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Motivation
Mr Ahern
Objectives
By the end of these two sessions you will be able to
• Analyse appropriate motivational techniques for teams
an...
Why do businesses want
motivated people?
They work harder
They do a better job
They take less sick time
They need less sup...
So what are “motivating” factors?
• What motivates you?
Achievement Recognition
Rewards Status
Success/Winning Not winning!
Good leadership Poor leadership!
Praise Advancement
Mo...
Classification for Motivation
• Economic Rewards
– Pay, benefits, pension, security
• Instrumental – concerning ‘other thi...
Overview of Motivation Theories
Theories from Human Relations
approach
• All build upon findings from Mayo and
Hawthorne experiments
• We will consider: -...
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow and the
hierarchy of needs
• Abraham Maslow argued that everyone has
the same needs
• All of these could be put int...
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
• Physiological needs
• Oxygen, food, water, sleep etc..
• Safety needs
• Security, free from ...
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
What was Maslow’s influence?
• Had a huge impact on management training
and the growth of “personnel management”
(human re...
Herzberg – motivating factors
and hygiene factors
• F Herzberg conducted research in the 1950s
into “job satisfaction”
• D...
What did Herzberg conclude?
• The motivators concerned the job itself
• The demotivators were factors surrounding
the job
...
Douglas McGregor
• Theory X
• Theory Y
• Exercise
Motivation in Practice
Financial or Non Financial
Rewards?
• Taylor's scientific management approach leads us to
believe that money is an importa...
Use of financial rewards for
motivation
Main Types are:
• Piece Rate work
• Hourly pay
• PRP
• Fringe Benefits
Piece Rate Work
• The simplest and perhaps the most efficient
way of motivating workers from a
“scientific management” per...
What sort of firm could this apply
to?
• Could it work with lower level employees
such as production operatives who would
...
Hourly Pay
• Paid for the number of hours worked
• Allows for overtime and double time etc
• May be favoured by theory X s...
Performance Related Pay
• A similar thing to piece rate?
• Staff paid a bonus related to either how well
the business has ...
Fringe Benefits
• These are more generally associated with
higher level employees such as managers
etc
• Can include all m...
Non Financial Rewards
• Recognition, “symbols” ...
• These rewards can again be associated with
all levels of work
• They ...
Examples of non financial rewards
• Job enrichment
• Job Rotation
• Training / secondments / placements
• Multiskilling
• ...
Team Working
• Can we give teams more power to decide
how work is distributed and to solve their
own problems?
• Links wit...
Task
• Working in pairs / small groups discuss
some of the questions and issues you
have with the motivation of individual...
Key Points to Note
• Individuals are not all motivated by the
same things –there is not a “one-size-
fits-all” answer to m...
Summing up
• People’s behaviour is determined by what
motivates them.
• Their performance is a product of both
ability lev...
So ...
• How do good managers / leaders find out
the needs and expectations of team
members, and aim to satisfy them?
• Li...
At the end of today’s class..
• You can analyse appropriate
motivational techniques for teams and
individuals
Tomorrow –
•...
Objectives - recap
By the end of these two sessions you will be able to
• Analyse appropriate motivational techniques for ...
Quick revision
• Taylor
• Mayo
• Maslow
• McGregor
• Herzberg
1. “TELLS”
• The Manager decides and
announces the decision.
2. “SELLS”
• The manager decides and then
'sells' the decision to the group.
3. “PRESENTS”
• The manager presents the
decision with background ideas
and invites questions.
4. “INVOLVES”
• The manager suggests a
provisional decision and invites
discussion about it.
5. “CONSULTS”
• The manager presents the
situation or problem, gets
suggestions, then decides.
6. “ENABLES”
• The manager explains the
situation, defines the parameters
and asks the team to decide.
7. “EMPOWERS”
• The manager allows the team to
identify the problem, develop the
options, and decide on the action,
within...
As motivation (PLEASE COME TO CLASS!!)   You have a really good chance of success here and instead you are wasting it!!  D...
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As motivation (PLEASE COME TO CLASS!!) You have a really good chance of success here and instead you are wasting it!! Don't be a fool

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As motivation (PLEASE COME TO CLASS!!) You have a really good chance of success here and instead you are wasting it!! Don't be a fool

  1. 1. Motivation Mr Ahern
  2. 2. Objectives By the end of these two sessions you will be able to • Analyse appropriate motivational techniques for teams and individuals • Evaluate the links between the styles of management and leadership employed, and staff motivation • Approach with confidence the requirements of the unit assignment
  3. 3. Why do businesses want motivated people? They work harder They do a better job They take less sick time They need less supervision ....
  4. 4. So what are “motivating” factors? • What motivates you?
  5. 5. Achievement Recognition Rewards Status Success/Winning Not winning! Good leadership Poor leadership! Praise Advancement Money/pay Approval Development Satisfaction Fear Threat/danger Security Survival Greed Power Peers/team-mates friends/family Personality Leadership
  6. 6. Classification for Motivation • Economic Rewards – Pay, benefits, pension, security • Instrumental – concerning ‘other things’ • Intrinsic Satisfaction – Interest in job, personal development • Personal – concerning ‘oneself’ • Social Relationships – Friendship, affiliation, status, dependency • Relational – concerning ‘other people’
  7. 7. Overview of Motivation Theories
  8. 8. Theories from Human Relations approach • All build upon findings from Mayo and Hawthorne experiments • We will consider: - – Maslow – Herzberg – McGregor
  9. 9. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  10. 10. Maslow and the hierarchy of needs • Abraham Maslow argued that everyone has the same needs • All of these could be put into a hierarchy • Lower order needs are physiological - such as food and shelter • Once an employee has earned enough to satisfy these needs they are no longer motivated by them ....
  11. 11. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • Physiological needs • Oxygen, food, water, sleep etc.. • Safety needs • Security, free from danger and attack • Love needs (social needs) • Affection, friendship, social belonging, love • Esteem needs (Ego needs) • Self-respect, respect, status, appreciation • Self-actualisation needs • Realisation of one’s full potential
  12. 12. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  13. 13. What was Maslow’s influence? • Had a huge impact on management training and the growth of “personnel management” (human resources management) ; still very influential • Task – consider how businesses can respond to this theory (see handout) • Two other major writers followed – F. Herzberg and D. McGregor
  14. 14. Herzberg – motivating factors and hygiene factors • F Herzberg conducted research in the 1950s into “job satisfaction” • Discovered through experiments the major factors that stood out as “strong determinants” of job satisfaction and motivation, and the other, separate factors that can cause demotivation but DO NOT motivate people
  15. 15. What did Herzberg conclude? • The motivators concerned the job itself • The demotivators were factors surrounding the job • These demotivators were called “hygiene factors” • “Care to fulfil hygiene factors prevents job dissatisfaction”
  16. 16. Douglas McGregor • Theory X • Theory Y • Exercise
  17. 17. Motivation in Practice
  18. 18. Financial or Non Financial Rewards? • Taylor's scientific management approach leads us to believe that money is an important motivator. • McGregor says that if workers are viewed through theory X then they will be motivated by money and fear • Mayo and the Human Relations approach as well as McGregor's theory Y leads us to believe that non financial rewards can also motivate. • What do you think?? All of these insights have something to offer – how do they relate to your own experience and what we have covered so far?
  19. 19. Use of financial rewards for motivation Main Types are: • Piece Rate work • Hourly pay • PRP • Fringe Benefits
  20. 20. Piece Rate Work • The simplest and perhaps the most efficient way of motivating workers from a “scientific management” perspective • Workers are paid for the amount they produce • Thus the firm aims to ensure that they get the maximum output from each employee because if the employee doesn’t work they do not earn money
  21. 21. What sort of firm could this apply to? • Could it work with lower level employees such as production operatives who would be classed as theory X - i.e. they only go to work for money? • Would it work with workers who are likely to be better qualified and are motivated by other things?
  22. 22. Hourly Pay • Paid for the number of hours worked • Allows for overtime and double time etc • May be favoured by theory X style leaders? • Theory Y would favour an annual salary and non – financial approaches to motivation ..... • Think about “your own organisation” – is hourly pay used in some parts and salary in other parts? Why?
  23. 23. Performance Related Pay • A similar thing to piece rate? • Staff paid a bonus related to either how well the business has done or how well a particular department has done – or their own individual performance.... • Should workers get a share of the profits? • Can it help to build a good team spirit throughout the business?
  24. 24. Fringe Benefits • These are more generally associated with higher level employees such as managers etc • Can include all manner of things such as pension schemes, cars, etc .. • Other examples? • Would they motivate you?
  25. 25. Non Financial Rewards • Recognition, “symbols” ... • These rewards can again be associated with all levels of work • They are however designed more to suit the higher levels of Maslow`s hierarchy i.e. love and belonging, self esteem and self actualisation.
  26. 26. Examples of non financial rewards • Job enrichment • Job Rotation • Training / secondments / placements • Multiskilling • Assistance in achieving a satisfactory work life balance • Team Working
  27. 27. Team Working • Can we give teams more power to decide how work is distributed and to solve their own problems? • Links with “empowerment” ...
  28. 28. Task • Working in pairs / small groups discuss some of the questions and issues you have with the motivation of individuals or groups. • What theories of motivation do you find particularly relevant or helpful – and are there any where you need further explanation? • Prepare at least one question or contribution to be discussed by the whole group.
  29. 29. Key Points to Note • Individuals are not all motivated by the same things –there is not a “one-size- fits-all” answer to motivating staff • Removal of dissatisfaction doesn’t lead to positive motivation • Work content and self esteem considerations are usually more significant than physical context
  30. 30. Summing up • People’s behaviour is determined by what motivates them. • Their performance is a product of both ability level and motivation. • Managers must encourage staff to direct their efforts towards the successful attainment of the goals and objectives of the organisation. • Individuals have varying needs and expectations – what works with some people might not work with others.
  31. 31. So ... • How do good managers / leaders find out the needs and expectations of team members, and aim to satisfy them? • Links between good leadership and management, and motivated staff…
  32. 32. At the end of today’s class.. • You can analyse appropriate motivational techniques for teams and individuals Tomorrow – • We will evaluate the links between the styles of management and leadership employed, and staff motivation, and relate all this to the requirements of the unit assignment
  33. 33. Objectives - recap By the end of these two sessions you will be able to • Analyse appropriate motivational techniques for teams and individuals • Evaluate the links between the styles of management and leadership employed, and staff motivation • Approach with confidence the requirements of the unit assignment
  34. 34. Quick revision • Taylor • Mayo • Maslow • McGregor • Herzberg
  35. 35. 1. “TELLS” • The Manager decides and announces the decision.
  36. 36. 2. “SELLS” • The manager decides and then 'sells' the decision to the group.
  37. 37. 3. “PRESENTS” • The manager presents the decision with background ideas and invites questions.
  38. 38. 4. “INVOLVES” • The manager suggests a provisional decision and invites discussion about it.
  39. 39. 5. “CONSULTS” • The manager presents the situation or problem, gets suggestions, then decides.
  40. 40. 6. “ENABLES” • The manager explains the situation, defines the parameters and asks the team to decide.
  41. 41. 7. “EMPOWERS” • The manager allows the team to identify the problem, develop the options, and decide on the action, within the manager's received limits.

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