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Albert SimardDefence R&D CanadaPresented toKnowledge Strategy Exchange NetworkToronto, ON May 13-14, 2013New Approaches to...
The Knowledge Management DichotomyStructured Approach:Systems and TechnologyUnstructured Approach:Social Interactions
Knowledge Services ArchitectureSemi-structuredTechnologyStructuredWork ProcessesSocialStructuresUnstructuredKnowledge-Base...
OutlineOrganizationArchitectureSocial InteractionSharingCollaborationNegotiationCompetition
Organizational StructureManageInterfaceContentResearchSocialStructureCommonWorkTechnologysupportGovernancecontextOrganizat...
Knowledge Work (DRDC)GovernanceMonitoringIntelligenceNeedsPrioritiesEstablishmentProgramsServicesAcquireCreateDevelopMobil...
Vertical Knowledge FlowOrganizationNational Defence,National Security,Public SafetyMarketsResourcesGovernmentApplicationSt...
Organizational Knowledge FlowCreation ValidationOrganizationAuthorizationOrganization
Knowledge ManageabilityManagementlevelsAuthoritativeHierarchyOrganizationalInfrastructureNegotiatedAgreementResponsibleAut...
OutlineOrganizationArchitectureSocial InteractionSharingCollaborationNegotiationCompetition
Three Pillars of Knowledge WorkTechnologyProcessesSocialStructuresArchitecture
Technological SupportTelephonyVideo conferencingE-mailChat roomsBulletin boardsOn-line forumsWeb portalSharing sitesCollab...
Social StructuresSocial ContextIndividual attitudes (trust, values, beliefs)Individual behavior (participation, sharing, v...
Work-Flow ProcessesLinearHub and SpokeArchitectureParallelFeedback /BypassBranch Circular
Knowledge Services Architecture HierarchyReference ArchitectureWorkOrganizationSpecific ArchitectureFunction(Meta View...
Knowledge InfrastructurePeoplelearning, motivation,rewards, incentives,staffing, skillsContent,Servicesdata, risk analysis...
Architecture - Core ModelWhoWork(What)Input OutputService(How)WhenWhereNeed(Why)ScheduleNo schedulePhysical spaceCyberspac...
User-Centric ArchitectureTools that are easy and intuitive use.System interfaces that can be customized.Systems that help ...
OutlineOrganizationArchitectureSocial InteractionSharingCollaborationNegotiationCompetition
Social Interaction FrameworkCompetitiondefence or victoryaggressive approachno trustsecretive, hostileGoalsCompatible Conf...
Sharing AttributesExchange contentIncentives and motivationTrust and safetyOrganizational cultureContent securityIndividua...
Sharing OverviewShareProvideIncentivesTime & PlaceTechnologyInteractExplicit tacitContentAccessSharedContentSocial Structu...
Sharing Explicit ContentExplicitContentSharedContentProvideIncentivesengagementmotivationcompliancereciprocityProvideConte...
Service Framework for Sharing Explicit ContentWork Person / Group Input / Output ServicesProvide Incentives manager, leade...
Sharing Tacit KnowledgeTacitKnowledgeSharedKnowledgeProvideIncentivesengagementmotivationcompliancereciprocityProvidePlace...
Service Framework for Sharing Tacit KnowledgeWork Person / Group Input / Output ServicesProvide Incentives manager, leader...
Collaboration AttributesSynergy and joint productionDialogue, conversations in groupsSharing, exchanges among peersCandor,...
Collaboration OverviewSocialContextKnowledgeTransformationTechnologySupportOrganizationalWorkDecisionCollaborateSocial Str...
Collaboration - Social ContextOrganizationalWorkengagementcounselingfeedbackhuman resourcesWork ServiceCollaboratemotivati...
Collaboration - Technology SupportOrganizationalWorkCollaborateGroup SiteUser AccessConnectivitySecurityarchitectureserver...
Negotiation AttributesReaching an agreementDebate and discussionPositions and interestsBargaining and compromiseProposal a...
Negotiation OverviewPreparationBargainingOrganizationNegotiateAgreementSocial StructureTechnologyInput/Output
Negotiation - Preparationdecisionoffice app.templateGoalsagreementrelationshipstrategycollaborationdecisionInterpretvalues...
Negotiation - BargainingSocial StructureTechnologyInput/Outputdeceptionethicsemotionsdistrustembarrassmentnegotiation serv...
Competition AttributesVictory, gain, or defenceAct, sense, and respondSpeed of analysis and action are criticalNo trust, s...
Competition OverviewCompeteDecisionIntelligenceActionMonitorOutcomesAdaptEndSocial StructureTechnologyInput/Output
Competition - IntelligenceSocial StructureTechnologyInput/Outputusablemulti-mediaevaluatedaccessiblesecureAcquireOrganizeA...
Competition - ActionAdaptanalysis apps.synthesis apps.DocumentStoreRecommendAuthorizeOutcomeyesnodecisionMonitorcontent ac...
Main MessagesKnowledge work is performedby people in a context of socialand technological structures.Social interaction in...
New Approaches to Knowlege Management (part 2)
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New Approaches to Knowlege Management (part 2)

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Integrates structured and unstructured approaches to knowledge management. Uses social interaction framework as an example.

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Transcript of "New Approaches to Knowlege Management (part 2)"

  1. 1. Albert SimardDefence R&D CanadaPresented toKnowledge Strategy Exchange NetworkToronto, ON May 13-14, 2013New Approaches to KnowledgeManagement (part 2)
  2. 2. The Knowledge Management DichotomyStructured Approach:Systems and TechnologyUnstructured Approach:Social Interactions
  3. 3. Knowledge Services ArchitectureSemi-structuredTechnologyStructuredWork ProcessesSocialStructuresUnstructuredKnowledge-BasedProducts & Services
  4. 4. OutlineOrganizationArchitectureSocial InteractionSharingCollaborationNegotiationCompetition
  5. 5. Organizational StructureManageInterfaceContentResearchSocialStructureCommonWorkTechnologysupportGovernancecontextOrganization
  6. 6. Knowledge Work (DRDC)GovernanceMonitoringIntelligenceNeedsPrioritiesEstablishmentProgramsServicesAcquireCreateDevelopMobilizeLearnReportIntegrationInnovationMitigationAdviceAdaptationClientsDND(management)(R & D)Organization
  7. 7. Vertical Knowledge FlowOrganizationNational Defence,National Security,Public SafetyMarketsResourcesGovernmentApplicationStockFlowDefenceR&DCanadaCreationAssetsSharingWorkTransferInfrastructureCollaborationUnstructuredStructured
  8. 8. Organizational Knowledge FlowCreation ValidationOrganizationAuthorizationOrganization
  9. 9. Knowledge ManageabilityManagementlevelsAuthoritativeHierarchyOrganizationalInfrastructureNegotiatedAgreementResponsibleAutonomyTransfer Direction Products &ServicesExchange KnowledgemarketsWork Mandate Process Agreement Self-interestCollaboration Assignment Representation Partnership ParticipationSharing Vertical Horizontal Community NetworkAssets Embed Sole IP rights Joint IP rights Open sourceInfrastructure Authoritative Standardized Connective EnablingManagement RegimesOrganization
  10. 10. OutlineOrganizationArchitectureSocial InteractionSharingCollaborationNegotiationCompetition
  11. 11. Three Pillars of Knowledge WorkTechnologyProcessesSocialStructuresArchitecture
  12. 12. Technological SupportTelephonyVideo conferencingE-mailChat roomsBulletin boardsOn-line forumsWeb portalSharing sitesCollaboration sitesExpertise locatorBlogs, microblogsWikisArchitecture
  13. 13. Social StructuresSocial ContextIndividual attitudes (trust, values, beliefs)Individual behavior (participation, sharing, voluntarism)Interpersonal relationships (trust, safety, equality)Organizational culture (norms, expectations, practices)Social InteractionsSharing (leveraging, passive, moderate trust)Collaboration (peer production, partnership, high trust)Negotiation (agreement, adversarial, nominal trust)Competition (victory, aggressive, no trust)Architecture
  14. 14. Work-Flow ProcessesLinearHub and SpokeArchitectureParallelFeedback /BypassBranch Circular
  15. 15. Knowledge Services Architecture HierarchyReference ArchitectureWorkOrganizationSpecific ArchitectureFunction(Meta View)(View)(Sub View)Architecture
  16. 16. Knowledge InfrastructurePeoplelearning, motivation,rewards, incentives,staffing, skillsContent,Servicesdata, risk analysis,reports, monitoring,operations, policiesToolssystems tocapture, store,share, andprocess contentArchitectureroles, responsibilities,authorities, resourcesGovernancework routineslessons learned,best practices,Processes
  17. 17. Architecture - Core ModelWhoWork(What)Input OutputService(How)WhenWhereNeed(Why)ScheduleNo schedulePhysical spaceCyberspaceArchitectureZachman (1987)Rudyard Kipling (1902)
  18. 18. User-Centric ArchitectureTools that are easy and intuitive use.System interfaces that can be customized.Systems that help people do their work.Content that is easy to find and access.Work processes that facilitate knowledge flow.Knowledge flow that is primarily horizontal.Diversity and flexibility are encouraged.The architecture promotes desired behavior.System architecture plays a key roll in individualbehavior, group dynamics, and cultural norms.User-centric design can double employee participationArchitecture
  19. 19. OutlineOrganizationArchitectureSocial InteractionSharingCollaborationNegotiationCompetition
  20. 20. Social Interaction FrameworkCompetitiondefence or victoryaggressive approachno trustsecretive, hostileGoalsCompatible ConflictingInterestsMutualAutonomousCollaborationpeer productionpartnership approachhigh trustdiverse, synergisticNegotiationmutual agreementadversarial approachnominal truststructured, formalSharingleverage knowledgepassive approachmoderate trustbenign, supportive SportsBusinessMilitaryPurchasingContractsMergerConversationPostingPublicationWork GroupCommunityNetwork
  21. 21. Sharing AttributesExchange contentIncentives and motivationTrust and safetyOrganizational cultureContent securityIndividual privacyDifferent expertiseControl and hoardingLarge distancesDifferent languages(Autonomous interests, compatible goals)
  22. 22. Sharing OverviewShareProvideIncentivesTime & PlaceTechnologyInteractExplicit tacitContentAccessSharedContentSocial StructureTechnologyInput/Output
  23. 23. Sharing Explicit ContentExplicitContentSharedContentProvideIncentivesengagementmotivationcompliancereciprocityProvideContente-mailpublishingdistributioncontent repositorymetadata templateRetrieveContentweb browserweb portalcontent repositorysearch enginehelp deskWork ServicenetworkpermissioninteroperabilityawarenessEnableAccessInteracttelephonemeetingcollaboratione-mail Social StructureTechnologyInput/Output
  24. 24. Service Framework for Sharing Explicit ContentWork Person / Group Input / Output ServicesProvide Incentives manager, leader existing content /sharing environmentengagement, motivation,compliance, reciprocityProvide Content provider, author, owner,holderavailable content e-mail, publishing,distribution,content repository,metadata templateEnable Access content manager,content security,communicator,network manageraccessible content network, permission,interoperability,awarenessRetrieve content repository manager,application specialist,content manager,facilitatortransferred content web browser & portal,content repository,search engine, help desk,facilitationInteract provider, author,recipient, userrecipient understanding,capacitytelephone, e-mail,meeting space,collaboration site
  25. 25. Sharing Tacit KnowledgeTacitKnowledgeSharedKnowledgeProvideIncentivesengagementmotivationcompliancereciprocityProvidePlaceTechnologySupportInteractmeeting spaceworkshopconferencesite visitclassroomtelephoneon-line forumgroup apps.e-mailweb portalexpertise directorycollaboration sitesocial network apps.conversationafter action reviewcapturingextractionadvisingteachingstorytellingdemonstratingpresentingmentoringWork ServiceSocial StructureTechnologyInput/Output
  26. 26. Service Framework for Sharing Tacit KnowledgeWork Person / Group Input / Output ServicesProvide Incentives manager, leader,knowledge holdertacit knowledge /willingness to shareengagement,motivation, complianceProvide Place manager, facilitator,coordinatorphysical place, time facilities, schedulingTechnology Support network manager,application specialist,facilitator,coordinatorconnectivity,digital sitetelephone, e-mail,on-line forum,web portal,expertise directory,collaboration site,social network apps.,facilitationInteract knowledge holder,recipient, facilitatorshared knowledge conversation, dialogue,after-action review,capturing, teaching,storytelling,demonstrating,presenting, mentoring
  27. 27. Collaboration AttributesSynergy and joint productionDialogue, conversations in groupsSharing, exchanges among peersCandor, freedom of expressionTrust, safety, honestyTransparency, opennessAgreed rules of conductDiversity, flexibility, outliersEquality, meritocracy of ideasCollective, not individual benefit(Mutual interests, compatible goals)
  28. 28. Collaboration OverviewSocialContextKnowledgeTransformationTechnologySupportOrganizationalWorkDecisionCollaborateSocial StructureTechnologyInput/Output
  29. 29. Collaboration - Social ContextOrganizationalWorkengagementcounselingfeedbackhuman resourcesWork ServiceCollaboratemotivationcomplianceengagementhuman resourcesrules & normsguidancefacilitationsupportInfluenceAttitudesAffectBehaviorFosterRelationshipsEvolveCultureformationchangeorg. learningenjoymentcandoropennessethicsaltruismparticipationcommitmentinvolvementcreativitytrust & safetyequalitymeritocracysynergydiversityflexibilityfreedomlearningtransparency Social StructureTechnologyInput/Output
  30. 30. Collaboration - Technology SupportOrganizationalWorkCollaborateGroup SiteUser AccessConnectivitySecurityarchitectureserver, siteexpertise directorysearch enginecontent repository web portaluser interfacehelp files & desktrainingInternetIntranetLAN & WANaccess controlnetwork securitycontent securityWork ServiceOperationinstallationmaintenanceupgradesrecovery Social StructureTechnologyInput/Output
  31. 31. Negotiation AttributesReaching an agreementDebate and discussionPositions and interestsBargaining and compromiseProposal and responseAttempt to establish trustWin/win vs. win/loose(Mutual interests, conflicting goals)
  32. 32. Negotiation OverviewPreparationBargainingOrganizationNegotiateAgreementSocial StructureTechnologyInput/Output
  33. 33. Negotiation - Preparationdecisionoffice app.templateGoalsagreementrelationshipstrategycollaborationdecisionInterpretvaluesoptionsintelligenceanalysis app.EstablishPositionalternativespossibilitiescollaborationoffice app.briefing templateCompileContentcontextsituationmonitoringsharingweb portalsearch engineRevisepositionNegotiatePreliminaryAnalysisRecommendPositiondecision supportanalysis toolsoutWork ServiceSocial StructureTechnologyInput/Output
  34. 34. Negotiation - BargainingSocial StructureTechnologyInput/Outputdeceptionethicsemotionsdistrustembarrassmentnegotiation servicecontent mgt.PositionquestionsassumptionsunknownsuncertaintyIdentifyCounterPowerInfluenceBenefitscoalitionleverageattackthreatsmultiple issuesexpansiontotal benefitscontingencylosses & gainsmomentumjustificationreferencesconcessionsRevisepositionOrganizationnewinformation?importantnoroutineConcludenegotiation serviceoffice app.agreement templateWork Service
  35. 35. Competition AttributesVictory, gain, or defenceAct, sense, and respondSpeed of analysis and action are criticalNo trust, secretive, misleading actionsRules: dominant, important, minimalOngoing process, requires recurring analysis(Autonomous Interests, conflicting goals)
  36. 36. Competition OverviewCompeteDecisionIntelligenceActionMonitorOutcomesAdaptEndSocial StructureTechnologyInput/Output
  37. 37. Competition - IntelligenceSocial StructureTechnologyInput/Outputusablemulti-mediaevaluatedaccessiblesecureAcquireOrganizeAnalyzepublicnon-publicSWOTcompetitionmental modelspresent activityhuman factorsoft info.integrationcollection repositorycontent managementcontent acquisitionknowledge mobilizationSynthesizeResponse futures analysisanalysis apps.statistical apps.DirectionActionIdentifyActionssynthesis apps.systems analysisexpertisecollaborationscenario analysisgamingWork Service
  38. 38. Competition - ActionAdaptanalysis apps.synthesis apps.DocumentStoreRecommendAuthorizeOutcomeyesnodecisionMonitorcontent acquisitionknowledge mobilizationintelligence repositoryoffice appstemplateIntelligenceVictory/DefeatLearn org. learningEvaluate after-action reviewSocial StructureTechnologyInput/Output
  39. 39. Main MessagesKnowledge work is performedby people in a context of socialand technological structures.Social interaction involvesmutual or autonomousinterests as well as compatibleor conflicting goals.Knowledge management mustconsider all of these contexts.albert.simard@drdc-rddc.gc.ca
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