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Fundamental of Mesenchymal Stem Cells as a promising candidate in regenerative medicine(The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology)
Adult Stem Cells• Undifferentiated cells• Found throughout the body after embryonic development• Multipotent• Capable of self-renewal and differentiation with limited extend• Regenerate damaged tissue
Figure 1. When an adult stem cell divides, one of the daughter cells goes on to createspecialized tissue cells.
Type of Adult Stem Cells• Hematopoietic • Endothelial• Mammary • Olfactory• Mesenchymal • Neural Crest• Neural • Testicular
Cells origin• Bone marrow is the richest and most reliable reservoir for MSCs.• Also found in adipose tissue, synovial membrane, skeletal muscle, dermis, pericytes, trabecular bone, umbilical cord, lung, dental pulp, amniotic fluid, fetal liver and peripheral blood.
Plasticity• Differentiate into cell types in organs /tissues other than those expected from the cells predicted lineage.• MSCs could engraft in bone, muscle, brain, lung, heart, liver, gastroin testinal tract and hematopoietic system when transplanted.• Plasticity nature of MSCs remain arguable due to lack of experiment reproducibility.
Functions• MSCs in bone marrow contribute to the formation of HSC “niche”.• MSCs serve as precursors of bone, cartilage and adipocytes.• MSCs shows a strong tendency to repair tissue damage in response to injury and disease. – Secrete soluble factors
Associated pathologies• MSCs are immunological immature, thus able to survive in a xenogeneic environment.• Autologous MSCs are free from immune rejection and carcinogenesis and also circumvent ethical constraints.• MSCs may be useful in the repair or generation of damaged or mutated tissue including bone, cartilage, myocardium, fat, brain and liver.
Cont.• MSCs selectively migrate to areas of injury/ inflammation and tumors.• SDF-1/CXCR4 was suggested to play important role in MSCs migration toward injury site.• Capable of inhibiting immune responses in a major histocompatibility complex- independent manner. – Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)
Summary• Mesenchymal Stem Cells – Reside in the connective tissue of most organs. – Can differentiate into multiple mesenchymal lineages: cartilage, bone and adipose tissues. – Possess the capacity to transdifferentiate. – Can migrate to sites of injury, inflammation and tumor. – Can alter tissue microenvironment via secretion of soluble factors.
AcknowledgementChen, Y., Shao, J.Z., Xiang, L.X., Dong, X.J., Zhang,G.R. 2008. Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Apromising candidate in regenerative medicine.The International Journal of Biochemistry & CellBiology 40: 815-820.