The Cold War


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The Cold War

  1. 1. The Cold War 1945
  2. 2. Why do we call it a “cold’ war? <ul><li>Term coined in 1948 by Walter Lippman </li></ul><ul><li>A “constant war of nerves” between the US and USSR even though they never actually fought each other directly </li></ul>
  3. 3. Yalta Conference, 1945 <ul><li>Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin meet in the Soviet city of Yalta on the Black Sea in February </li></ul><ul><li>There they agreed to create a new international peacekeeping body, the UN (united nations) </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin promised to: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enter the war against Japan after surrender of Germany </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hold free elections in Eastern Europe </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Potsdam Conference, 1945 <ul><li>Big Three: Truman (in for FDR), Atlee (in for Churchill), and Stalin met to discuss democracy in Eastern Europe after the war </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin said no democracy would be allowed in the Soviet Union or the countries they obtained as a result of the Potsdam meeting </li></ul><ul><li>As a result of this meeting, a metaphorical border known as the Iron Curtain was created </li></ul><ul><li>This border divided democratic/ westernized society from the communist/ easternized society </li></ul>
  5. 5. Why was the Cold War “fought”? <ul><li>The US wanted… </li></ul><ul><li>Containment of communism by encouraging democracy in other countries to prevent the rise of new totalitarian governments </li></ul><ul><li>The Soviets wanted… </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging the spread of communism into other countries. Tried to promote the struggles, worldwide or the injustices between workers and wealthy businesses owners </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The US wanted… </li></ul><ul><li>Access to raw materials and markets to promote industry and capitalism (competition) </li></ul><ul><li>Rebuild European government to create new markets for US and stop communism (ex: The Marshall Plan) </li></ul><ul><li>The Soviets wanted… </li></ul><ul><li>Use industrial equipment of Eastern Europe to rebuild the USSR after WWII (government controlled industry) </li></ul><ul><li>Control Eastern European governments to balance the influence of the US and Westernized Europe (kept Germany divided to prevent another war) </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>The US wanted… </li></ul><ul><li>Reunite Germany to prevent another World War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany was divided into Western and Eastern control with the creation of the Berlin Wall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Berlin Airlift (1948-49) have American supplies sent to Berlin for 327 days </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Soviets wanted… </li></ul><ul><li>Kept Germany weak and divided </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Berlin Blockage, where soviets retaliated for making one nation out of Western Germany. They saw it as a threat to Communism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soviets gave in and ended the blockage </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>The US wanted… </li></ul><ul><li>NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US, Canada, and the Western European Countries allied militarily to mutual defense </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Soviets wanted… </li></ul><ul><li>Warsaw Pact (1955) military alliance of USSR of Eastern Europe (Satellite Nations (dependent upon and dominated by the Soviets) ) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Conflict of… <ul><li>Ideas (democracy vs. Communism) </li></ul><ul><li>Economics (Capitalism vs. Command Economy) </li></ul><ul><li>Both issues led to Brinkmanship (military strategies to push the envelop, including the usage or nuclear weapons, upping the ante, a game in which you never win) </li></ul>