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Leadership In The Workplace


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Leadership In The Workplace

  1. 1. Leadership in the Workplace
  2. 2. Objectives: <ul><li>To define what is meant by leadership </li></ul><ul><li>To examine the different styles of leaders in terms of their focus and nature </li></ul><ul><li>To discuss the concept and measurement of leader effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>To apply the issues surrounding leader, leadership style and effectiveness of leaders to own experiences </li></ul>
  3. 3. Your experience of ‘good leadership’! <ul><li>Think of someone who has held a position of leadership over you & whom you have been happy to work for </li></ul><ul><li>What made them able to lead? </li></ul><ul><li>What made them able to organise a group effectively? </li></ul><ul><li>What made you happy in the group? </li></ul><ul><li>What made you want to co-operate with the leader? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Key issues of leadership in work: <ul><li>What sort of leader can keep a group together? </li></ul><ul><li>What sort of leader can make the group productive? </li></ul><ul><li>What sort of leader can maintain a good deal of job satisfaction among the group members? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Definition of leadership: <ul><li>“ as the process (act) of influencing the activities of an organized group in its efforts towards goal setting and goal achievement” </li></ul><ul><li>(Stogdill, 1950: pg 3) </li></ul><ul><li>“ (the) process by which one person directs group members toward the attainment of specific goals” </li></ul><ul><li>Moghaddan (1998; pg 455) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Leadership style - focus : <ul><li>Many different models of leadership style but common to all is the assumption that leadership behaviour can be described in two main ways in relation to their focus: </li></ul><ul><li>Task-oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship-oriented </li></ul>
  7. 7. Task-oriented focus: <ul><li>Manage task accomplishment </li></ul><ul><li>Leader defines clearly & closely what subordinates should be doing, how they should be doing it & actively schedules work for them </li></ul>
  8. 8. Relationship-oriented focus: <ul><li>Managing the interpersonal relations of group members </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrating concern for subordinates as people </li></ul><ul><li>Responding to subordinate needs </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting team spirit & cohesion </li></ul>
  9. 9. Alternative terms for leadership style: <ul><li>‘ initiating structure’ versus ‘consideration’ (Fleishman, 1953) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ production oriented’ versus ‘people-oriented ’ (Blake & Mouton, 1964) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ production centred’ versus ‘employee-centred’ (Likert, 1967) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ task emphasis versus relations emphasis’ (Fiedler, 1967) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ performance concern’ versus ‘maintenance concern’ (Misumi, 1985) </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Reflecting back on your experiences of ‘good leadership’. </li></ul><ul><li>Was the person you were happy to work for ‘task-oriented’ or ‘people-oriented’? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think a good leader can be both? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Can a leader be both? <ul><li>Some researchers say no! Eg: Fiedler (1967) in his concept of least preferred co worker </li></ul><ul><li>Most agree it is more reasonable to see task & relationship orientations as independent dimensions (Bass, 1990; Stogdill, 1974) </li></ul><ul><li>There is evidence to suggest that leaders change their style to suit situation demands (Barrow, 1976) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Nature of leader’s influence: <ul><li>Democratic – discuss possible projects; involve employees in decisions about tasks; give and explain feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Autocratic – issue orders & tell employees what to do; do not invite opinions; sometimes praise or blame but no explanation of feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Laissez-faire – leave employees to themselves after giving initial instructions; offer assistance only when asked; no praise or blame given </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Reflecting back on your experiences of ‘good leadership’. </li></ul><ul><li>Did the person you were happy to work for have a autocratic, democratic or laissez faire nature? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you experience any problems with categorising your ‘good leader’ in this way? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Interaction of focus & nature of leadership style: <ul><li>If a leader is autocratic & task-oriented, how would they act towards their subordinates? </li></ul><ul><li>If a leader is autocratic & relationship-oriented, how would they act towards their subordinates? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Interaction of focus & nature of leadership style: <ul><li>If a leader is democratic & task-oriented, how would they act towards their subordinates? </li></ul><ul><li>If a leader is democratic & relationship-oriented, how would they act towards their subordinates? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Theories of leadership: <ul><li>Dispositional theories – Is a leader born, not made? </li></ul><ul><li>‘ great man theories’, trait theories, behaviour theories </li></ul><ul><li>Situational theories – given the right circumstances anyone is a potential leader? </li></ul><ul><li>Central figure in communication networks </li></ul><ul><li>Contingency theories – good leader outcome is dependent on a number of factors </li></ul>
  17. 17. Leader characteristics : <ul><li>Early work suggested that leaders tended to be higher than non-leaders on: </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Dominance/need for power </li></ul><ul><li>Self-confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Energy/persistence </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of the task </li></ul><ul><li>(Stogdill, 1974) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Leader characteristics : <ul><li>Current research focuses on characteristics such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Sociability </li></ul><ul><li>Need for power </li></ul><ul><li>Need for achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Style (as discussed earlier) </li></ul><ul><li>Nature (as discussed earlier) </li></ul><ul><li>Charisma (more details to follow next session) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Situational & Contingency approaches: <ul><li>Consideration of the wider context in which the leader operates </li></ul><ul><li>Some situations demand one kind of behaviour from leaders, while other situations require other behaviours </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Contingent’ upon the situation </li></ul><ul><li>Read up on Fiedler’s Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) contingency theory!! </li></ul>
  20. 20. Example: <ul><li>Emergency occurs: </li></ul><ul><li>BOMB SCARE ! </li></ul><ul><li>Do we really want a leader high in consideration? (at this moment how do you feel about being caught up in a building which has a bomb in it?) </li></ul><ul><li>Or someone who tells us quickly where to go, and what to do? (high in structure) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Leader effectiveness: <ul><li>What is an ‘effective’ leader? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we measure effectiveness? </li></ul><ul><li>Do we ask subordinates? Problems with this? </li></ul><ul><li>Do we ask superiors? Problems with this? </li></ul><ul><li>Do we ask leaders themselves? Problems with this? </li></ul>
  22. 22. Research on measuring leader effectiveness: <ul><li>Use objective measures like productivity and/or quality of output (Hunt et al, 1978) </li></ul><ul><li>Measures of group outcomes (quality of output, number of correct answers or both (Murinham & Leung, 1976) </li></ul><ul><li>Most measures of effectiveness are self-report – problems with this? </li></ul>
  23. 23. Transactional Transformational <ul><li>Leader believes leadership achieved via exchange (transaction). </li></ul><ul><li>Leader assumes people will only follow if there is something in it for them </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders get followers to achieve beyond their expectations by using charisma, inspiration, setting clear, optimistic & apparently attainable goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Leader takes into account individual strengths & encourages free-thinking & team spirit above personal concerns </li></ul>
  24. 24. Next week: <ul><li>Transformational Leadership: implications for leaders and their followers! </li></ul>