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Theories of Motivation in Organizational Behavior

Most employers today would like to have their employee’s motivated and ready to work, but do not understand what truly motivates a person. Companies could be more efficient if the employees had an invested interest in the future of the company. There are essential needs to be met for a person, specifically an employee, to succeed in the workplace. I will examine different theories of motivations, how they are relevant to the workplace, and how employers can implement the theories to ensure happy and motivated employees. Human behaviour is as much a reflection of the differences between individuals as it is a reflection of their similarities. These individual differences are caused by a number of influences and characteristics. For example, personality traits focus on individual differences that make each person a unique human being. Our biological make-up concentrates on how we function as a result of our evolution and human inheritance. Our behaviour is largely influenced by the system of rewards and punishments that are present in our environment. Our cognitive approach focuses on how our thinking and memory affects our behaviour. The fact that we are here at this time with immediate influences, and the ability to express a free will, may present the greatest influence of all. It broadly addresses the topic of employee relations and work motivation. It examined theories and models of motivation that strive to answer the question of what motivates and how is motivation harnessed. At the individual level of analysis, there is a plethora of different approaches, most of which have some conceptual viability, empirical support and practical use. A critical task for future thinking and research is to integrate findings from diverse sources in order to be able to produce a more coherent view of motivation, its content and mechanisms. Any theories about motivation can be contradicted since these theories have many exceptions. It is important that these theories are considered general statements that have been confirmed through observational studies and are applicable only to the extent that they reflect and are influenced by individual behaviour. We might ask: “Why should we even pursue these topics if there are so many inconsistencies, exceptions, and variables that affect conclusions?”. If we are searching for scientific evidence that is universally applicable, we may be wasting our time, but if our goal is to better understand human behaviour and its impacts on personal performance, the insights gained from such theories and studies are invaluable.

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Theories of Motivation in Organizational Behavior
Theories of Motivation in Organizational Behavior
Submitted To: 
Shantono Hasan 
Lecturer 
Department of 
Business Administration 
LEADING UNIVERSITY
Ehsan Ahmed Chowdhury 
1201010230 
Syed Ali Hasan 
1201010248 
Mahmudul Karim Newaz 
1201010205 
Masum Hussain 
1201010202 
Abdul Motin 
1201010219 
Abu Ahmed Shahib 
1201010247 
Kazi Abu Abad 
1101010282
16% 
13% 
15% 
14% 
13% 
16% 
13% 
Syed Ali Hasan 
1201010248 
Ehsan Chowdhury 
1201010230 
Abu Ahmed Shahib 
1201010247 
Abdul Motin 
1201010219 
Massum Hussain 
1201010202 
Mahmudul Karim 
Newaz 1201010205 
Kazi Abu Abad 
1101010282
“Motivation means a process 
of stimulating people to action 
to accomplished desired goals” 
William G. Scout

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Theories of Motivation in Organizational Behavior

  • 3. Submitted To: Shantono Hasan Lecturer Department of Business Administration LEADING UNIVERSITY
  • 4. Ehsan Ahmed Chowdhury 1201010230 Syed Ali Hasan 1201010248 Mahmudul Karim Newaz 1201010205 Masum Hussain 1201010202 Abdul Motin 1201010219 Abu Ahmed Shahib 1201010247 Kazi Abu Abad 1101010282
  • 5. 16% 13% 15% 14% 13% 16% 13% Syed Ali Hasan 1201010248 Ehsan Chowdhury 1201010230 Abu Ahmed Shahib 1201010247 Abdul Motin 1201010219 Massum Hussain 1201010202 Mahmudul Karim Newaz 1201010205 Kazi Abu Abad 1101010282
  • 6. “Motivation means a process of stimulating people to action to accomplished desired goals” William G. Scout
  • 7. Importance of Motivation Helps in satisfying needs of the Employees Change the negative attitude to Positive attitude Reduce labor turnover Reduce absenteeism Helps in introducing changes Improves level of efficiency of employees Creating friendly and supportive relationship
  • 8. Motivation Process Determination of future need Unsatisfied needs Tension Satisfied Needs Search Behavior Drives Reduction of tension Give rise to
  • 10. Types of Motivation Positive motivation Negative motivation Monetary motivation Non-Monetary motivation
  • 11. Positive Motivation • Positive motivation induces people to do work in the best possible manner and to improve their performance. • Positive motivation is the type of motivation a person feels when he expects a certain reward. An example of Positive motivation : when a Boss tells his subordinate , "if you achieve the target on the time I will give you promotion"
  • 12. Negative Motivation • Negative incentives are those whose purpose is to correct the mistakes or defaults of employees. • Negative incentive is generally resorted to when positive incentive does not works and a psychological set back has to be given to employees. An example of Negative motivation : When a Boss tells his subordinate , "if you do not achieve the target on the time I will give you demotion”
  • 13. Financial incentives • Pay and allowances • Productivity linked wage incentives • Bonus • Profit sharing • Stock option • Retirement benefits Non financial incentives • Career advancement opportunity • Job enrichment • Employee recognition program • Job security • Employee participation • Organizational climate • Employee empowerment
  • 14. Monetary Incentives • Those incentives which satisfy the subordinates by providing them rewards in terms of rupees. • Money has been recognized as a chief source of satisfying the needs of people. • Money is also helpful to satisfy the social needs by possessing various material items.
  • 15. Non-monetary Incentives Non-financial incentives which cannot be measured in terms of money are under the category of “Non- monetary incentives”. Whenever a manager has to satisfy the psychological needs of the subordinates, he makes use of non-financial incentives. Types of Non-financial incentives :- • Security of service • Praise or recognition • Job enrichment • Promotion opportunities
  • 16. Motivation Theories Traditional Theories Fear and Punishment Theory Reward Theory Carrot and Stick Theory Modern Theories Maslow’s Hierarchy needs Herzberg hygiene theory MC. Gregors theory X and Y ‘Z’ Theory Vroom’s Expectancy Theory Three need theory
  • 17. Fear and Punishment Theory • Managers developed a strategy of forcing people to work by threatening to punish or dismiss them or cut their rewards if they did not work well. • This philosophy is characterized by thinking of aggressiveness and authorities managers • Their was a tight control and rigid supervision over workers.
  • 18. Reward Theory • This theory tried to establish a direct relationship between efforts and rewards. • Bases of Piece rate system of wages • Based on the standard manager should decide on degree of rewards and penalties
  • 19. Carrot and Stick Theory • This theory suggest a combination of both rewards and penalties for motivation • This is based on the strategy of putting carrot in the front of the donkey and hitting it with the stick from behind so it has to run • Carrot refers to the incentives • Stick refer to the penalties
  • 20. Maslow’s Theory of Motivation • Abraham Maslow is well renowned for proposing the Hierarchy of Needs Theory in 1943. • He considered an individual's motivation behavior as a predetermined order of needs. Abraham Maslow
  • 21. Hierarchy of Needs Theory Self- Actualization need desire for gaining more knowledge, social- service, creativity and being aesthetic Esteem Needs reputation, prestige, power, status, recognition and respect of others. Social needs needs for belongingness, friendship, love, affection, attention and social acceptance. Safety needs security of job and need for a predictable, secure and safe environment Basic/ Physiological Needs food, water, air, shelter, sleep, thirst, etc.
  • 22. McGregor :Theory X and Theory Y • In 1960, Douglas McGregor formulated Theory X and Theory Y suggesting two aspects of human behavior at work Douglas McGregor
  • 23. Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas McGregor)
  • 24. Assumptions of Theory X • An average employee does not like work and tries to escape it whenever possible. • He lacks ambition and dislikes responsibility • Since the employee does not want to work, he must be persuaded, compelled, or warned with punishment so as to achieve organizational goals.
  • 25. Assumptions of Theory ‘y’ • Employees can perceive their job as relaxing and normal. • If the job is rewarding and satisfying, then it will result in employees’ loyalty and commitment to organization. • The creativity, resourcefulness and innovative potentiality of the employees can be utilized to solve organizational problems.
  • 26. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation • In 1959, Frederick Herzberg, a behavioral scientist proposed a two-factor theory or the motivator-hygiene theory.
  • 27. Two-Factor Theory (Frederick Herzberg) Hygiene factors Motivators
  • 28. Hygiene factors Hygiene factors are those job factors which are essential for existence of motivation at workplace. Hygiene factors are also called as dissatisfies or maintenance factors as they are required to avoid dissatisfaction. These factors describe the job environment / scenario. Means of Hygiene Factors  Company policy and administration  Interpersonal relationship Working conditions  Salary  Status  Job security
  • 29. Motivational Factors The motivational factors yield positive satisfaction. These factors motivate the employees for a superior performance. These are factors involved in performing the job. Employees find these factors intrinsically rewarding. Means of Motivator  Recognition  Sense of achievement  Growth and promotional opportunities  Responsibility
  • 30. David McClelland’s Theory of Needs nAch nPow nAff