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Stem cell

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Basic biology of stem cells
Basic biology of stem cells
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Stem cell

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stem cell are the undifferentiated an unspecialised cells having properties to differentiate into any type of cells in the body.

stem cell are the undifferentiated an unspecialised cells having properties to differentiate into any type of cells in the body.

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Stem cell

  1. 1. WELCOME
  2. 2. SEMINAR FROM DEPT. OF ZOOLOGY GUIDED BY SHREE. RADHAKANTA PRADHAN (H.O.D) Dr . JATINDRA KU. PRADHAN Dr . MUNTAZ KHAN PREPARED BY RUDRA MADHAB RAO NAG
  3. 3. STEM CELL
  4. 4. CONTENTS • STEM CELL: INTRODUCTION AND DEFINATION • PROPERTIES OF STEM CELLS • CLASSIFICATION • ISOLATION OF STEM CELLS • CLINICAL APPLICATION • iPS –INDUCED PLURIPOTENT CELL • CONCLUSION
  5. 5. Introduction • “Células madre” is a Spanish word for stem cell. • Stem cells are “mother” cells that give rise to all other cells in the body. • They are cells found in all multicellular organisms that can undergo mitosis to give rise to specialized cells, or more stem cells • They are considered as a blank microchip that can be programmed to perform particular tasks. They serve as a repair machine for the body
  6. 6. Defination Stem cells are defined as cells that have clonogenic and self-renewing capabilities and differentiate into multiple cell lineages. OR A cell that has the ability to continuously divide and differentiate (develop) into various other kind(s) of cells/tissues
  7. 7. Properties of stem cell  Stem cells are unspecialised cells or called “Blank cell”  Asymmetric cell division  Stem cell can divide and renew themselves for long periods of time .  Stem cell can divide and become specific specialized cell types of the body.  Stem cells can replace dying or old damaged cells.  Relocation and Differentiation are abilities of stem cells to “migrate” to where they’re needed in the body and specialize into a particular type of mature cell
  8. 8. Cell division in stem cell
  9. 9. Stem cell type Description Examples Totipotent Each cell can develop into a new individual Cells from early (1-3 days) embryos Pluripotent Cells can form any (over 200) cell types Some cells of blastocyst (5 to 14 days) Multipotent Cells differentiated, but can form a number of other tissues Fetal tissue, cord blood, and adult stem cells Unipotent Able to contribute to only a single mature type cell Like Muscle stem cell Classification of stem cells on the basis of potency
  10. 10. Classification on the basis of their sources Embryonic stem cells Adult stem cells or somatic stem cell
  11. 11. EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS  Cells found early (less than 2 wks.) in the development of an embryo  Embryonic stem cells are the most versatile because they can become any cell in the body including fetal stem cells and adult stem cells.  Embryonic stem (ES) cells are taken from inside the blastocyst, a very early stage embryo. The blastocyst is a ball of about 50-100 cells and it is not yet implanted in the womb. It is made up of an outer layer of cells, a fluid-filled space and a group of cells called the inner cell mass. ES cells are found in the inner cell mass.
  12. 12. Blastocyst
  13. 13. ADULT STEM CELLS/SOMATIC STEM CELLS  Adult stem cells are found in the human body and in umbilical cord blood.  Also known as Tissue specific stem cell  The most well known source of adult stem cells in the body is bone marrow but they are also found in many organs and tissues; even in the blood.  Adult stem cells are more specialized since they are assigned to a specific cell family such as blood cells, nerve cells, etc.  Recently, it was discovered that an adult stem cell from one tissue may act as a stem cell for another tissue, i.e. blood to neural
  14. 14. neurons grow under conditions B Embryonic stem (ES) cells: Challenges embryonic stem cells skin grow under conditions A blood grow under conditions C liver grow under conditions D
  15. 15. Adult stem cells: What they can do MULTIPOTENT blood stem cell found in bone marrow differentiation only specialized types of blood cell: red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets
  16. 16. Isolation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells
  17. 17. CLINICAL APPLICATION
  18. 18. i PS –INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEMCELL
  19. 19. Induced Pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) cell from the body ‘genetic reprogramming’ = add certain genes to the cell induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell behaves like an embryonic stem cell Advantage: no need for embryos! all possible types of specialized cells culture iPS cells in the lab differentiation
  20. 20. “Scientists Turn Human Skin Cells into Stem Cells” By inserting just four genes -Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and Myc- into fibroblasts (cultured skin cells) ,Shinya Yamanaka of Kyoto University reported his transformation of cultured mouse skin cells into a state approximating that of embryonic stem cells.
  21. 21. Prize in Medicine The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012 was awarded jointly to Sir John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka "for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent stem cell"
  22. 22. Conclusion Stem cell research is complicated and rapidly changing .Today’s medicine generally tries to support or treat injured tissues and organs, but stem cells may someday simply replace them. Stem cell therapy is considered as like a soldier with a weapon. Only if the soldier (experienced doctor ),weapon (technology) and bullets (stem cells) all are in our hand than the fight will turn in our favor.
  23. 23. REFERENCS  https://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/4.html  www.imedpub.com
  24. 24. ACKNOWLDEGEMENT I would like to convey my heart felt thanks to my faculty members Shree Radhakanta Pradhan (HOD) ,Dr. Jatindra ku Pradhan and Dr.Muntaz khan sir for their valuable guidance for the completion of this seminar. I would like to thank Baikuntha sahu Science society secretary for making such a beautiful arrangements and providing me a chance to deliver this seminar. I would like to take this oppertuinity to thank all those people who have directly or indirectly helped me making this seminar.
  25. 25. THANK YOU

Editor's Notes

  • A life story…
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    Stem cells are different from other cells of the body in that they have the ability to differentiate into other cell/tissue types. This ability allows them to replace cells that have died. With this ability, they have been used to replace defective cells/tissues in patients who have certain diseases or defects.
  • <number>
    Stem cells are different from other cells of the body in that they have the ability to differentiate into other cell/tissue types. This ability allows them to replace cells that have died. With this ability, they have been used to replace defective cells/tissues in patients who have certain diseases or defects.
  • <number>
    Stem cells are different from other cells of the body in that they have the ability to differentiate into other cell/tissue types. This ability allows them to replace cells that have died. With this ability, they have been used to replace defective cells/tissues in patients who have certain diseases or defects.
  • Embryonic stem cells: Challenges
    Scientists around the world are trying to understand how and why embryonic stem cells produce skin, blood, nerve or any other particular kind of specialized cell. What controls the process so that the stem cells make the right amount of each cell type, at the right time?
    The big challenge for scientists is to learn how to control these fascinating cells. If we could force embryonic stem cells to make whatever kind of cell we want, then we would have a powerful tool for developing treatments for disease. For example, perhaps we could grow new insulin-producing cells to transplant into a patient with diabetes. But there is a great deal to learn before such therapies can be developed. Scientists also want to use stem cells to:
    Understand how diseases develop (disease modelling)
    Test drugs in the laboratory
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  • Tissue stem cells: What they can do
    Tissue stem cells can often make several kinds of specialized cell, but they are more limited than embryonic stem cells. Tissue stem cells can ONLY make the kinds of cell found in the tissue they belong to. So, blood stem cells can only make the different kinds of cell found in the blood. Brain stem cells can only make different types of brain cell. Muscle stem cells can only make muscle cells. And so forth.
    Scientists say that tissue stem cells are multipotent because they can make multiple types of specialized cell, but NOT all the kinds of cell in your body.
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  • Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells)
    Note: This slide contains a lot of information and may be too complex for some audiences unless there is plenty of time for explanations and discussions.
    What are iPS cells?
    In 2006, scientists discovered that it is possible to make a new kind of stem cell in the laboratory. They found that they could transform skin cells from a mouse into cells that behave just like embryonic stem cells. In 2007, researchers did this with human cells too. The new stem cells that are made in the lab are called induced pluripotent stem cells. Just like embryonic stem cells, they can make all the different types of cell in the body – so we say they are pluripotent.
    Making induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is a bit like turning back time. Scientists add particular genes to cells from the body to make them behave like embryonic stem cells. Genes give cells instructions about how to behave. So, this process is a bit like changing the instructions in a computer programme to make the computer do a new task. Scientists call the process they use to make iPS cells ‘genetic reprogramming’.
    Why are they exciting?
    Researchers hope that one day they might be able to use iPS cells to help treat diseases like Parkinson’s or Alzheimer’s. They hope to:
    Take cells from the body - like skin cells - from a patient
    Make iPS cells
    Use those iPS cells to grow the specialized cells the patient needs to recover from the disease, e.g. certain brain cells. These cells would be made from the patient’s own skin cells so the body would not reject them.
    There is a long way to go before scientists can do this, but iPS cells are an exciting discovery.
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