USA vs. USSR Democracy Vs Autocracy Free Market (capitalism) Vs Command Economy
Yalta Conference Feb 1945 Near the end of WWII, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met at the Yalta Conference to decide what to do with Germany after WWII.
The Berlin Crisis- (June 1948-May 1949) At Yalta, they also decided to divide up Germany into 4 zones . The USA, Great Britain , France, and USSR would each control one zone.
The goal was to fix up the country and then unite the 4 zones into one new country.
RISE OF THE SUPERPOWERS
RISE OF THE SUPERPOWERS After WWII, the USA and the USSR were the 2 most powerful countries by far. In fact they were nicknamed SUPER POWERS . The US and USSR became rivals. Roughly half of the world was on the side of the US, and half of was on the side of the USSR.
Blue=NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) countries
Red=Warsaw Pact countries
USA The Soviet Union Free elections No elections or fixed Democratic Autocratic / Dictatorship Capitalist Communist ‘ Survival of the fittest’ Everybody helps everybody Richest world power Poor economic base Personal freedom Freedom of the media Society controlled by secret police. Total censorship NATO WARSAW PACT
NATO vs. WARSAW
The countries on the US’s side formed an alliance called NATO and the countries on the USSR’s side formed an alliance called the Warsaw Pact. The countries on the USSR’s side were referred to as Soviet Union.
After the war, the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin established Communist governments in Eastern Europe and forced the new governments of Eastern Europe to stay loyal to the USSR
Stalin controlled these countries through the use of puppet governments .
Stalin also controlled his people using terror tactics . Citizens could be jailed or killed if they spoke out against the government.
The Iron Curtain
The Iron Curtain was an invisible wall that rose between Eastern and Western European countries after WWII.
People of the East were restricted from leaving their countries , and people of the West who wanted to visit the East were restricted as well.
The Marshall Plan
In order to help make sure countries joined the US’s side, the US gave billions of dollars to Western Europe in what was called the Marshall Plan and was named after John Marshall
Although the US and USSR were enemies, they never fought each other. Instead they had what is called a COLD WAR . This lasted from 1945-1989 . The 2 countries did everything possible to stop each other but never had a “real” war .
They were both afraid of each other because both had nuclear weapons . Neither wanted to fight because they could have both destroyed the other. So instead of having a hot war, the problems between the US and USSR from1945-1989 were known as the COLD WAR .
The tension and rivalry between the USA and the USSR ( Union of Soviet Socialist Republic ) was described as the Cold War (1945-1990).
So What is the Cold War?
USSR’s First Atomic Test Arms Race!
USSR Launches Sputnik Space Race!
There was never a real war between the two sides , but they were often very close to war (Hotspots). Both sides got involved in other conflicts in the world to either stop the spread of communism (USA) or help the spread (USSR). Again...
Germany, which had been ruled by the Hitler and the Nazis until their defeat in 1945 was split in two.
The western side became West Germany and the eastern side became East Germany.
East Germany became another communist country.
The Berlin Wall
The Berlin Wall was built in 1962, to prevent people from escaping to West Germany.