Better integration of training offered and on-the job development • Better co-operation between trainers and line-managers in the development of staff • Evidence of the contribution that training and development are making to the organization
    95. 95. What can be evaluated?? Remember 3 Ps • The Plan • The Process • The Product
    96. 96. How to evaluate the Plan?? • Course Objectives • Appropriate selection of participants • Timeframe • Teaching Methods
    97. 97. How to Evaluate the Process?? • Planning Vs. Implementation • Appropriate participants • Appropriate time • Effective use of time • teaching according to set objectives
    98. 98. How to Evaluate the Product? Is only evaluation of the product sufficient? • Time • Ultimately all stages require evaluation in any case Changes in effectiveness • Impact Analysis • Achieving Targets • Attracting Resources • Satisfying Interested Parties
    99. 99. Four level of Evaluation During program evaluation • Level One Reaction • Level Two Learning Post program evaluation • Level Three Behavior • Level Four Results
    100. 100. Kirkpatrick’s Four-Level Framework of Evaluation Criteria
    101. 101. Reaction Level A customer satisfaction measure • Were the participants pleased with the program • Likelihood of applying the content • Effectiveness of particular strategies • Effectiveness of the packaging of the course
    102. 102. Learning Level • What did the participants learn in the program? • The extent to which participants change attitudes, increase knowledge, and/or increase skill. • What exactly did the participant learn and not learn?
    103. 103. LEARNING The measuring of learning in any training program is the determination of at least one of these measuring parameters: • Did the attitudes change positively? • Is the knowledge acquired related and helpful to the task? • Is the skill acquired related and helpful to the task?
    104. 104. Level Two Strategies • Consider using scenarios, case studies, sample project evaluations, etc, rather than test questions. Develop a rubric of desired responses. • Develop between 3 and 10 questions or scenarios for each main objective.
    105. 105. Behavior • Level 3 attempts to evaluate how much transfer of knowledge, skills, and attitude occurs after the training.
    106. 106. Behavior Level • How the training affects performance. • The extent to which change in behavior occurred. • Was the learning transferred from the classroom to the real world. • Transfer – Transfer - Transfer
    107. 107. Conditions Necessary to Change: The person must: • have a desire to change. • know what to do and how to do it. • work in the right climate. • be rewarded for changing.
    108. 108. Guidelines for Evaluating Behavior • Measure on a before/after basis • Allow time for behavior change (adaptation) to take place • Survey or interview one or more who are in the best position to see change. • The participant/learner • The supervisor/mentor • Subordinates or peers • Others familiar with the participants actions.
    109. 109. Guidelines for Evaluating Behavior • Get 100% response or a sample? • Depends on size of group. The more the better. • Repeat at appropriate times • Remember that other factors can influence behavior over time. • Use a control group if practical • Consider cost vs. benefits of the evaluation
    110. 110. Results Level: • Impact of education and training on the organization or community. • The final results that occurred as a result of training. • The ROI for training.
    111. 111. Examples of Level Four: How did the training save costs Did work output increase Was there a change in the quality of work Did the social condition improve Did the individual create an impact on the community Is there evidence that the organization or community has changed.
    112. 112. Guidelines for Evaluating Results: • Measure before and after • Allow time for change to take place • Repeat at appropriate times • Use a control group if practical • Consider cost vs. benefits of doing Level Four • Remember, other factors can affect results • Be satisfied with Evidence if Proof is not possible.
    113. 113. Training sales managers: To succeed as a sales manager requires a formidable set of skills and roles The following: • Developing close relationships with customers and an in-depth understanding of Customers’ businesses; • Partnering salespeople to achieve sales, profitability and customer satisfaction goals;
    114. 114. • Co-coordinating hybrid sales forces of telemarketers and field salespeople; • Keeping up to date with the latest technologies impacting the sales function; • Learning marketing skills to identify potential business opportunities and Recommend strategies; • Working with other functional areas to achieve overall corporate goals through Customer satisfaction;
    115. 115. • Continually seeking ways to exceed customer expectations and create added value In buyer–seller relationships; • Creating a flexible, learning and adapting environment for the sales team; • Developing teaching, analytical, motivational, organizational, communication and Planning skills.
    116. 116. Methods used to train sales managers:
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