Sample answer: Do you think that this cartoon was published inWestern Europe or Eastern Europe? (6)I think that this cartoon was published in Western Europe for a variety ofreasons. The cartoon shows the Allies beating the Berlin Blockade by flyingin essential supplies. The planes are depicted as storks perhaps to show therebirth of Berlin. Stalin is made to look foolish because of the old fashionedgun he is holding and which he dare not fire. If he shoots down the peacefulbirds then the USSR will look like the aggressor. This is exactly whathappened in June 1948 when Stalin could not short down the allied planesbecause that would make him look threatening. The cartoon is thereforealmost poking fun at Stalin by showing that he is incapable of dealing with theallied airlift over Berlin.
Section B questions: a) What was agreed at the Potsdam Conference in July 1945? (4) • Germany would be divided • Poland’s border would be moved West • Nazi party banned • Germans living in Poland, Hungary, Czech would be sent back to Germany b) Explain why the Soviet Union was unhappy at the outcome of the Potsdam Conference. (6) • Soviet Union wanted to impose severe reparations on Germany • Britain and USA wanted a greater say in East Europe and Stalin wasn’t happy • Soviet Union wanted to share in the occupation of defeated Japan.Explain your points for this answer! Example (point 2) :Stalin was unhappy because he had gone to Potsdam with definite ideasabout how the liberated countries in East Europe should be run. However,his ideas were not accepted by the West as Britain and the USA waned agreater say in East Europe. Stalin thought that it was okay to keep theRed Army in liberated countries but Truman was adamant that thereshould be fair and free elections in the East. c) ‘The most important cause of the Cold War was the Soviet Union’s fear of the West.’ Do you agree? (10) • Why did the Soviet Union fear the West? (USA had developed atomic bomb 1945, distrust since World War Two, Truman Doctrine, Marshall Aid, NATO • Why did the USA fear the Soviet Union? (fear of communism (explain capitalism v communism), Soviet Union creating satellite states with Red Army (examples – eg Poland) • Trigger – Berlin Blockade – final action which makes it clear to USA what the USSR would do if left unchecked. • Conclusion: Sum up fear and mistrust on both sides due to different ideologies which led to each side taking action to contain/spread communism.
a) What was the American attitude to the spread of communism in Europe after the Second World War? (4) My answer: b) Why did the Soviet blockade fail? (6) My answer: 1) airlift by Western allies 2) Soviet Union had its bluff called c) The following were all equally important reasons for the Cold War: • Soviet aggression • American fear of communism • Western policy towards the Soviet Union in the period 1917-1945 Explain your answer referring to the reasons above. (10)Sample paragraph:Western policy towards the Soviet Union also contributed towards the Cold War. In1917, when the communists took over in Russia, the West sent in armies to try anddefeat the communists. Moreover, in the lead up to, and during the Second WorldWar, the Soviet Union always felt that Britain and France were isolating them. Forexample, at the Munich Conference in 1938, Stalin was left out of the talks over whatto do with Czechoslovakia. And during World War Two itself, Stalin felt that theallies were delaying the D-Day invasion so that the Soviet Union would bear the bruntof the fighting. Therefore, after the war, the Soviet Union felt no loyalty to the alliesand this mistrust led to actions being taken to protect the USSR against the West.