The Cold War: Origins

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The Cold War: Origins

  1. 1. The Cold War 1945 - 1991
  2. 2.  An era of tense rivalry between the post- WW2 superpowers ◦ USA & USSR Characterized by suspicion, distrust, rivalry, and hostility ◦ Both countries also had nuclear weaponsDefinition
  3. 3.  The two countries do no come into direct conflict, but they do come dangerously close to war on several occasions ◦ Due to their interference in their affairs of other countries ◦ Ex: Korea, Vietnam, Cuba
  4. 4.  Potsdam  They no longer Conference: Truman need the Soviets to reveals that USA defeat Japan has “the bomb” U mad bro?Origins of the Cold War
  5. 5.  The US adopts a confrontational attitude towards Stalin ◦ Due to his attempt to take control over Eastern Europe ◦ This sets the stage for the Cold WarOrigins of the Cold War
  6. 6.  The creation of a “buffer zone” in Eastern Europe is not something that Stalin will negotiate ◦ It is essential to their national security ◦ Why??Origins of the Cold War
  7. 7. Europe- 1920
  8. 8. Europe after 1945
  9. 9.  The animosity that  Ordinary citizens in existed between the both countries had US and USSR was other concerns: initially confined to ◦ USSR Rebuilding government circles the country inside Washington ◦ USA  Isolationism and MoscowOrigins of the Cold War
  10. 10.  Truman played the atomic bomb as a threat towards the Soviet military ◦ This had 2 negative effectsOrigins of the Cold War
  11. 11.  1. Contributed to deteriorating One side builds more Soviet-American arms relations 2. Encouraged the Even more More Soviets to develop weapons weapons nuclear weapons ◦ Successful by 1949 The other ◦ Nuclear arms race side builds more armsOrigins of the Cold War
  12. 12.  1946: Two important speeches lead to more hostility ◦ 1. Feb: Stalin’s “Two Hostile Camps” speech in Moscow (p. 140 in text) ◦ 2. Mar: Churchill’s “Iron Curtain” speech at University of MissouriOrigins of the Cold War
  13. 13.  Stalin’s speech:  Churchill’s speech: ◦ How was it ◦ Americans should be interpreted in aware of Soviet Washington? threat ◦ Stalin was stating ◦ There existed a need that war with the for “an association of West was inevitable English-speaking peoples” acting outside the UN to re- order the world (NATO)Origins of the Cold War
  14. 14.  From Stettin in the Baltic to  …The Communist parties, Trieste in the Adriatic an iron which were very small in all curtain has descended across these Eastern States of the Continent. Behind that line Europe, have been raised to lie all the capitals of the pre-eminence and power far ancient states of Central and beyond their numbers and are Eastern Europe. Warsaw, seeking everywhere to obtain Berlin, Prague, Vienna, totalitarian control. Police Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest governments are prevailing in and Sofia, all these famous nearly every case, and so far, cities and the populations except in Czechoslovakia, around them lie in what I must there is no true democracy. call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and, in some cases, increasing measure of control from Moscow.The “Iron Curtain” Speech
  15. 15.  The effect of Churchill’s speech is two-fold: ◦ 1. American public opinion  Many Americans thought Truman’s “get tough” approach to the Soviets as the right one  Major change in public opinion ◦ 2. Stalin’s reaction  Accused Churchill of wanting “English-speaking” people to rule over the remaining nations of the worldOrigins of the Cold War
  16. 16.  With US public opinion becoming increasingly anti- Soviet, the government adopts a new policy towards communism ◦ Containment
  17. 17.  Containment was a defensive approach to dealing with communism and the USSR ◦ Belief was that if the US could contain the spread of communism within Eastern Europe, the USSR would eventually crumble
  18. 18.  The next 45 years are characterized by the Soviets attempting to export communism around the globe (North Africa, Middle East, Asia, and Latin America), while the US attempts to prevent this from happening
  19. 19.  Although this is a  Ex: struggle between two ◦ Berlin Airlift political philosophies ◦ Korea (Democracy vs ◦ Vietnam Communism), the ◦ Cuba American efforts are more about stopping communism than promoting democracy
  20. 20.  On 12 March 1947, Truman announces an aggressive anti- communist policy ◦ Called for reducing Soviet influence around the world rather than simply containing it to Eastern Europe
  21. 21.  Policy becomes known as the Truman Doctrine ◦ Combined with containment, this results in an aggressive approach to dealing with the USSR ◦ P. 141 in textTruman Doctrine
  22. 22.  What follows is a series of actionary and reactionary initiatives ◦ Similar to a chess game in that the two sides attempt to outmanoeuvre each other ◦ Early focus was on the affairs of Europe, particularly Germany and Eastern EuropeTruman Doctrine

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