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Future orthopedics basics of stem cells and tissue engineering dr.sandeep c agrawal gondia maharashtra india

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Stem Cells,BMAC,PRP,Scaffold,Regenerative Medicine,Chondrocytes,Mesenchymal cells,FUTURE ORTHOPEDICS BASICS OF STEM CELLS AND TISSUE ENGINEERING Dr.Sandeep C Agrawal Gondia Maharashtra India

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Future orthopedics basics of stem cells and tissue engineering dr.sandeep c agrawal gondia maharashtra india

  1. 1. 1 BASICS OF STEM CELLS: TISSUE ENGINEERING Dr.Sandeep Agrawal! MS,DNB(Orthopedics)! Agrasen Hospital! Gondia! Maharashtra! India! www.agrasenortho.com! drsandeep123@gmail.com
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  3. 3. 3 Tissue Engineering 
 is Multidisciplinary 3
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  5. 5. 5 What are Stem Cells?
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  10. 10. Stem cell division and Differentiation 1: Symmetric stem cell division 2: Asymmetric stem cell division 3: Progenitor division 4: Terminal differentiation A: Stem Cell B: Progenitor Cell C: Differentiated Cell
  11. 11. Symmetric Stem Cell Division 11
  12. 12. 12 Asymmetric division of
 stem cells
  13. 13. 13 
 Three unique properties of stem cells

  14. 14. 14 1. Stem cells are unspecialized Does not have any tissue-specific structures that allow it to perform specialized functions.
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 2.Stem cells are capable of dividing and renewing themselves for long periods.

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 3.Stem cells can give rise to specialized cells

  17. 17. 17 In embryos, stem cells function to generate new organs and tissues. In adults, they function to replace cells during the natural course of cell turnover. 4.Stem cells exist in both embryos and adults.
  18. 18. 18 Distinguishing Features of Progenitor/ Precursor Cells and Stem Cells. ■ A stem cell :Unspecialized cell that develops into a variety of specialized cell types. ■ Divides and gives rise to one additional stem cell and a specialized cell. ! ■ A progenitor cell (a precursor cell) is unspecialized that is capable of undergoing cell division and yielding two specialized cells.
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  20. 20. 21 Pluripotent stem cells ! Differentiate into any cell type, except for totipotent stem cells and the cells of the placenta. “Pluri” from Latin plures means several or many. Have the potential to give rise to any type of cell.
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  23. 23. 24 An Overview of Early Development 
 Fertilized egg Totipotent stem cells Totipotent: Can become any cell in body or placenta Fate Decision Pluripotent stem cells (3-5 days old) Blastocyst Pluripotent: Can become any cell in body Implantation Fate Decision Gastrulation (day 14) leads to Primary Germ Cells Endoderm (inner)!digestive tract, resp. track Mesoderm (middle)!bones, blood cells, heart Ectoderm (outer)!skin, CNS Multipotent: Can become any cell within a specific germ layer or cell lineage Embryonic stem cells come from inner cell mass of blastocyst. Implantation Fate Decision Gastrulation (day 14) leads to Primary Germ Cells Endoderm (inner)!digestive tract, resp. track Mesoderm (middle)!bones, blood cells, heart Ectoderm (outer)!skin, CNS Multipotent: Can become any cell within a specific germ layer or cell lineage Multipotent
  24. 24. 25 Somatic Cell Endoderm Ectoderm Mesoderm Liver Intestine Pancreas Skin Hair Nerves Blood Muscle Bone Cartilage Somatic stem cell Germ stem cell Primitive germ cell Gametes Pluripotent Embryonal stem cell Totipotent stem cells Pluripotent stem cells Adult Multipotent stem cell
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  27. 27. 28 
 Embryonic Type stem cells
 1.Embryonic Type Embryonic Stem Cells  Embryonic Germ Cells 2. Adult Type Umbilical Cord Stem Cells Placental Stem Cells Adult Stem Cells Adult type Stem cells
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 Comparison of embryonic and adult stem cells ■ Advantages of  Embryonic Stem Cell    1. Flexible - appear to have the potential to make any cell.
   2. Immortal - one embryonic stem cell line can potentially provide an endless supply of cells with defined characteristics.
   3. Availability - embryos from in vitro fertilization clinics. 
 

  29. 29. 30 Superior features of ESCs ■ Embryonic stem cells are easier to identify, isolate and harvest. ■ There are more of them. ■ They grow more quickly and easily in the lab than adult stem cells. ■ They can be more easily manipulated (they are more plastic)
  30. 30. Advantages of Embryonic Stem Cells over adult stem cells: Embryonic S.C. Adult S.C. “Pluripotent” (can become any cell types present in the human body “Multipotent” (“can become many but not any”) E.g., blood stem cells can develop into several blood cell types, but cannot develop into brain, kidney, or liver cells Stable. Can undergo many cell divisions. Less Stable. Capacity for self-renewal is limited. Easy to obtain but blastocyst is destroyed. Difficult to isolate in adult tissue.
  31. 31. 32 
 Disadvantages of Embryonic 
 Stem Cell 1. Difficult to differentiate uniformly and homogeneously into a target tissue. 2. Immunogenic - embryonic stem cells from a random embryo donor are likely to be rejected after transplantation 3. Tumorigenic - capable of forming tumors or promoting tumor formation. 4. Destruction of developing human life. 

  32. 32. 33 Advantages of Adult Stem Cell 1. Adult stem cells from bone marrow and umbilical cords appear to be as flexible as the embryonic type 2. Somewhat specialized - inducement may be simpler. 3. Not immunogenic - recipients who receive the products of their own stem cells will not experience immune rejection. 4. Relative ease of procurement - some adult stem cells are easy to harvest (skin, muscle, marrow, fat) 5. Non-tumorigenic-tend not to form tumors. 6. No harm done to the donor. 

  33. 33. 34 Disadvantages of Adult stem cells  1. Limited quantity.
   2. Finite - may not live as long as embryonic stem cells in culture.
   3. Less flexible
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 Why adult stem cells preferable to embryonic cells?
 ■ Naturally exist in our bodies, and they provide a natural repair mechanism for many tissues. ■ Belong in the microenvironment of adult body, while embryonic stem cells belong in the microenvironment of the early embryo, where they tend to cause tumors and immune system reactions.
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  36. 36. 37 Source of Stem cells ● Autologus, allogeneic or xenogenic sources ● Foetal tissue … best current tissue source for human neural stem cells.
  37. 37. Embryonic Excess IVF embryos. ! Fetal Aborted Fetuses ! Adult stem cells Cord blood Cord (Wharton’s Jelly) Placenta Amnion, Amniotic fluid Endometrium, Menstrual blood, Milk Teeth and Wisdom teeth DISCARDED STEM CELLS
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  41. 41. Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) Osteoblast Chondrocyt Myoblast Stromal Tenoblast Preadipocyt Osteocyte Chondrocyt Myocyte Stromal Tenocyte Adipocyte Bone Cartilage Cardiac Stroma Tendon Adipose
  42. 42. Benefits of mesenchymal stem cell No risk of rejection – used across HLA barrier No risk of teratoma formation Pluripotent No ethical issues Immune privileged Greater potency of cultured expanded product Lower cost of cell culture process Efficient large scale expansion Homogeneous population and high rate of cell division Precise identification Ease of isolation and scale up Genetic stability
  43. 43. 45 Isolation & characterization of MSCs from human bone marrow Stem Cells 2002;20:249-258 Size-sieved methods •MSCs is greater in size •MSCs is easier adhere to culture dish •MSCs is better expanded in 10%FBS-DMEM-LG •The use of culture insert with 3-µm pores !
  44. 44. • Also Known as Wharton’s Jelly • Adult stem cells of infant origin • Less invasive than bone marrow • Greater compatibility • Less expensive • Obtained from cord immediately after birth. • Rich source of haemopoietic stem cells • These are referred to as neonatal stem cells, less mature than those found in adults bone marrow.. ! Three important functions: 1. Plasticity: Potential to change into other cell types like nerve cells 2. Homing: To travel to the site of tissue damage 3. Engraftment: To unite with other tissues Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells
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  46. 46. 48 References • http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/scireport/2001report.htm • http://www.ulb.ac.be/sciences/biodic/biodic/images/bio_animale/embryologie/fecondation/ baefec_01_01.jpg • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=mboc4.figgrp.3748 • http://www.news.wisc.edu/packages/stemcells/illustration.html • http://www.drugs.com/enc/images/images/en/17010.jpg • http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/Notes/placenta.htm • http://www.dnalc.org/stemcells.html • http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/units/stemcells/ • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page • Harrison Internal Medicine Edition 18 • Robbins Pathology Edition 8 Research on Stem Cells is progressing in spite of several restrictions
  47. 47. 49 DISCLAIMER This presentation is for  doctors and students in general." . Graphics,Images and jpeg files are taken from Google and yahoo  Image  to heighten the specific points in this presentation. " • If there is any objection/or copyright violation, please inform drsandeep123@gmail.com for prompt deletion. " • It is intended for use only by the doctors of orthopaedic surgery." . Views expressed in this presentation are personal. • .For any confusion please contact the sole author for clarification. " • Every body is allowed to copy or download and use the material best suited to him. " There is no financial involvement."  • For any correction or suggestion please contact drsandeep123@gmail.com."

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